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DESY Visit, 12 October 2007 Meeting Summaries Meeting 1: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY) In attendance Albrecht Wagner, Chairman of the DESY Directorate DESY: Overview DESY is one of the world‟s leading particle accelerator facilities for researching the structure of matter. The mission of DESY is to (i) develop, construct, operate and scientifically exploit accelerators, and (ii) provide access for national and international users. Key facts and figures: Member of the Helmholz Association Budget (2005): €170 M. 90% from Federal Gov. and 10% from State Gov. Staff: 1560 FTE in Hamburg and Zeuthen. 90% 0f staff are based in Hamburg Users: 3000. 1500 come from abroad, from 45 nations. No user fees. DESY focuses on 3 core competences: particle physics, photon science research using x-rays (synchrotron radiation) and accelerator development. DESY‟s accelerators: DORIS: Electron-positron storage ring constructed in the 1980s and used by the Hamburg Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HASYLAB). FLASH: Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (formerly VUV-FEL) – a prototype apparatus in terms of accelerator technology, beam physics, FEL-process and user operation for the European XFEL. It is capable of imaging single cell organisms (<1 micron) and measuring the dynamics of processes. HERA: Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator - 16km accelerator used for particle physics and photon science until closure in June 2007. HERA was closed because the new information being obtained could not justify its running costs (€70 M/yr). Also, many researchers involved in HERA were moving to the new LHC facility. PETRA: 2.3km electron-positron storage ring, constructed in the mid 1970s, and most recently used as a pre-accelerator for HERA. It is and is now being refurbished at ⅛ circumference for PETRA III. PETRA III: a new high performance synchrotron light source with very high brilliance and very low emittance. Scheduled for 2009. XFEL: X-Ray Free-Electron Laser. 3.4 km long facility that will enable performance of materials and nanoparticles to be recorded with atomic precision. Scheduled for 2013. Management Structure The governing body is the DESY Directorate, comprising the Chair, Albrecht Wagner, and 4 Directors: 1. Jochen R. Schneider (Photon Science), 2. Rolf-Dieter Heuer (High Energy Physics and Astroparticle Physics), 3. Reinhard Brinkmann (Accelerator Development), and 4. Christian Scherf (Administration) Two advisory boards report to the Directorate: (i) the Scientific Council and (ii) the Admin. Council. 1 The Photon Science Committee, the Particle Physics Research Committee, and the Machine Advisory Committee review their respective fields and report to the Directorate. Accelerator Development DESY is active in 4 areas: Accelerator technology development Operation of synchrotron light sources Development and operation of Linear Accelerator (Linac) driven light sources, e.g. FLASH, XFEL International Linear Collider (ILC) development A key challenge is the development of accelerator technology for the planned ILC. TESLA (Tera electron volt Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) technology, based on superconducting accelerator modules (cavities), is to be applied to the ILC. Elliptical niobium superconducting cavities operate at the temperature of superfluid helium (< 2.17 K). There has been a 35-40 fold increase in performance/cost of these cavities over the past 10 years. Current research efforts are focused on increasing the size of niobium crystals to the diameter of a SC cavity hemisphere to improve performance further. The TESLA test facility has been extended from 100m to 260m and converted for use by FLASH. ISPO were provided with a tour of the FLASH facility later in the day. Particle Physics Data taking from HERA finished in June 2007, but data evaluation will continue until 2010. In 2006, approximately 900 scientists from 33 countries used DESY‟s particle physics facilities. DESY is currently involved in IceCube project, a high-energy neutrino detector that started construction at the South Pole in the 2004/2005. It will eventually consist of about 4800 optical modules attached to 80 strings, encompassing a volume of about one cubic kilometre. Photon Science The aim is to make leading edge research possible in physics, chemistry, material science, biology etc. through both synchrotron light sources (DORIS, PETRA III) and Linac driven light sources (FLASH, XFEL). In 2006, Hasylab had 1699 photon science users from 40 nations Meeting 2: ILC Project Team In attendance Wilhelm Bialowons, Project Management Office Karsten Buesser, Science Officer, ILC Eckhard Elsen, Researcher Frank Lehner, Director‟s Office Lutz Lilje, Physicist – ILC and XFEL. ILC: Overview Science goals are to (i) study terascale phenomena, e.g. mass generation, (ii) identify the nature of dark matter, and (iii) reveal the unified theory. These goals will be addressed in collaboration with the LHC and other accelerators/experiments. 2 Key facts and figures: 4 generation facility th Energy adjustable from 200 - 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV. Acceleration gradient: 31.5 MV/m Electron polarisation of at least 80% Acceleration technology: 16,000 niobium SC cavities Schematics: 31 km long with dual tunnel configuration (accelerator units and services) DESY focuses on 3 core competences: particle physics, photon science research using x-rays (synchrotron radiation) and accelerator development. SKA: Overview Presentation by Richard Schilizzi. Global Design Effort (GDE) An international GDE team, headed by Barry Barish (former director of the LIGO Laboratory), was established in 2005 to produce a design for the ILC that includes a detailed design concept, performance assessments, reliable international costing, an industrialisation plan, siting analysis, as well as detector concepts and scope. The GDE sets the strategy and coordinates worldwide prioritised proposal-driven R&D efforts to demonstrate and improve performance, cost and reliability, etc. It published an ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) in February 2007, with contributions by approx. 2000 authos from more than 300 institutes worldwide. The GDE will deliver an ILC Technical Design Report by the end of 2008, and will complete its work with an Engineering Design Report (EDR) in 2010. Currently, GDE R&D is split equally between America, Asia and Europe. There will be joint design, implementation, operations and management; the host country will provide conventional facilities, i.e. pay infrastructure and other site-specific costs. Expressions of interest to host the ILC are due in 2009. During the Engineering Design Phase (post-2010), the GDE will be re-organised around a central project management office to incorporate a more traditional project management structure. Governance EDR Organisational Structure At the top level, there is an oversight body comprising of funding agencies and the ILC Steering Committee. Decisions are not made at this level and it is more a forum for exchange of ideas and advice. At the second level, the Executive Committee and Project Management Office report to the Director‟s Office. At the third level, there is regional management and technical management which reports to the Director‟s Office. At the lowest level of the organisational chart, institutions are linked to both regions and tasks. The regions (third level) subscribe to a common fund, which is held by institutions and not centrally. The current goal is to write Memoranda of Understanding with the institutes in recognition that they contribute to tasks, or sub-projects. MoUs MoUs between ILC and individual institutes are currently being finalised. They will describe and define the work to be done, including deliverables, schedule, milestones, resource estimates, etc. The descriptions will represent that part of each work package accepted by a given institution. The MoU will be based on a standard template with institute-specific details being included in the Appendices. 3 Currently, the project relies on FP7 structures, but the first MoU is expected to be signed by December 2007. Elsen offers to provide a sample MoU after they start being used. SKA Governance Richard Schilizzi provided a presentation on Governance within the SKA project. Collaboration Tools Electronic Document Management System (EDMS), which includes version control and configuration management. Elsen offers return visit to review EDMS system. Primavera project management software to track work packages; includes valuing systems and costing tools. Indico tool, developed by CERN, to manage complex conferences, workshops, and time-tables of meetings. Teamcenter, developed by KEK, to control configuration and change management. Webex web-based conferencing tool. Reference Design Report (RDR) Costing The most scrutinised part of the project to date. Value costing is intended to represent a common basis for costing that needs to be converted to actual costs for work performed in a given region. It provides basic „value‟ costs agreed among regions and makes explicit estimates of labour resource requirements. „Value‟ is the world market price, if one exists. Three classes of item were included in the cost estimate; (i) site-specific, (ii) conventional, and (iii) hi- tech. Development of costing rules was the most difficult part of the process. It took one year to define the rules, but only two months to produce the first draft of the costing. Guidance was obtained from the World Trade Organisation regarding global costing rules. Cultural differences were an important consideration, with a huge gulf existing between the USA and the other regions. Total ILC value: ILCU 4.87 B (shared) and ILCU 1.78 B (site specific). Total = ILCU 6.65 B. Total manpower required = 22.2 M man-hours. The main Linac and construction of infrastructure are the main cost drivers. Cost savings of 30% have been identified since the first draft in Nov 2006. Costs are still too high and work continues to reduce them. Hi-tech costs have been subject to the most criticism. FP7 preparatory Phase The ILC HiGrade proposal comprises 8 work packages: WP1 (management), WP2 (co-ordination of European GDE activity), WP3 (dissemination and outreach), WP4 (Governance), WP5 (ILC siting in Europe), WP6 (cavities), WP7 (couplers) and WP8 (tuners). Establishing the 31.5 MV/m gradient in the superconducting cavities is the key technical driver of costs for the project. There will be approximately 50 FTEs (excluding non-European staff) in this €10.5 M programme. €7.0 M was requested under FP7, but €5.0 M was awarded over 4 years. The overall cost envelope is €200 M. 4 Meeting 3: European X-Ray Laser (XFEL) Project Team In attendance Reinhard Brinkmann, Director of Accelerator Physics Thomas Delissen, Admin. and Finance Karl Witte, Admin. and Finance Karsten Wurr, Technology Transfer ?? XFEL: Overview (Brinkmann) XFEL is a Free-Electron Laser based on the principle of Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE). The interaction of an electron beam with a radiation field results in micro-bunching of electrons at the resonant wavelength. The electrons then pass through an „undulator‟ (arrangement of magnets) and emit x-ray radiation that amplifies itself during the flight. The results are extremely short and intense x-ray flashes with laser properties. XFEL will be used in scientific fields such as femtochemistry (to trace the process of chemical reactions), structural biology, plasma physics, condensed-matter physics, optics/non-linear effects and materials research. Key facts and figures: Length of accelerator tunnel: approx. 2.1 km Depth: 6-38 m. Wavelength of x-ray radiation: 6 to 0.0085 nm. X-ray flash duration: <100 femtoseconds, i.e. the amount of time it takes chemical compounds to form and groups of molecules to change their position. Electron energies of 10 to 20 GeV Construction cost: €850. Original cost estimate was€986 M (2005 prices) but project descoped from 5 SASE to 3. Annual operation cost: €83 M, incl. user support, visitor programme, R&D, etc. 70 FTEs were employed at the engineering design stage in 2003; 136 FTEs (mid-2007), with 10 FTEs in the project office; 400 FTEs will be required 2010 – 2012. First beam scheduled for 2013; all beam lines operational in 2015. The TESLA test facility first demonstrated the technology behind the x-ray free-electron laser. This facility was extended and is now known as FLASH. This pilot facility has been used to research shortwave ultraviolet radiation since 2005. Both FLASH and XFEL are based on the superconducting TESLA accelerator technology. The FLASH facility at DESY is a pilot for practically all aspects (accelerator technology, beam physics, FEL process, user operation) of the XFEL. It cost €190 M to construct and has an operations budget of €4 M/yr (including €2 M/yr for R&D). There are 60 FTEs on the project. European Industry Forum for Accelerators with SCRF Technology (EIFast) was established in 2005 to ensure the flow of information between research institutes and industry and promote early involvement of industry in scientific projects. Cost estimates for civil construction are carried out by external consultants, whilst cost estimates for hi-tech components are undertaken in-house, with external consistency checks. Cost estimates are based on costs for previous accelerators at DESY, with industry scaling indices being applied. The upper limits of cost estimates were not publicised as these could have killed off the project. It is anticipated that manufacturing economies of scale will reduce costs by half. Statistical analysis of risk classes is carried out. Although the risk analysis took into account volatility of commodity prices, copper prices have increased 4 fold over the past 3-4 years and the scale of this increase was not anticipated. 5 Governance (Witte) Timeline: Feb 2004: International Steering Committee (ISC) established Sept. 2004: MoU on preparatory phase of XFEL (signed by 13 governments) Mid-2005: European XFEL project team established. Jul 2006: Technical Design Report approved by the ISC Late-2006: Bilateral negotiations about contribution levels Feb. 2007: Construction in stages suggested – begin with start-up configuration (6 stations instead of 10), completion to full facility once additional funding available June 2007: Project launch Convention: First level: 13 governments (Contracting Parties) signed an MoU for the preparatory phase: China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. Second level: the governments designate shareholders, with subscription to shares based on contributions to construction costs (and, potentially, operating costs). Voting rights depend on share allocation. Structure: A limited liability company will be established. In Germany, there is precedence for setting up research institutes with GmbH status. This approach provides a legal identity under national law. The XFEL Council comprises 13 delegates – one per Contracting Party. Three advisory boards report to the council: (i) Admin and Finance Committee, (ii) Scientific Advisort Committee, and (iii) Machine advisory Committee. The XFEL Council meets twice per year. The XFEL Council appoints a Management Board comprising: Chair, Director of Administration, Technical Director and two Scientific Directors. Challenges for the XFEL facility: A Limited Liability Company (GmbH) structure is more adapted to commercial companies than to research organisations. Not all partners are used to an international facility organised under national law There could be a potential conflict of interest if DESY becomes the German Shareholder of XFEL Company and is also a contractual partner. What happens if there are delays? The strong German commitment (up to 60% construction, up to 40% operation) might concern smaller partners (with fewer voting rights) How to start and organize an international project based on in-kind contributions? Staff rules: tendency of the host country to align salaries to (rather low) public service wages Adherence to public procurement rules Access policy: Selection on criteria of excellence vs. application of “fair return”. Tax Funding and IPR: Most countries want to make in-kind contributions; details have yet to be clarified but the XFEL Council will have final approval. In-kind contributions of IP and all in-kind contributions prior to June 2005 were not taken into account when shares were distributed. In-kind FTE contributions are valued at a flat rate irrespective of location or seniority of the staff. In-kind contributors are not always shareholders and so negotiation is required to bridge the accounted value with actual cost. DESY has guaranteed completion of the accelerator if there are funding gaps Distribution of operating costs has yet to be agreed. Common patenting system – used European Transonic Wind Tunnel project as an examplar Bespoke collaboration contracts will contain IPR clauses and will take into account national laws Karle Witte offered to provide sample IPR agreement 6
"ITER Visit_ 9 October 2007"