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ITER Visit_ 9 October 2007


									                                    DESY Visit, 12 October 2007
                                          Meeting Summaries

Meeting 1: Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY)

In attendance

Albrecht Wagner, Chairman of the DESY Directorate

DESY: Overview

   DESY is one of the world‟s leading particle accelerator facilities for researching the structure of
    matter. The mission of DESY is to (i) develop, construct, operate and scientifically exploit
    accelerators, and (ii) provide access for national and international users.

   Key facts and figures:
     Member of the Helmholz Association
     Budget (2005): €170 M. 90% from Federal Gov. and 10% from State Gov.
     Staff: 1560 FTE in Hamburg and Zeuthen. 90% 0f staff are based in Hamburg
     Users: 3000. 1500 come from abroad, from 45 nations. No user fees.

   DESY focuses on 3 core competences: particle physics, photon science research using x-rays
    (synchrotron radiation) and accelerator development.

   DESY‟s accelerators:
     DORIS: Electron-positron storage ring constructed in the 1980s and used by the Hamburg
              Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (HASYLAB).
     FLASH: Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (formerly VUV-FEL) – a prototype apparatus in terms of
              accelerator technology, beam physics, FEL-process and user operation for the European
              XFEL. It is capable of imaging single cell organisms (<1 micron) and measuring the
              dynamics of processes.
     HERA: Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator - 16km accelerator used for particle physics and photon
              science until closure in June 2007. HERA was closed because the new information
              being obtained could not justify its running costs (€70 M/yr). Also, many researchers
              involved in HERA were moving to the new LHC facility.
     PETRA: 2.3km electron-positron storage ring, constructed in the mid 1970s, and most recently
              used as a pre-accelerator for HERA. It is and is now being refurbished at ⅛
              circumference for PETRA III.
     PETRA III: a new high performance synchrotron light source with very high brilliance and very low
              emittance. Scheduled for 2009.
     XFEL: X-Ray Free-Electron Laser. 3.4 km long facility that will enable performance of materials
              and nanoparticles to be recorded with atomic precision. Scheduled for 2013.

Management Structure

The governing body is the DESY Directorate, comprising the Chair, Albrecht Wagner, and 4 Directors:
   1. Jochen R. Schneider (Photon Science),
   2. Rolf-Dieter Heuer (High Energy Physics and Astroparticle Physics),
   3. Reinhard Brinkmann (Accelerator Development), and
   4. Christian Scherf (Administration)

Two advisory boards report to the Directorate: (i) the Scientific Council and (ii) the Admin. Council.

The Photon Science Committee, the Particle Physics Research Committee, and the Machine Advisory
Committee review their respective fields and report to the Directorate.

Accelerator Development

DESY is active in 4 areas:
    Accelerator technology development
    Operation of synchrotron light sources
    Development and operation of Linear Accelerator (Linac) driven light sources, e.g. FLASH, XFEL
    International Linear Collider (ILC) development

A key challenge is the development of accelerator technology for the planned ILC. TESLA (Tera electron
volt Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator) technology, based on superconducting accelerator
modules (cavities), is to be applied to the ILC.

Elliptical niobium superconducting cavities operate at the temperature of superfluid helium (< 2.17 K).
There has been a 35-40 fold increase in performance/cost of these cavities over the past 10 years.
Current research efforts are focused on increasing the size of niobium crystals to the diameter of a SC
cavity hemisphere to improve performance further.

The TESLA test facility has been extended from 100m to 260m and converted for use by FLASH. ISPO
were provided with a tour of the FLASH facility later in the day.

Particle Physics

Data taking from HERA finished in June 2007, but data evaluation will continue until 2010. In 2006,
approximately 900 scientists from 33 countries used DESY‟s particle physics facilities.

DESY is currently involved in IceCube project, a high-energy neutrino detector that started construction at
the South Pole in the 2004/2005. It will eventually consist of about 4800 optical modules attached to 80
strings, encompassing a volume of about one cubic kilometre.

Photon Science

The aim is to make leading edge research possible in physics, chemistry, material science, biology etc.
through both synchrotron light sources (DORIS, PETRA III) and Linac driven light sources (FLASH,
XFEL). In 2006, Hasylab had 1699 photon science users from 40 nations

Meeting 2: ILC Project Team

In attendance

Wilhelm Bialowons, Project Management Office
Karsten Buesser, Science Officer, ILC
Eckhard Elsen, Researcher
Frank Lehner, Director‟s Office
Lutz Lilje, Physicist – ILC and XFEL.

ILC: Overview

   Science goals are to (i) study terascale phenomena, e.g. mass generation, (ii) identify the nature of
    dark matter, and (iii) reveal the unified theory. These goals will be addressed in collaboration with the
    LHC and other accelerators/experiments.

   Key facts and figures:
     4 generation facility

     Energy adjustable from 200 - 500 GeV, upgradeable to 1 TeV.
     Acceleration gradient: 31.5 MV/m
     Electron polarisation of at least 80%
     Acceleration technology: 16,000 niobium SC cavities
     Schematics: 31 km long with dual tunnel configuration (accelerator units and services)

   DESY focuses on 3 core competences: particle physics, photon science research using x-rays
    (synchrotron radiation) and accelerator development.

SKA: Overview
Presentation by Richard Schilizzi.

Global Design Effort (GDE)

An international GDE team, headed by Barry Barish (former director of the LIGO Laboratory), was
established in 2005 to produce a design for the ILC that includes a detailed design concept, performance
assessments, reliable international costing, an industrialisation plan, siting analysis, as well as detector
concepts and scope.

The GDE sets the strategy and coordinates worldwide prioritised proposal-driven R&D efforts to
demonstrate and improve performance, cost and reliability, etc. It published an ILC Reference Design
Report (RDR) in February 2007, with contributions by approx. 2000 authos from more than 300 institutes
worldwide. The GDE will deliver an ILC Technical Design Report by the end of 2008, and will complete
its work with an Engineering Design Report (EDR) in 2010.

Currently, GDE R&D is split equally between America, Asia and Europe. There will be joint design,
implementation, operations and management; the host country will provide conventional facilities, i.e. pay
infrastructure and other site-specific costs. Expressions of interest to host the ILC are due in 2009.

During the Engineering Design Phase (post-2010), the GDE will be re-organised around a central project
management office to incorporate a more traditional project management structure.


EDR Organisational Structure

At the top level, there is an oversight body comprising of funding agencies and the ILC Steering
Committee. Decisions are not made at this level and it is more a forum for exchange of ideas and advice.
At the second level, the Executive Committee and Project Management Office report to the Director‟s
Office. At the third level, there is regional management and technical management which reports to the
Director‟s Office. At the lowest level of the organisational chart, institutions are linked to both regions and

The regions (third level) subscribe to a common fund, which is held by institutions and not centrally. The
current goal is to write Memoranda of Understanding with the institutes in recognition that they contribute
to tasks, or sub-projects.


MoUs between ILC and individual institutes are currently being finalised. They will describe and define
the work to be done, including deliverables, schedule, milestones, resource estimates, etc. The
descriptions will represent that part of each work package accepted by a given institution. The MoU will
be based on a standard template with institute-specific details being included in the Appendices.

Currently, the project relies on FP7 structures, but the first MoU is expected to be signed by December
2007. Elsen offers to provide a sample MoU after they start being used.

SKA Governance

Richard Schilizzi provided a presentation on Governance within the SKA project.

Collaboration Tools

   Electronic Document Management System (EDMS), which includes version control and configuration
    management. Elsen offers return visit to review EDMS system.
   Primavera project management software to track work packages; includes valuing systems and
    costing tools.
   Indico tool, developed by CERN, to manage complex conferences, workshops, and time-tables of
   Teamcenter, developed by KEK, to control configuration and change management.
   Webex web-based conferencing tool.

Reference Design Report (RDR) Costing

   The most scrutinised part of the project to date.
   Value costing is intended to represent a common basis for costing that needs to be converted to
    actual costs for work performed in a given region. It provides basic „value‟ costs agreed among
    regions and makes explicit estimates of labour resource requirements. „Value‟ is the world market
    price, if one exists.
   Three classes of item were included in the cost estimate; (i) site-specific, (ii) conventional, and (iii) hi-
   Development of costing rules was the most difficult part of the process. It took one year to define the
    rules, but only two months to produce the first draft of the costing. Guidance was obtained from the
    World Trade Organisation regarding global costing rules.
   Cultural differences were an important consideration, with a huge gulf existing between the USA and
    the other regions.
   Total ILC value: ILCU 4.87 B (shared) and ILCU 1.78 B (site specific). Total = ILCU 6.65 B. Total
    manpower required = 22.2 M man-hours.
   The main Linac and construction of infrastructure are the main cost drivers.
   Cost savings of 30% have been identified since the first draft in Nov 2006. Costs are still too high
    and work continues to reduce them. Hi-tech costs have been subject to the most criticism.

FP7 preparatory Phase

The ILC HiGrade proposal comprises 8 work packages: WP1 (management), WP2 (co-ordination of
European GDE activity), WP3 (dissemination and outreach), WP4 (Governance), WP5 (ILC siting in
Europe), WP6 (cavities), WP7 (couplers) and WP8 (tuners).

Establishing the 31.5 MV/m gradient in the superconducting cavities is the key technical driver of costs for
the project.

There will be approximately 50 FTEs (excluding non-European staff) in this €10.5 M programme. €7.0 M
was requested under FP7, but €5.0 M was awarded over 4 years. The overall cost envelope is €200 M.

Meeting 3: European X-Ray Laser (XFEL) Project Team

In attendance

Reinhard Brinkmann, Director of Accelerator Physics
Thomas Delissen, Admin. and Finance
Karl Witte, Admin. and Finance
Karsten Wurr, Technology Transfer

XFEL: Overview (Brinkmann)

   XFEL is a Free-Electron Laser based on the principle of Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission
    (SASE). The interaction of an electron beam with a radiation field results in micro-bunching of
    electrons at the resonant wavelength. The electrons then pass through an „undulator‟ (arrangement
    of magnets) and emit x-ray radiation that amplifies itself during the flight. The results are extremely
    short and intense x-ray flashes with laser properties.
   XFEL will be used in scientific fields such as femtochemistry (to trace the process of chemical
    reactions), structural biology, plasma physics, condensed-matter physics, optics/non-linear effects
    and materials research.
   Key facts and figures:
     Length of accelerator tunnel: approx. 2.1 km
     Depth: 6-38 m.
     Wavelength of x-ray radiation: 6 to 0.0085 nm.
     X-ray flash duration: <100 femtoseconds, i.e. the amount of time it takes chemical compounds to
       form and groups of molecules to change their position.
     Electron energies of 10 to 20 GeV
     Construction cost: €850. Original cost estimate was€986 M (2005 prices) but project descoped
       from 5 SASE to 3.
     Annual operation cost: €83 M, incl. user support, visitor programme, R&D, etc.
     70 FTEs were employed at the engineering design stage in 2003; 136 FTEs (mid-2007), with 10
       FTEs in the project office; 400 FTEs will be required 2010 – 2012.
     First beam scheduled for 2013; all beam lines operational in 2015.
   The TESLA test facility first demonstrated the technology behind the x-ray free-electron laser. This
    facility was extended and is now known as FLASH. This pilot facility has been used to research
    shortwave ultraviolet radiation since 2005. Both FLASH and XFEL are based on the superconducting
    TESLA accelerator technology.
   The FLASH facility at DESY is a pilot for practically all aspects (accelerator technology, beam
    physics, FEL process, user operation) of the XFEL. It cost €190 M to construct and has an
    operations budget of €4 M/yr (including €2 M/yr for R&D). There are 60 FTEs on the project.
   European Industry Forum for Accelerators with SCRF Technology (EIFast) was established in 2005
    to ensure the flow of information between research institutes and industry and promote early
    involvement of industry in scientific projects.
   Cost estimates for civil construction are carried out by external consultants, whilst cost estimates for
    hi-tech components are undertaken in-house, with external consistency checks. Cost estimates are
    based on costs for previous accelerators at DESY, with industry scaling indices being applied. The
    upper limits of cost estimates were not publicised as these could have killed off the project. It is
    anticipated that manufacturing economies of scale will reduce costs by half. Statistical analysis of
    risk classes is carried out. Although the risk analysis took into account volatility of commodity prices,
    copper prices have increased 4 fold over the past 3-4 years and the scale of this increase was not

Governance (Witte)
   Timeline:
     Feb 2004: International Steering Committee (ISC) established
     Sept. 2004: MoU on preparatory phase of XFEL (signed by 13 governments)
     Mid-2005: European XFEL project team established.
     Jul 2006: Technical Design Report approved by the ISC
     Late-2006: Bilateral negotiations about contribution levels
     Feb. 2007: Construction in stages suggested – begin with start-up configuration (6 stations
       instead of 10), completion to full facility once additional funding available
     June 2007: Project launch
   Convention:
     First level: 13 governments (Contracting Parties) signed an MoU for the preparatory phase:
       China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Russia, Spain, Sweden,
       Switzerland, and the UK.
     Second level: the governments designate shareholders, with subscription to shares based on
       contributions to construction costs (and, potentially, operating costs). Voting rights depend on
       share allocation.
   Structure:
     A limited liability company will be established. In Germany, there is precedence for setting up
        research institutes with GmbH status. This approach provides a legal identity under national law.
     The XFEL Council comprises 13 delegates – one per Contracting Party. Three advisory boards
        report to the council: (i) Admin and Finance Committee, (ii) Scientific Advisort Committee, and (iii)
        Machine advisory Committee. The XFEL Council meets twice per year.
     The XFEL Council appoints a Management Board comprising: Chair, Director of Administration,
        Technical Director and two Scientific Directors.
   Challenges for the XFEL facility:
     A Limited Liability Company (GmbH) structure is more adapted to commercial companies than to
       research organisations.
     Not all partners are used to an international facility organised under national law
     There could be a potential conflict of interest if DESY becomes the German Shareholder of XFEL
       Company and is also a contractual partner. What happens if there are delays?
     The strong German commitment (up to 60% construction, up to 40% operation) might concern
       smaller partners (with fewer voting rights)
     How to start and organize an international project based on in-kind contributions?
     Staff rules: tendency of the host country to align salaries to (rather low) public service wages
     Adherence to public procurement rules
     Access policy: Selection on criteria of excellence vs. application of “fair return”.
     Tax

Funding and IPR:
    Most countries want to make in-kind contributions; details have yet to be clarified but the XFEL
      Council will have final approval.
    In-kind contributions of IP and all in-kind contributions prior to June 2005 were not taken into
      account when shares were distributed.
    In-kind FTE contributions are valued at a flat rate irrespective of location or seniority of the staff.
    In-kind contributors are not always shareholders and so negotiation is required to bridge the
      accounted value with actual cost.
    DESY has guaranteed completion of the accelerator if there are funding gaps
    Distribution of operating costs has yet to be agreed.
    Common patenting system – used European Transonic Wind Tunnel project as an examplar
    Bespoke collaboration contracts will contain IPR clauses and will take into account national laws
    Karle Witte offered to provide sample IPR agreement


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