Assessing the Community for Heal

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					Assessing the Community
for Health Promotion




   A Basic Overview
Community Assessment
Descriptors


Systematic
Organized
Process
Tools
Dynamic
Community Health
Assessment

5 Common Components
 demographic, social and economic
  community profile
 health risk profile
 health/wellness (illness/death) outcomes
  profile
 health promotion programs and health
  related services profile
 special studies
Role Play
Rationale for Community
Health Assessment

A foundation for wise decision-making,
 i.e. helps develop appropriate prevention
 programs and helps choose priorities
  understand the environment
  describe health problems
  describe health resources
  identify root causes
  learn community members’ feelings/thoughts
Participatory Community
Health Assessment: Why?

Community Empowerment
 participating in documentation of health
  related problems and assets contributes to
  participation in co-developing objectives
 increases likelihood of citizen involvement in
  interventions
 helps citizens understand health
  determinants and role of policy
Who Can Benefit?


Those experiencing problems
Those interested in issues
Service providers
Community leaders
Community citizens
Who Do We Want to Involve
????

             As many community
              members as possible

               in   developing
               in   collecting
               in   responding
               in   analyzing
               in   sharing
Who to Involve: A ‘Who’s
Who’ Approach

Those experiences     Service providers
 problems or at risk   Possible volunteers
 for experiencing      Community leaders
 problems
                       Citizens likely to vote
Potential program      on aspects of your
 participants           program
Untapped indigenous   Citizens with
 leaders                resources
Who to Involve: A Sectoral
Approach

         Health care providers
         Educators
         Human service providers
         Government agencies
         Business organizations
         Labor organizations
         Religious and social associations
         Media
WHY Involve So Many
People?




            Role Play
The Concept !



    Assessing Issues Affecting Health Can Include

              A Broad Set of Questions

                        and

             A Broad Groups of Citizens
How to Accomplish the
Concept Practically?

Grow the group and the process

  3 to 6 initiators
  6 to 15 steering committee members
  50 to 150 advisors/co-planners/co-
   conductors
Think broadly, then focus

What do you WANT to know?
  Topics First; Questions Second
  Focusing Strategies
    Ecological Model
    Consider each of the 5 components of community
     health assessments
    Explicit or implicit theories: basic needs, beliefs,
     values, perceptions, relationships between people
     or groups, community decision-making structures
Think Broadly, Then Focus

7 considerations to help you focus
  likely scope of the intervention that will
   follow
  geographic/target area where you will work
  size of your planning group
  staff/expertise to collect, and analyze, data
  available funding and in-kind support
  potential ease or difficulty of data collection
  anticipate visibility or potential impact of
   assessment
Get Ready, Get Set, Go!
Go? YES - WITH HUMILITY

      Steering committee formed
      Steering committee brainstorm
      What do you think you know?
      What do you think you need to
       know?
      Involve more people
      New people brainstorm
      Now what do you think you need
       to know?
From WHAT to WHERE?

Secondary Data Sources

Primary Data Sources (subjects,
 respondents, participants, co-
 investigators)
  Stretch your imagination/boundaries
  Remember yourself
  Remember the environment
From WHERE to HOW?

Data Collection Approaches

  Tailor your methods to the
   community’s style of
   communication
  Avoid assumptions about the
   nature of the issues
  Structure is not equivalent to non-
   bias
  Guard against bias
So Now What Have We
Learned? Data Analysis

Be systematic
Be guided by your organizing topics and
 your questions
Be inclusive and participatory
Review the data in terms of your current
 planning needs
Be confident in the descriptive data
 before analyzing themes, relationships,
 patterns
So Now What Have We
Learned? Data Analysis

Snapshots first
Trends second
Comparisons third
Ask more questions
Concentrate on analysis that will be most
 useful and meaningful to staff and
 stakeholders
Spreading the Word:
Reporting Your Results

Hopefully you have already built
 anticipation
Four guidelines:
  Organize information around a few key
   points
  Present the information simply
  Choose the ‘right’ people to present the info
  Prepare info and materials to suit the needs
   & characteristics of the variety of audiences
   you will be sharing the report with
Reporting Your Results

Who are Your Most Important Audiences?
 Consider:
  Current or potential funders
  Advisory group(s) and steering committee
  Collaborators
  Community leaders
  Specific population/community groups
  Citizens ‘at large’
Reporting Your Results

When do you want the media to
 receive the information
Consider creative ways of
 presenting your findings:
  drawings
  plays
  skits
  music
  storytelling
To Maximize Quality

Be realistic about what is feasible
Begin with a clear sense of goals and
 objectives
Work with outside consultants, if helpful
Have the skills to facilitate community
 involvement and manage potential conflict
To Maximize Quality

When you think you have incorporate
 enough diversity of perspective… push the
 boundary again
Remember assessment is more than a
 methods toolbox, but
Be familiar with a variety of methods
Community (health) assessment is more
 than needs assessment
For Your Next Community
Health Assessment

Have fun,

Experience surprises,

Learn new skills, and

Make new friends and colleagues!!
Assessing the Community for Health Promotion: A Basic Overview




                         Presented by:
                 Kathleen S. Tajeu, Ph.D., CHES
                   Community Health Specialist
              Alabama Cooperative Extension System

                                at
                      Southern Health Institute
                 Cliffview Center at Lancaster, KY
                           October 2001

				
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posted:2/25/2010
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