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Peace - PowerPoint


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									Peace and Health

 CSIH Position Paper
      Pamela Thompson
     Inpro Consulting Inc.
         August 2000
                  Overview of paper
• Peace, health and development are inextricably linked
• CSIH Board priority: raise awareness and encourage
  action of theme
• This position paper:
   –   Introduces elements of peaceful and developed societies,
   –   Identifies some warning signs of potential conflict and instability
   –   Cites a number of impacts of war and conflict on human health
   –   Values/guiding principles for action
   –   War/conflict to peace continuum with intervention points
        Introduction and Rationale
• International acknowledgement: Peace is a fundamental
  condition for achieving health
• Generally, where prerequisites for health are met, there is
  peace whereas war exerts a detrimental impact
• Conflict resolution is a key activity for peace, health and
  development process:what is the role of the health sector?
• Civil wars now more common; we need inter-sectoral
  responses to complex humanitarian emergencies AND
  support longer-term development
       Elements/conditions of Peaceful and
              Developed Societies

                                    Health &
                                Human Rights

Development                                                     Democracy
United Nations, 1998, International Year of Culture of Peace Document
 Warning Signs of Potential Conflict
          and Instability
• Economic and social inequalities
• Breakdown of elements of peaceful and developed
  societies, e.g. basic needs not met, lack of respect for
  human rights, etc.
• Conflict may be focused along cultural/ethnic lines, e.g.
  groups in competition for resources
    The Impact of War and Conflict on
             Human Health
• Death, injury and long-term disability, mental health problems
• Increases in sexually transmitted diseases (e.g. HIV/AIDS)
• Increases in domestic and sexual violence and crime
• Increases in communicable diseases
• Dislocation of populations, mass migrations loss of kin and social
  networks, influxes of refugees with associated overcrowding,
• Deterioration and destruction of health, social, economic and political
• Widening gaps between the rich and the poor

Fustukian, (undated); Humblet & Biot , (1999); and Aaby, (1999)
           Values/guiding Principles
• peacebuilding as a developmental process requires sustained
  commitment and creativity
• “internally driven” and “indigenously controlled”
• requires a variety of actors working collaboratively
• health development contributes to conflict management, stabilization,
  Bridge to Peace: www.who.int/cha/trares/hbp/indes.htm
• root causes of conflict must be addressed
• local development key to addressing conflict
• prevention is best option; an international responsibility
• empowerment main objective and resources of development
          The War/conflict and Peace
         Continuum: Intervention Points

               Armed Conflict   Post Conflict/                         Peace and
Pre-conflict     & War        Transition Period      Stabilization   Sustainable Development

Prevention         Relief            Rehabilitation     Development
Intervening        Short term        Overlaps with      Longer term;
when warning       assistance;       relief.            usually longer
signs have         about 1 year in                      than 2 years.
been               length .
before armed
conflict erupts.
Weaknesses Related to International
 Aid, Peace and Development in
      Societies in Conflict
•   Reactive, short-term interventions
•   Restoration of health system, not reform
•   Few linked relief and development peacebuilding activities
•   Need for preventative conflict monitoring
•   Little recognition of peacebuilding, need for internal actors
•   Few evaluations of post-conflict work
                A Desired Future
“Transformed World envisions a society in which power is
  more widely shared and in which new social coalitions
  work from the grass roots up to shape what institutions and
  governments do. Although markets become effective tools
  for economic progress, they do not substitute for deliberate
  social choices; economic competition exists but does not
  outweigh the larger needs for cooperation and solidarity
  among the world’s peoples and for the fulfillment of basic
  human needs. In effect, this optimistic vision asserts the
  possibility of fundamental change for the better – in
  politics, in social institutions, in the environment.”
  (Hammond, 1998, p. 24)
         Priority Areas For Action
• Evaluation and Research: which interventions?

• Coordination of International Assistance and Relief Efforts

• External Aid/Funding: long-term efforts required

• Health Policy and Planning: addressing inequalities

• Capacity-Building of Formal and Informal Health Workers
• Link between peace/conflict and health/development is
• Need for understanding roots of conflict and prevention
• Conflict resolution strategies can be integrated with health
  and development work
• “peace-building is an organic system that requires
  relationships and coordination of multiple activities,
  multiple roles at multiple levels. No one activity and no
  one level will be able to deliver and sustain peace on its
  own” (Lederach, People Building Peace, 1999).

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