HEMATOLOGY Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology

Document Sample
HEMATOLOGY Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology Powered By Docstoc
					 HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 1 Introduction to Hematology

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Compare the reference ranges for hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocytes and
      leukocytes in infants, children and adults.

   2. Identify the function of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets.

   3. Describe the composition of blood and of plasma.

Key Terms:
CBC Complete blood count
Hematocrit
Erythrocyte
Hematology
Hemostasis
Leukocytes
Platelets
RBC indices
Thrombocytes
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 3 Hematopoietic Organs

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Explain the difference between primary and secondary lymphoid tissue.

   2. Describe the function of bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus.

   3. Describe the structure of bone marrow, spleen , lymph nodes, and thymus.

Key Terms
Adipocyte
Hyperplasia
Osteoblast
Osteoclast
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 4: Erythrocyte                   Part One

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________


   1. List the stages of erythrocyte maturation I the marrow from youngest to most
      mature cell and describe each stage.

   2. Explain the maturation process of reticulocytes and the cellular changes that take
      place.

   3. Identify the normal range for reticulocytes.

   4. Explain the function of erythropoietin, include the origin of production, bone
      marrow effects and normal values.

   5. Describe the function of the erythrocyte membrane.

   6. Name the sole energy substrate of the erythrocyte.

Key Terms
Bilirubin
Cyanosis
Erythropoiesis
Haptoglobin
Heinz Bodies
Hemosiderin
Hemosiderinuria
Normoblast
Reticulocyte
Polychromatophilic erythrocyte
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 4: Erythrocyte                         Part Two

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Diagram the mechanism of extravascular erythrocyte destruction and hemoglobin
      catabolism.

   2. Diagram the mechanism of intravascular erythrocyte destruction and hemoglobin
      catabolism.

   3. State the average dimensions and life span of the normal erythrocyte.

   4. Describe the function of 2,3 DPG and its relationship to the erythrocyte.
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 5: Hemoglobin

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Diagram the quaternary structure of a molecule of hemoglobin, identifying the
      heme ring, globin chains and iron.

   2. List the types of hemoglobin normally found in adults and newborns and give
      their approximate concentration.

   3. Summarize hemoglobin’s function in gaseous transport.

   4. Define Normal hemoglobin values.

   Key terms
   Deoxyhemoglobin
   Hypoxia
   Oxyhemoglobin
   Methemoglobin
   Sulhemoglobin
   Heme
   Glycosylated hemoglobin
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 6: The Leukocytes.

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Compare and contrast the morphologic and other distinguishing cell features of
      each of the leukocytes found in the peripheral blood.


   2. Compare and contrast the function of each of the leukocytes found in the peripheral
blood.

   3.List the adult reference ranges for leukocytes found in the peripheral blood.

   4. List causes / conditions that increase or decrease absolute numbers of individual
   leukocytes found in the peripheral blood.

   5.Summarize the process of neutrophil migration and phagocytosis.

   6. Compare and contrast the development, including distinguishing maturation and
   cell features of the granulocytic, monocytic-macrophage, and the lymphocytic cell
   lines.

   Key Terms
   Agranulocytes
   Azurophilic granules
   Granulocytosis
   Leukocytosis
   Leukopenia
   Plasma Cell
   Reactive lymphocyte
   Neutrophilia
 HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 7: Routine Hematology Procedures

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Identify the three anticoagulants used in the hematology laboratory and give
      examples.

   2. Explain the mechanisms of preventing coagulation for each anticoagulant.

   3. List factors affecting the collection of a blood specimen.

   4. Correlate the collection technique of a blood specimen with potential problems in
      specimen analysis.

Key Terms
Anticoagulant
Hemoconcentration
Mean Cell Hemoglobin ( MCH)
Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC)
Mean cell volume (MCV)
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 7: Routine Hematology Procedures                Part two

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Calculate the erythrocyte indices.

   2. Correlate erythrocyte indices with CBC data and peripheral blood smear
      examination.

   3. Identify reference ranges for each test in terms of gender and age for a routine
      CBC.
 HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 8: Peripheral Blood Smear

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Describe the peripheral blood smear preparation methods.

   2. Identify the characteristics of an optimally prepared peripheral blood smear.

   3. Recognize characteristics of a properly stained peripheral blood smear.

   4. Discuss potential causes of improperly stained peripheral blood smear.

   5. List the components of a complete peripheral blood smear examination.

   6. Correlate RBC indices, WBC count and platelet count with peripheral blood
      smear observations.

   7. Determine the corrected WBC count based on the presence of nucleated
      erythrocytes.

Key Terms
Anemia
Polycythemia
Rouleaux
Smudge Cell
Wedge smear
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 8: Bone Marrow

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Identify the sites for obtaining bone marrow samples.

   2. List indications for performing bone marrow studies.

   3. Define the M:E ratio and describe what can cause an increase or decrease.

   4. Describe how bone marrow cellularity and iron stores are estimated.

   5. List the reasons why special stains are performed on bone marrow specimens.

   Key Terms:
   Granulomatous
   Ringed sideroblasts
   Immunohistochemical stains
 HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 11. Anemias of Disordered Iron Metabolism

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Diagram the transport of iron from ingestion to incorporation into heme.


   2. Describe the physiologic factors that affect the amount of iron needed by the
      body.

   3. Explain the etiology and pathophysiology of iron deficiency anemia, anemias of
      chronic disease and sideroblastic anemia.

   4. List the three stages of iron deficiency, and define characteristic RBC morphology
      of each stage.

   5. Describe the following terms and explain their role in iron metabolism:
      transferring, hemosiderin, ferritin, TIBC.
 HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 10: Introduction to Anemia

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Describe the terms poikilocytes, and anisocytes.

   2. Classify erythrocytes based on erythrocyte indices.

   3. Describe and identify erythrocyte inclusions.

   4. Given CBC results, categorize n anemia according to morphologic classification.

Key Terms
Acanthocyte
Anisocytosis
Basophilic stippling
Cabot rings
Elliptocytes
Howell-Jolly Bodies
Helmut cells
Heinz bodies
Pancytopenia
Pappenheimer bodies
Poikilocytosis
Sickle cells
Spherocytes
Stomatocytes
Target cells
Microcytes
Macrocytes
Megaloblastic
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 12: Hemoglobinopathies

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Define hemoglobinopathy.

   2. Explain the basic defect resulting in the production of abnormal hemoglobins.

   3. Explain the basis of the hemoglobin electrophoresis method in identifying
      abnormal hemoglobins.

   4. Describe the epidemiology of sickle cell anemia (SCA).

   5. Identify the globin chain defects causing SCA and hemoglobin C disease.

   Key Terms
   Autosplenectomy
   Hemoglobin electrophoresis
   Thalassemias
 HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 13 Thalassemia

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Define thalassemia.

   2. Differentiate thalassemias from hemoglobinopathies based on definition and basic
      pathophysiology.

   3. Describe the typical peripheral blood morphology associated with thalassemia.

   4. Compare and contrast the etiology of alpha- and beta- thalassemia.

   5.   For each of the four genotypes of alpha-thalassemia, describe:
   a.   Number of affected alleles.
   b.   Individuals affected
   c.   Basic pathophysiology
   d.   Symptoms
   e.   Laboratory results, including blood cell morphology and hemoglobin
        electrophoresis.

   6.   For each of the genotypes of beta-thalassemia, describe:
   a.   Number of affected alleles.
   b.   Individuals affected
   c.   Basic pathophysiology
   d.   Symptoms
   e.   Laboratory results, including blood cell morphology and hemoglobin
        electrophoresis.

Key Terms
Allele
Congenital
Diploid
Haploid
Heterozygous
Homozygous
Phenotype
Genotype
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 14: Megaloblastic and Nonmegaloblastic Macrocytic
Anemias

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

          1. Describe the requirements for vitamin B 12 and folate.

          2. Recognize the six most common disorders that result in a macrocytic
             anemia.

          3. Differentiate the pathophysiology and peripheral blood findings of
             nonmegaloblastic anemia from those of megaloblastic enemias.

          4. Describe the etiology of pernicious anemia, including major cause of the
             defect, clinical symptoms and physiological causes or clinical subtypes.

          5. Name three causes of a folate deficiency, and give two distinguishing
             cliical or laboratory characteristics of each.

          6. Name four causes of a vitamin B12 deficiency and give two distinguishing
             clinical or laboratory characteristics of each.

Key Terms:
Schilling test
Dyspepsia
Megaloblastic
Pernicious anemia (PA)
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 15 Hypoproliferative Anemias

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Define hypoproliferative anemia

   2. Cite the diagnostic criteria for Aplastic anemia.

   3. List the major clinical and laboratory characteristics of Aplastic anemias.

Key Terms
Aplasia
Aplastic anemia
Fanconi’s anemia (FA)
Hypocellularity
Idiopathic
HEMATOLOGY:Chapter 16 Introduction to Hemolytic Anemias

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. List the laboratory tests that can be used to assess a hemolytic anemia.

   2. Assess laboratory results in intravascular and extravascular hemolysis

   3. Summarize the clinical findings associated with a hemolytic anemia.

   4. Explain the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic erythrocyte defects and give
      an example of each.

   5. Identify the two main pathways by which erythrocytes catabolize glucose.

   6. Identify the most common erythrocyte enzyme deficiency.

   Key Terms;
   Membrane defects
   Osmotic fragility test
   Hemolytic Anemia: Enzyme deficiencies
   Hemolytic Anemia: Immune anemais
   Hemolytic Anemia: Nonimmune defects
   G6PD
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 21 Nonmalignant Granulocyte and Monocyte Disorders

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Identify immature granulocytes and morphologic changes ( Toxic granulation,
      Dohle bodies, intracellular organisms, and vacuoles) often seen in reactive
      neutrophilia.

   2. List the common disorders associated with neutropenia.

   3. Identify neutrophil nuclear alterations, including Pelger-Heut, hypersegmentation,
      and pyknotic forms.

   4. State the common conditions associated with abnormal eosinophil, basophil, and
      monocyte counts.

   5. Recognize rare or unusual cytoplasmic abnormalities such as Alder-Reilly
      granules or Chediak-Higashi inclusions.

Key Terms
Morulae
Toxic granules
Shift to the left
Shift neutrophilia
Reactive neutrophilia
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 22: Nonmalignant Lymphocyte Disorders

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Identify the infectious agent and describe the clinical symptoms and
      corresponding leukocyte differential in infectious mononucleosis.

   2. Identify reactive cell morphology associated with viral infections and compare with
normal lymphocyte morphology.

   3.Describe the adnomral hematological findings associated with AIDS.

   4. Identify conditions associated with lymphocytopenia.

   5. State the complications associated with CMV infections.

   Key Terms
   Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
   Epstein_Barr Virus (EBV)
   Heterophil antibodies
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 26 Introduction to Hematopoietic Neoplasms.

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Compare and contrast the general characteristics of the myelodysplastic
      syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and acute and chronic
      leukemia.

   2. Name and describe the classification of MDS, MPD and the leukemias.

   3. List the various methods used for categorizing the leukemias.

   4. Compare and contrast the laboratory findings of the acute and chronic leukemias.

Key Terms
(ALL) Acute lymphocytic leukemia
(AML) Acute myelocytic leukemia
Auer rods
(CLL) Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
(AML) Chronic myelocytic leukemia
(FAB) French-American-British
Lymphoma
(LAP) Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase
HEMATOLOGY:Chapter 27 Myeloproliferative Disorders

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Identify the major cell lines involved with the various myeloproliferative
      disorders chronic myelocytic leukemia, polycythemia vera, essential
      thrombocythemia and myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia. (CMI,
      PV,ET,MMM).

   2. Recognize abnormal CBC results that are suggestive of an MPD.

   3. Explain the diagnostic chromosome abnormality associated with CML.

   4. Describe and recognize the peripheral blood findings in CML patients.

   5. List and recognize laboratory findings typically associated with MMM.
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 28, Myelodysplastic Syndromes

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Define myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and list general characteristics.

   2. List the five subgroups of MDS recognized by the French-American-British
      Cooperative group and identify key morphological criteria that distinguish each
      group.

   3. Describe laboratory findings and recognize changes in morphology that are
      characteristic of this group of disorders.
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 29, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Define acute leukemia and explain the difference between acute myelogenous
      leukemia (AML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL)

   2. Describe and recognize the typical peripheral blood picture ( erythrocytes,
      leukocytes and thrombocytes) seen in AML.

   3. Describe the M:E ratio in bone marrow in acute leukemia.

   4. Differentiate Type I,II,III blasts found in hematopoietic neoplasms.

   5. Give the typical results of cytochemical tains in AML.

   Key Terms
   Auer Rods
   Type I myeloblasts
   Type II myeloblasts
   Type III myeloblasts
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 30, Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

    1. Define acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and differentiate it from acute
       myeloblastic leukemia (AML).

    2. Describe and recognize the typical peripheral blood picture (erythrocytes,
       leukocytes and thrombocytes) seen in ALL.

    3. Give the typical results of cytochemical stains in ALL.

    4. Summarize the clinical signs and symptoms associated with ALL.


Key Terms
Burkitt cell
HEMATOLOGY: Chapter 31, Lymphoid Malignancies

Homework Assignment: Student’s Name: _________________________________

   1. Describe how the diagnosis of lymphoid malignancy is made.

   2. Differentiate between CLL, lymphoma and multiple myeloma based on peripheral
      blood findings and ancillary studies.

   3. Describe the histology of a normal lymph node.

   4. List the chronic, leukemic and lymphoproliferative disorders.

Key Terms
Bench –Jones proteinuria
Hairy cell
Lymphoma