Unclaimed Property by sofiaie


									Unclaimed Property

by Cynthia D. Hardin

About the Author

Cynthia D. Hardin is the unclaimed property administrator for Apache Corporation in
Houston, Texas. She received her undergraduate degree in business administration from
San Diego State University in 1989. She has eight years of oil and gas experience as a
landman, division order analyst, revenue supervisor and unclaimed property
administrator. She has worked for Shell Western Exploration & Production Inc., Alfred
Glassell Jr., and as an independent landman in south Texas. Hardin is also a licensed
private investigator with six years of experience in product liability, civil litigation and
family law.

What is unclaimed property, also known as escheat, and how does it affect me as an oil
and gas professional? The lack of an answer to this frequently asked question has cost
companies penalties, interest and resulted in state audits. Although the concept may
appear confusing, it can actually be a simple process with the advent of current
technology. Hang with me for a little while, and I will take you on a brief tour of the
history and purpose of unclaimed property. Along the way, we’ll discuss property
identification, due diligence, reporting, state requirements, audits, the voluntary
compliance program, holder reimbursement, state revenue recovery and the holders’
organization. So, without further ado, welcome to Unclaimed Property 101.

History, Purpose and Reportable Property
What is the concept of escheat? Escheat was actually created sometime between 800 and
1400 in feudal England. The king granted land, under tenure, and if the grantee died
without heirs, the land reverted or escheated back to the king. During the reign of James I
(1566-1625) the British laws concerning escheat were brought to the newly formed
colonies of Virginia, Maryland and Nova Scotia. These laws have survived, in various
forms, to our day, authorizing states to hold property for owners. Escheat can be further
defined by Webster’s dictionary as the “lapse of a property to the state on the death of the
tenant without proper heirs.” However, for our purposes today, escheat may be defined as
unclaimed property because we report to state administrators when we are unable to
locate an owner, whether dead or alive, with or without heirs.
So, what qualifies as unclaimed property and what is the purpose of the law? Unclaimed
property is any financial asset, whether tangible or intangible property, that has remained
unclaimed/abandoned for a designated time period. Individual state statutes define this
“dormancy period” and range from one year (Ohio) to seven years (various states). The
general purpose of unclaimed property law is to protect the owner’s interest, relieve
holders of liability and expense, and ensure that any potential economic windfall will
benefit the public and be used for the common good.
Reportable property types common to the oil and gas industry include royalties, rentals,
stocks, dividends and vendor and payroll checks. State statutes require companies to
review their records annually for unclaimed/ abandoned property and report and/or remit
funds. Reportable owners include those without an address (and unlocatable) and
unidentified interests (“owners unknown,” “unidentified royalty,” etc.). Be sure to verify
that the owner does not have another active account within the company.

Due Diligence
Companies are required by law to perform due diligence prior to reporting unclaimed
property. The degree and scope of this effort is, defined by individual state statutes as a
reasonable attempt, to locate owners prior to reporting. Therefore, if Alabama has an
aggregate limit of $10, then any owner with $10 or more in their account must be the
subject of some form of due diligence. Due diligence must begin no more than 120 days
and not less than 60 days prior to the deadline for reporting. Various methods include:

(1) sending a letter to the last known address;

(2) using a credit bureau (such as Trans Union TCI-Trace);

(3) running social security numbers on the social security death index; and

(4) searching for people on the Internet via people search

Credit bureaus provide a service whereby a company can search for current addresses by
utilizing the owner’s social security number. Companies can register for this
service and have software loaded
on designated systems. Some credit bureaus now offer batch processing for further cost

Under Federal law, a company must report to the state of the owner’s last known
residence. If that is not known, the holder must report to its state of incorporation or
domicile. Be aware that no amount is too small to report and can be combined in the
aggregate. The report must also be in compliance with each state’s required medium.
Some companies manufacture software that will comply with all state requirements such
as Chesapeake System Solution’s UPCS (The Total Unclaimed Property Compliance
System) and the Freedom Group. However, a smaller company may
wish to comply with individual state requirements by providing the required data on a
diskette, reel to reel tape,
cartridge, CD, 9 track tape, e-mail,
or Internet filing.
So how does the Chesapeake System work? Well, it is a software-based program,
designed for Windows NT and Windows 95, which receives data via other mediums. The
data may be accessed from a mainframe or a client server system and downloaded into an
ASCII format to windows. The format is set up according to the parameters defined by
Chesapeake for importing data. The data is then downloaded into the UPCS software,
which assigns owners by state and prepares a customized report and format for that
particular state. Next, the reports are placed on diskette or printed and mailed or sent via
e-mail. Don’t get scared, it’s easy!

State Requirements
State statutes require that holders report and/or remit annually, except Wisconsin, which
requires even year reporting and Mississippi, which requires every third year reporting, all
property held within the abandonment period. Failure to do so can incur penalties
and interest as high as 18 percent
per annum. Currently Texas has a
10 percent per annum penalty while California’s is 12 percent. Texas is a “pay direct”
state which means that once you remit, you must set up your owners to pay directly to the
of Texas. This is critical for royalty owners in receipt of production
Each state has a defined due date
for reports and/or remittance with
the majority reporting by November 1.
You may access a complete list of
state unclaimed property offices at
the NAUPA (National Association of Unclaimed Property Administrators) website,
www.unclaimed.org. Be sure to retain the owner detail of your report for five to 10 years
past the dormancy period, as required by individual state statutes, in case audit red flags

Audits and the Cooperative Voluntary Compliance Program
AUDIT! Did you say AUDIT? I’m out of here! There are several instances that may
provide a red flag to state auditors. They include non-reporting, errors on reporting forms,
omission of property types, gaps in reporting history, insufficient due diligence, non-
compliance within the industry, lump-sum aggregate total, unlawful deductions,
information provided by employees, the public and state, newsworthy events, mergers,
acquisitions, re-organizations, liquidations and re-incorporations.
Just when you thought it was all over for you, don’t worry, I have great news! For holders
who have never reported, 37 states through NAUPA have formed the Cooperative
Voluntary Compliance Program effective until October 31, 1999. These states, which are
at the NAUPA webpage, will waive penalties and interest on holders who come forward
and remit.

Holder Reimbursement
“I think I may have reported incorrectly last year. Is there hope?” Yes! A holder may
request a reimbursement from the state. This may be due to erroneous reporting,
overpayment or duplicate remittance/funds paid to an owner. NAUPA has a standardized
form that may be used for this request. They may be contacted through the Internet.
However, a holder may send
a letter together with proof of payment and a copy of the state report to retrieve the
reported property.

State Revenue Recovery
You mean the states may have money for us? Holders may wish to request a search for
funds remitted to the various states. Although a holder may request
a search in writing, many of the states now have their databases available online. There
are various Internet addresses where the databases may
be found at search.com. However, NAUPA provides this service at their online site.
Currently in the works is
a combined national database called SCOUT (States Clearinghouse of Unclaimed
Treasurer) which will provide a one-stop search. Be aware that there are sites out there
that do provide free searches but the information may be out-of-date, or there may be a
The state of Texas online database is one that I particularly like. When you locate
property on this site, you can request a claim form online, and they do respond to you via
e-mail. Once you file your claim, handling fees may be assessed. Texas charges 1 percent
for claims from $50 to $5000 and 1.5
percent for claims of $5000 and over.
Another source for locating funds is
a finder or locator. However, their fees may be steep and are usually based on a
percentage of the total amount found. Be aware that finders may be required to be
licensed by the State Board of Private Investigators or registered with the state and that
some state laws cap the amount of their fee. Also, some states will not honor finder
agreements for up to the first 24 months from the property report date. A finder may also
be required to have a power of attorney to claim funds on your behalf. With the advent of
the Internet and online databases it seems unnecessary to pay a finder to locate unclaimed

Holders’ Organization
There is still hope for beginners. Would you like to further raise your consciousness about
unclaimed property law and how it affects the oil and gas industry? Receive updates on
the Uniform Unclaimed Property Act together with individual state updates, regulatory
changes and pending legislation? Build a relationship with NAUPA members? Then the
UPHLC (Unclaimed Property Holders Liaison Council) is the organization for you. For
further information contact: Jackie Cote, membership committee chair at (617) 954-5145,
or check out their website at www.uphlc.org. UPHLC also has two search engines
available at their site located under “search engines” and “related links.” One search
engine is for people and the other is for businesses. This site is worth a look.
In conclusion, unclaimed property reporting does not have to be a nightmare. With a little
organization, the help of new tools to facilitate due diligence, and electronic filing, your
reporting can be streamlined into
an efficient cost effective method.
As we progress technically, a future industry network to recover suspense funds prior to
state remittance would be ideal.
I look forward to hearing your suggestions, comments and answering your questions.
Please feel free to e-mail me at:
cynthia.hardin@usa.apachecorp.com. I’m looking forward to hearing from you.

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