2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations

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2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations Powered By Docstoc
					Application of Synthetic
Diesel Fuels

“Future Fuels : Issues and Opportunties”

11th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction
Conference, Chicago, August 21-25, 2005

Paul Schaberg, Sasol Technology
Presentation Outline

  Description of synthetic diesel fuel production processes
  Description of synthetic diesel fuel properties
  Overview of Sasol’s current GTL and CTL plans
  Possible market introduction scenarios
  Combustion and exhaust emissions with GTL diesel fuel and
  blends
  Opportunities for engine optimisation
  Summary and concluding remarks
Generic xTL Process

Syngas Production                      Fischer-Tropsch                                    Product Upgrading
                                          Synthesis


                                                                                             FTBO
coal gas   oil biomass                       light gas                                                 light gas
                                                                                             return


carbon                                                       conden-
source                                                         sate                                                       naphtha
              reformer / gasifier




                                                                        hydroprocessing
                                                             (< C20 )
oxygen




                                                                                                           distillation
                                               FT reactor



source                              syngas                                                                                jet/kero
                                                               wax
                                                             (> C20 )
steam                                                                                                                     diesel




                                                              wax
                                               H2O                                        heavy fraction
                                                            FTBO feed
Diesel Fuel Properties
                                                                  950
 Clear, odourless liquid                                                       European maximum and minimum limits
                                                                  900




                                          Density at 20°C (g/l)
 Highly paraffinic
                                                                  850
 (total aromatics < 1%,
                                                                  800
 polycyclic aromatics < 0.05%)
     Density ~ 770 g/l                                            750
                                                                                                             n-Alkyl Cyclo Hexanes
     H/C ratio ~ 2.10 mol/mol                                     700                                        n-Alkyl Benzenes
                                                                                                             n-Paraffins
     LHV ~ 43.8 MJ/kg                                             650
                                                                        6     8    10    12   14 16 18 20           22      24   26      28
     Cetane number > 70
                                                                                              Carbon Number
                                                                  400
 Very low sulphur (< 1ppm)
                                                                              FBP constrained by
                                                                  350                                                      T95 ~ 360°C
 Good thermal stability                                                        T95 specification
                                          Boiling Point (°C)
                                                                                                                      CFPP ~ -20°C
                                                                  300
 Distillation range determined
                                                                  250                                    Yield maximised with full
 by:                                                                                                     boiling range diesel fuel
                                                                  200       Flash point
     Applicable specifications (T90,                                        ~60°C
     flash point, cold flow properties)                           150       ~55°C                              n-Paraffins
                                                                                      IBP constrained
                                                                                                               2-Methyl-i-paraffins
     Jet / kerosene production                                                          by flash point
                                                                  100
                                                                        6     8    10    12   14 16 18 20           22     24    26      28
                                                                                              Carbon Number
Current GTL and CTL Plans

                                                                   Iran
      USA                                                        Sasol
    Evaluating                                               Study on GTL
   Opportunities                    Qatar                opportunity progressing
                           Sasol / Qatar Petroleum
                             34 000 bpd (Oryx I)
                             Under construction

                                Qatar                                                        China
                    SasolChevron / Qatar Petroleum                                  Sasol / Shenua / Ningxia
                      65 000 bpd (Oryx II) - MOU                                        2 X 80 000 bpd
                          130 000 bpd - LOI                                            Feasibility Stage




                            Nigeria
                         CNL / NNPC
                          34 000 bpd
                     EPC contract awarded
                                                     +

                                                           South Africa                   Australia
  Gas-to-Liquids                                           Sasol I and II              SasolChevron
                                                           160 000 bpd                 Study on GTL
                                                           In operation            opportunity progressing
  Coal-to-Liquids
Oryx GTL, Qatar

 34 000 bpd initial capacity,
 expansion to 100 000 bpd
 Startup end Q1 2006
 FT reactor
     Mass = 2200 tons
     Height = 60m
     Diameter = 10m
GTL Diesel Relativity

                                                                  Worldscale
                                                        Oryx
  France        London bus fleet                                   GTL plant
                                                     23,000 bpd
610,000 bpd        1,750 bpd                                      100,000 bpd
                                       Italy
                                   450,000 bpd
                                                                   Current
                                                       EGTL     Sasol Chevron
                   Global                            23,000 bpd   projects
              automotive diesel                                  250,000 bpd
                   market
               13,000,000 bpd
                                               UK
                                           380,000 bpd
                                                              Total GTL projects
                                                              under development
     Europe                                                      750,000 bpd
  3,500,000 bpd
                                        Germany
                                       540,000 bpd
                                 Some Application Scenarios


                                                                       New applications ->
                                                                           HCCI, FC
Volume of synthetic fuel available




                                              Refinery blendstock ->
                                              new premium diesel ->
                                              standard and optimised
                                                     engines

                                                                                   Neat fuel ->
                                                                                   optimised
                                                                                    engines
                                         Refinery
                                      blendstock ->
                                     premium diesel
                                                                                         Conforms to current
                                                                                         specification
                                        Refinery
                                     blendstock ->      Neat fuel ->                     Does not conform
                                     conventional      niche market                      to current
                                         diesel         application                      specification


                                                                                                  Time
Exhaust emissions with GTL
diesel fuel, conventional engines

Typically obtain reductions in                      100
all regulated emissions (HC,                                                             Heavy Duty
                                                    80




                                 PM Reduction (%)
CO, NOx, PM)                                                                             Light Duty
                                                    60
Reductions in CO2 and other
unregulated emissions                               40
                                                    20
NOx and PM critical:
    13% avg. NOx reduction                           0
    26% avg. PM reduction                           -20
                                                    -40
                                                          -20   -10       0      10     20      30     40
                                                                  NOx Reduction (%)
                                                                      Source : NREL SAE Paper 2003-01-0763
Passenger Car Emission Tests
                                                             120        NEDC Vehicle emission tests
 Tests performed with a Mercedes
 E220 CDI (Euro 3) vehicle and                               100




                                        Relative Level (%)
 engine                                                       80

 Neat GTL diesel fuel and blends                              60

 compared with sulphur-free EN590                             40
 diesel fuel                                                  20                 EU Diesel
                                                                                 50:50 EU-GTL Diesel
                                                                                 GTL Diesel
 All calibration parameters kept                              0
 constant during steady-state tests                                HC    CO NOx PM CO2 FC

 Blends showed disproportionate                              120   Steady-state engine bench tests
 reductions in soot / PM in both                             100




                                        Relative NOx (%)
 vehicle and engine tests                                     80

 Disparity in NOx response between                            60
 vehicle test and engine tests : non-                         40
 optimal engine calibration for lower                         20         EU Diesel      80:20 EU-GTL
 density, higher cetane fuels.                                 0
                                                                         50:50 EU-GTL   GTL Diesel

                                                                    1      2      3     4       5
                                                                           Operating Point
Injection System Performance
                                                                       30             2000 min -1 , 2 bar bmep
Common-rail FIE




                                             Injector Flowrate (g/s)
                                                                       25             P rail = 570 bar

                                                                       20
  Injection rates for the two fuels                                                           GTL Diesel Fuel
                                                                       15
  are similar at low loads                                                                    EN590 Diesel Fuel
                                                                       10
  Expected deviation due to                                             5
  density difference is evident at                                      0
  higher loads                                                         -5
                                                                             0   1       2         3            4
  No negative effects on operation                                                   Time (ms)

  of FIE                                                               60                4000 min -1 , full load




                                       Injector Flowrate (g/s)
                                                                       50                P rail = 1560 bar
  Besides lower density, lower                                         40
  viscosity of GTL diesel fuel could                                   30
                                                                                              GTL Diesel Fuel
                                                                                              EN590 Diesel Fuel
  to be influencing parameter                                          20
                                                                       10
                                                                        0
                                                                       -10
                                                                             0   1       2          3           4
                                                                                     Time (ms)
Injection System Performance
                                                                30             2000 min -1 , 2 bar bmep
Unit Injector FIE




                                      Injector Flowrate (g/s)
                                                                25
  Injection rate for the GTL diesel                             20
                                                                                          EN590 Diesel
  fuel is lower than EN590 diesel                               15
                                                                                          GTL Diesel Fuel
  fuel at low loads                                             10
                                                                5
  Deviation at higher loads is                                  0
  smaller                                                       -5
                                                                      0   1       2           3             4
  No negative effects on operation                                            Time (ms)
  of FIE                                                        60                 4000 min -1 , full load




                                      Injector Flowrate (g/s)
  Besides density, lower bulk                                   50

  modulus of GTL diesel fuel could                              40
                                                                                       EN590 Diesel Fuel
                                                                30
  be an influencing parameter                                                          GTL Diesel Fuel
                                                                20
                                                                10
                                                                 0
                                                                -10
                                                                      0   1       2           3             4
                                                                              Time (ms)
Combustion Properties

                                                           100                                 EU Diesel
 Combustion processes of GTL                                               1600 min-1,
                                                                                               GTL Diesel
                                                                                               50:50 EU-GTL
 diesel fuel have been compared




                                     Cylinder Pressure (bar)
                                                               80          3.3 bar bmep        80:20 EU-GTL




                                       ROHR (kJ/m3.deg)
 to EN590 diesel fuel, using both                              60
 classical and advanced in-
                                                               40
 cylinder diagnostics
                                                               20
 As expected, differences in
 ignition properties and soot                                   0
 formation have been observed                                  -20
 Difference in ignition delay is a                                   -40      -20     0     20     40
                                                                                Crank Angle (° ATDC)
                                                                                                          60

 non-linear function of cylinder
                                                               18° ATDC, 2000 min-1, 7 bar bmep
 pressure and temperature (load).




                                                                      EU Diesel              GTL Diesel
Opportunities for Optimisation
                                                   140
                                                                   50:50 EU-                    80:20 EU-GTL
 35% reduction in both soot                        120             GTL Diesel                    Diesel Blend
 and NOx through software                                            Blend
                                                                                                              EU Diesel
                                                   100




                               Relative Soot (%)
 optimisation                                                      GTL Diesel
                                                     80
 Hardware optimisation
                                                     60
                                                                     35% Potential
 (combustion system, FIE) is                                       Reduction in both
                                                     40
 expected to compliment this                                       NOx and Soot with
                                                                    GTL Diesel fuel
 further                                             20

                                                          0
 End result could be reduced                                   0      20        40      60      80      100      120      140
 requirement for exhaust gas                                                         Relative NOx (%)

 aftertreatment, i.e. cost
 saving
                                                   PM (g/km)

                                                                                                    Software
                                                                                                    optimisation


                                                                                                    Hardware + software
                                                                                                    optimisation
                                                                           with DPF

                                                                                       NOx (g/km)
Summary

 Dawn of the synthetic fuels age
    Synthetic fuels technology is enabling the production of clean, very high quality
    fuels from diverse feedstocks, including non-petroleum and renewable
    feedstocks
    Plans for a significant number of large scale GTL production plants have been
    announced, the first of which will start up in 2006

 Relative synthetic fuel volumes will be small for many years –
 global impact will be small, but regional impact can be significant
 Developing an understanding of the combustion and emissions
 properties of synthetic diesel fuels in order to:
    Ensure problem-free operation in both neat and blended form
    Quantify the benefits
    Understand opportunities for engine optimisation
    Understand the opportunities for future combustion systems