# Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy by dfhrf555fcg

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```									Autumn 2                                                                The Magical Time Machine
Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy

Listed below are the entire learning objects for PSRN for children aged 3 ½ and above, including the Early Learning Goals which should be met by the end of the Early
Years Foundation Stage. The themes that we have suggested will cover all of the objectives through the year, although it is up to the individual teacher to extend either
side of these objectives in order to meet the needs of the individual child and the class. As the opportunity has arisen within the theme to cover the objective we have
highlighted them in green to show where this has occurred. For convenience we have given each objective within this document a letter for easy reference. The other
objectives (no highlighted) could still be taught through this theme depending on the needs of the class.

Area             Learning Objectives                                                                                       Look, Listen and Note
Numbers as       40 – 60mths +                                                                                                   The personal numbers that children refer to.
labels and for   a) Recognise some numerals of personal significance.                                                            Instances of children counting an irregular arrangement of up to ten
counting         b) Count up to three or four objects by saying one number name for each item.                                    objects.
c) Count out up to six objects from a larger group.                                                             Children’s methods of counting out up to six objects from a larger group.
d) Count actions or objects that cannot be moved.                                                               How children begin to represent numbers using fingers, marks on paper
e) Begin to count beyond 10.                                                                                     or pictures.
f) Begin to represent numbers using fingers, marks on paper or pictures.                                        Children’s recognition of numerals.
g) Select the correct numeral to represent 1 to 5, then 1 to 9 objects.                                         How children use their developing understanding of maths to solve
h) Recognise numerals 1 to 5.                                                                                    mathematical problems.
i) Count an irregular arrangement of up to ten objects.
j) Estimate how many objects they can see and check by counting them.
k) Count aloud in ones, twos, fives or tens.
l) Know that numbers identify how many objects are in a set.
m) Use ordinal numbers in different contexts.
n) Match then compare the number of objects in two sets.
ELG
o) Say and use number names in order in familiar contexts.
p) Count reliably up to ten everyday objects.
q) Recognise numerals 1 to 9.
r) Use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve practical problems.

Calculating      40 – 60mths +
s) Find the total number of items in two groups by counting all of them.                                        Methods children use to answer a problem they have posed.
t) Use own methods to work through problems.
   How children find the sum of two numbers.
u) Say the number that is one more than a given number.
   The variety in responses when children work out a calculation.
v) Select two groups of objects to make a given total of objects.
w) Count repeated groups of the same size.                                                                      The ways children count repeated groups of the same size.
x) Share objects into equal groups and count how many in each group.                                            How children share objects.
ELG                                                                                                             Children working out what remains if something is taken away.
y) In practical activities and discussion, begin to use the vocabulary involved in adding and
subtracting.
z) Use language such as ‘more’ or ‘less’ to compare two numbers.
aa) Find one more or one less than a number from one to ten.
bb) Begin to relate addition to combining two groups of objects and subtracting to ‘taking away’

Shape,
space and        40 – 60mths +
measure          cc) Show curiosity about and observation of shapes by talking about how they are the same or different.         Children’s interest in and observation of shapes, such as how some are
dd) Match some shapes by recognising similarities and orientation.                                               the same or different.
   How children match some shapes by recognising similarities and
ee) Begin to use mathematical names for ‘solid’ 3D shapes and ‘flat’ 2D shapes, and mathematical terms to                orientation.
describe shapes.                                                                                                        How children select a named shape for a particular purpose.
ff) Select a particular named shape.                                                                                    Children’s use of positional or directional clues.
gg) Show awareness of symmetry.                                                                                         Children’s ordering of two items by length or height.
hh) Find items from positional or directional clues.                                                                    Children’s identification of a mathematical problem involving shape,
ii) Order two or three items by length or height.                                                                        space or measure and the ways they solve them.
jj) Order two items by weight or capacity.                                                                              Children’s use of positional language.
kk) Match sets of objects to numerals that represent the number of objects.                                             Words children use to describe comparisons and measures.
ll) Sort familiar objects to identify their similarities and differences, making choices and justifying decisions.
mm) Describe solutions to practical problems, drawing on experience, talking about own ideas, methods and
choices.
nn) Use familiar objects and common shapes to create and recreate patterns and build models.
oo) Use everyday language related to time; order and sequence familiar events and measure short periods of
time with a non-standard unit.
pp) Count how many objects share a particular property, presenting results using pictures, drawings or
numerals.
ELG
qq) Use language such as ‘greater’, ‘smaller’, ‘heavier’ or ‘lighter’ to compare quantities.
rr) Talk about, recognise and recreate simple patterns.
ss) Use language such as ‘circle’ or ‘bigger’ to describe the shape and size of solids and flat shapes.
tt) Use everyday words to describe position.
uu) Use developing mathematical ideas and methods to solve practical problems.

Context Outline

The children will start this theme by creating a passport for themselves, this will enable them to consolidate and apply their skills from the previous theme. This will help
them to use numerals of personal significance, recognise and write numerals, say and use number names in context. The information could include; age, address,
birthday, height, eye colour, hair colour, shoe size, family members and passport number. This information could then be used for collating, sorting and presenting data in
a pictogram. A Passport Office could be set up in the classroom for this purpose. (Teach a, b, c, e, f, g, h, j, k, l, n, o, p, q, s, u, z, pp)

As soon as the children have their passport you can take them on their journeys to different times and places. We have chosen to do Diwali, Bonfire night, a toyshop from
the past and Christmas from the past and in different countries (the children could travel to Lapland and visit Santa’s Grotto) You could use a time portal, such as a play
tunnel to transport the children to the other time or place, using a calculator or number cards to set the time or date.. The classroom, role play area or outside area
(depending on your space and time) could be changed at the beginning of each new adventure.

Below are a couple of examples of activities that could be used to teach each time or place;

Diwali
Rangoli patterns – create tiles of different lengths, either in wood or clay using symmetrical shapes and patterns (teach cc, dd, ee, ff, gg, ii, mm, nn, ss)
Mendi patterns – Using templates of hands create symmetrical patterns, you could also use this as a wall display for counting in fives (teach k, cc, dd, ee, ff, gg, mm, nn,
ss)
Diyas - weigh out different amounts of clay to create different sized diyas, and decorating with repeating patterns. When completed they could compare and sort the diyas
according to size and weight (teach ii, jj, ll, mm, qq, rr)
Torans (garlands made out of golden marigolds and fresh mango leaves) – make garlands out of sugar/ tissue paper creating repeating patterns (rr)
Diwali treats – make food eaten at Diwali time (jj, oo)

There are a lot of opportunities for estimation of time e.g. how many minutes will it take for the diya candle to burn etc)
Santa’s workshop (Christmas)
The run up to this would be looking at toys from the past and comparing these with present day toys. The children would go through the time tunnel to explore an old
toyshop (a good chance to invite Grandmas and Granddads in!) Once the children had compared old toys with new they would then travel through the time tunnel and find
themselves in Santa’s workshop. Here the children would be asked to help Santa’s elves complete the orders in time for Christmas because the toy machines have
broken down;

Wrapping paper – print wrapping paper using repeating patterns (this could also be done using a paint package on the computer) (teach dd, ff, gg, nn, rr)
Make toys – (teach ee, mm, nn, ss, uu)
Address labels and shaped tags (teach a, f, g, q, cc, ee, ff)
Questionnaire of favourite toys – (teach b, c, e, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, y, z, bb, pp)
Packing boxes – Children to match quantity of toys with numbers on lists/ boxes (teach – a, b, c, e, f, g, h, k, l, m, p, q, r, s, u, v, w, x, y, z, aa, bb)

You could use directional and positional language by creating a map for Rudolph to find his way to Santa’s grotto.

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