how much caffeine in coffee by guid765

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									How much caffeine does a cup of coffee contain?


Caffeine content of tea and coffee
As caffeine is naturally present in plants such as tea and coffee, the caffeine content can vary
sharply. A short table listing the caffeine content of various types of drink is set out below. It
should once more be emphasised that the content per type and also according to the
production of the drink may differ sharply.

Coffee type/drink                      Size of cup             Approximate caffeine
                                                                 content (in mg)
Instant (heaped teaspoon)             Any size                        50-60
Filter coffee                    Medium (125 ml)                     60-100
Coffee filter machine            Medium (125 ml)                     60-100
Espresso                          Small (80 ml)                       70-80
Decaffeinated coffee          Medium- large (125-200                   2-4
                                        ml)
Tea                             Medium (125 ml)                   30-60
Coke                                330 ml can                    40-45
(in accordance with S. Papadopoulos (1993) Nutrition & Food Sciences 1, 28-33)

The caffeine content of raw coffee (Arabica type) is 0.8-2.5%, and may be as high as 4.0% for
Robusta varieties.

Caffeine accounts for 2.5-5.5% of the dry mass of tea. The xanthines theobromine (0.07-
0.17%) and theophylline (0.002-0.013%) are also present in very small amounts. The natural
range of variation in caffeine content is very considerable.


Caffeine -containing drinks

There are various drinks that may contain caffeine. The following introduction is intended to
provide a brief overview of drinks that might contain caffeine:

Coffee is of course one of the drinks that contain caffeine. Another drink with a naturally
high caffeine content is tea.

Definition of tea pursuant to Article 320 of the Swiss Food Ordinance (LMV):
   1
    Tea (green and black tea) consists of leaf buds and young leaves of the tea plant
   (Camellia sinensis L.) prepared by the usual method. Depending on origin, tea may also
   contain smaller or larger quantities of stem parts.

It should be pointed out that in Swiss parlance the term ‘tea’ is often mentioned when herbal
or fruit tea is actually meant. Herbal and fruit tea are also defined in the LMV (Article 323):
   1
     Herbal tea and fruit tea consist of plant parts or fruit or their extracts which, when brewed
   together with water, produce an aromatic drink for refreshment or consumption.
   2
     Besides vegetables and kitchen herbs (Article 188) and spices (Articles 357), only herbs
   that are non-toxic and do not exhibit any predominant pharmacological action are
   permitted for the production of herbal tea.
   3
    The fruits listed in Article 185 are permitted for the production of fruit tea. Fruit
   constituents (e.g. the skin of the fruit) may be used instead of the full fruit.

Herbal and fruit tea do not normally contain significant amounts of xanthines. Of course,
exceptions are possible depending on plant type.

Another drink that contains caffeine is defined in the LMV. This is mate, which is defined in
Article 322:
    1
      Mate (yerba, Paraguaya n tea) are the caffeine-containing, gently roasted and coarsely
    ground leaves of certain Ilex species, particularly Ilex paraguayensis.
    3
      The caffeine content must be at least 0.6 per cent by mass.

Guarana is another plant that exhibits a high caffeine content. Guarana is defined in Article
325 of the LMV:
   1
     Guarana is the seed of the liana Paullinia cupana var. Sorbilis with a caffeine content of
   at least 3 per cent by mass. It can be peeled and dried, roasted and ground.
   3
     Besides the technical designa tion, a phrase such as “contains caffeine” must be used and
   the caffeine content quoted in mg per 100 g.
   4
     In the case of food in which guarana is an ingredient (e.g. chewing gums, sugar products
   or chocolate bars), a phrase such as “contains caffeine” must be used if the caffeine
   content exceeds 30 mg per daily portion.

There are also what are known as instant and ready -to-serve drinks based on ingredients
such as coffee, coffee substitutes, tea, herbs, fruit and guarana (Article 326 of the LMV).
These may also contain caffeine and require a note such as “contains caffeine” near their
name, if the product contains more than 30 mg caffeine per litre; products that contain a
reference to tea or coffee in their name are exempt from this requirement.

Soft drinks may also contain caffeine. Under Article 247 of the LMV, caffeine-containing
soft drinks may contain no more than 150 mg caffeine per litre. A note such as “contains
caffeine” near the name is also necessary if more than 30 mg per litre is present in the
product.


Declaration of caffeine
The Articles of the LMV that govern the caffeine declaration have already been quoted above.
In the case of tea and coffee, no maximum concentration is defined for caffeine.

Caffeine is an additive pursuant to the Federal Rules and Regulations on Ingredients and
Additives. In soft drinks and in instant and ready-to-serve drinks, the addition of up to 150
mg caffeine per litre is permitted (including natural caffeine). The addition of caffeine must
be declared in the list of ingredients. Upwards of 30 mg per litre, the declaration “contains
caffeine” is needed, with a declaration being dispensable for products whose name refers to
tea or coffee.

Of course, drinks with a relatively high caffeine content can be licensed as special foods by
the Federal Health Office. This has already been seen in the case of dietary supplements for
athletes, etc. In these cases, the caffeine content certainly has to be declared.

								
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