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					                      Zero Carbon Task Force – School Visits - Report

Background

Several Zero Carbon Task Force (ZCTF) members took up the offer to visit schools that have been
identified as having implemented some or all of the measures that the ZCTF thinks will be required
in zero carbon schools - and to explore how those measures are working in practice.

The purpose of the visits was to provide the opportunity for schools to share their individual
experiences and „lessons learned‟ first hand with the Task Force to further inform its work to advise
ministers on the ambition for all newly built schools to be zero carbon by 2016.

Across the portfolio of schools, a good spread of schools was selected: urban/suburban,
new/refurbished (different ages) and measures (energy efficiency/renewable and low carbon energy
supplies/approaches to management and addressing behaviours/curriculum and the building as a
teaching tool).

Schools visited

Between March and October 2009, Task Force members and members of the DCSF Zero Carbon
Task Force Secretariat visited fifteen schools:

10 March - Howe Dell Primary School, Herts (Andrew Thorne)

10 March - Oakgrove Secondary School, Milton Keynes (Helen Everleigh, Sue Pentland)

2 April   - Herbert Strutt Primary School, Derby (Ellen MacArthur, Katie Green, Chris Foy)

11 March - Aufkirken Montessori School, Erding, Germany (Robin Nicholson, George Martin, Vic
Ebdon, Andrew Thorne). Although this school was a very interesting one to visit as it is designed
and built to Passivhaus standards and has a Montessori pedagogy, it is difficult to compare this with
the English schools visited.

1 May     - Christ the King School, Huyton, Liverpool (George Martin and Chris Foy)

1 May     - St Francis of Assisi Academy, Liverpool (George Martin and Chris Foy)

20 May    - Cardinal Wiseman Catholic Technology College, Birmingham (Richard Green – Becta)

5 June   - Whitecross High School and Specialist Sports College, Hereford (Robin Nicholson,
Andrew Thorne)

19 June   - Bristol Brunel Academy and Bristol Merchants Academy, Bristol (Andrew Thorne)

24 June   - St Mary Magdalene Academy, Islington (Lizzie Chattergee)

18 September - Bowbridge Primary School, Newark, Nottinghamshire (Andrew Thorne).

7 October – Ashley CofE Aided Primary School, Walton on Thames, Surrey (Robin Nicholson, Chris
Foy)

7 October – Everest College, Basingstoke, Hants (Robin Nicholson, Chris Foy)

16 October – The Kings School (the Catholic School), Peterborough, Cambridgeshire (Robin
Nicholson, Andrew Thorne)
20 October – St Luke‟s Primary School, Wolverhampton (Robin Nicholson)

Information framework for visits

The information framework below provided key points for discussion with school staff and other
users during the visits and has been used in annex B to present the findings of the visits.

For each school we aimed to find out:

   who has responsibility for energy and how are others involved
   if/how energy use/savings is monitored
   do they have any procedures to ensure that energy/carbon stays on the agenda
   which organisations other than the school are involved in energy (e.g. local authority, energy
    supplier)
   how the schools energy use or building is used within the curriculum
   have there been any particular problems/barriers and how have they been overcome
   what would they do differently if they could start again
   any striking or innovative features
   if they can suggest any particular actions for the DCSF/ZCTF

and to obtain comments and feedback about:

   the potential of measures taken by school visited for wider roll-out/replication to other schools
   whether the school has the potential to be a regional exemplar now, and
   whether, with additional investment, the school has the potential to be a regional zero carbon
    exemplar school.

Confidentiality

To maintain the confidentiality of information provided by the schools‟ principals and, where
relevant, partner organisations, this report has been anonymised – and does not attribute any
negative comments to individuals – althogh some of the really postive actions that are mentioned
might be easily attributed to specific schools

The findings of the visits

The evidence of good practice/design and the lessons learned by the schools visited have been
brigaded together as food for thought for others in annex A. And to allow for comparison across the
schools visited, the findings are also presented by issue (as set out in the information framework
above) on an anonymised school by school basis in annex B. Where possible, the challenges that
were identified in discussion with schools have been incorporated into the findings of the ZCTF‟s
final report.
                                                                         Annex A
School Visits – feedback received from Task Force members and the schools
themselves

Food for thought - evidence of good design/practice
Topic               What works well/lessons learned

Taking              All school occupants (from student through to caretaker) must understand
responsibility/     their role and responsibility in maximising energy usage reduction. For
Getting involved/   example, all school occupants should be encouraged to switch off lights, PCs
stakeholder         and whiteboards when not needed, as well as raise blinds and consider
engagement          turning down thermostats when necessary (if possible).
                    There should be relevant training and awareness raising strategies for
                    everyone
                    There is the need to re-enforce good practice regularly
                    All schools should consider encouraging students to act as Eco Warriors,
                    Power Rangers or just plain and simple energy monitors – who‟s role is to
                    encourage others not to forget to think about energy consumption – and who
                    ensure lights and PCs are off if not in use.
                    Users should have a choice where possible – and be given control of their
                    environment.
                    Students should be involved in the construction project for any new build or
                    major refurbishment - and should visit and discuss the work being carried out
                    at various stages of construction etc.
                    Effective user consultation is key - one school held 20 meetings prior to initial
                    concept designs being drawn up – to maximise client involvement from the
                    start.
Measurement and     Display metering interfaced via the Building Management System (BMS)
monitoring          allows energy consumption for various purposes (lighting, heating, hot water,
                    appiances and auxiliary power) to be assessed - and allows comparisons
                    between different parts of the school. This can highlight some operational
                    issues, such as heating being left on all night, which can be addressed to
                    reduce energy consumption.
                    The use of display meters with access to comparative data on an hour by
                    hour/week by week basis will allow schools to build up energy usage profiles
                    that can be monitored – and linked to a PC, this data can be manipulated in
                    lots of different ways .
                    Measurement of energy use and incentives to reduce this are crucial to bring
                    about sustained behaviour change
Action              Students can experiment to see what effect they have on energy consumption
                    – For example - with careful planning and innovative teaching a school could
                    operate for an hour without using any energy?
                    Consider that possibility of introducing initiatives such as a Carbon Free Friday
                    - when the school tries to operate using as little carbon as possible (or ideally
                    none at all!) – perhaps by having a picnic and teachers teaching in innovative
                    ways? Just see how low you can go!!
                    Get students involved – for example one school‟s students have produced
                    videos and audio broadcasts as they study literacy – clips included interviews
                    with local people to discuss sustainability/global warming, celebration of earth
                    day at the school, etc.
                    Consider setting age specific sustainability topics for discussion/project work
                    every term – or occasionally allocating a whole day for students to do work
                    related to all aspects of sustainability.
School ethos        Embed sustainability and energy/carbon awareness into the overall school
             ethos
             Consider creating a vegetable patch in the school grounds if possible – and
             encourage the kitchen to include local produce on the menu, including what
             has actually been grown at the school. In one school visited the main kitchen
             was designed with children in mind (e.g. work surfaces at different levels to
             cater for the different age groups).
             Have good recycling strategies in place
             Include a sustainability/energy page on your school website – ideally with a
             link to your display meter
Curriculum   A smart energy meter, linked to a PC, can produce data in many different
             formats for use throughout the curriculum
             Sustainability should be fully integrated throughout the curriculum, with the
             whole school ethos supporting this.
             Everyone in the school should be involved (as well as the wider community).
             For e.g. catering staff can have a role in working with students doing
             hospitality courses – and the finance team can get involved in accounting-
             related projects – and the school caretaker can have an important part to play
             as well!
             Think of ingenious ways to help students learn about energy use – for e.g. as
             part of a refurbishment at one school:
                    an existing window was converted into a cavity filled wall. The wall was
             divided into fours sections, each of which was filled with different types of
             thermal insulation. Temperature sensors (thermocouples) were fitted to the
             inner and outer faces of the brick courses, and the monitored data provides
             information on the relative effectiveness of each material.
                    a solar array generates electricity for the classrooms (~2.5kW under
             ideal conditions) and is used to learn about alternative energy. A permanent
             display provides details of the electrical power, the accumulated output and
             CO2 saved. An output from the unit can be interfaced with a standard PC to
             monitor and log performance.
                    another smaller solar panel and wind turbine are situated on the roof of
             the building. Their outputs are fed into a computer which also monitors the
             wind speed and incident radiation from an on-site weather station. These allow
             students to see how the performance of these renewable energy systems
             varies with environmental conditions.
                    all electrical devices are monitored using a domestic energy monitor
             which is linked wirelessly to a display panel and computer, allowing the effect
             of any electrical appliance on the total energy consumption can be monitored.
             Similar monitors are wired into key distribution boards around the facilities
             allowing comparison of energy usage.
                    the heating is controlled by a BMS which can be interrogated via a
             panel situated within the laboratory. Data from this panel is also available
             remotely via a website.
             Good design allows students to understand how the building works and
             observe how it is serviced.
             Design features such as exposed thermal mass – soffits and high density
             blockwork – with clearly visible and well co-ordinated services - will enable the
             school building to be incorporated into the curriculum. In one school the
             biomass boiler is in an accessible cabin – and includes an illustrative diagram
             showing the biomass fuel cycle, and a visible fuel store/silo.
Management   The full integration of sustainability from day 1 is essential, as well as joined-
             up thinking and the avoidance of short term decisions being made as a result
             of value engineering.
                    It is essential that Heads and Governors are fully engaged in the sustainability
                    agenda – and that this is embedded as an everyday way of working rather
                    than just another initiative! Thhis should be a business aim as well as a
                    sustainability aim.
                    A qualified premise/energy manager is considered essential (at least for large
                    schools), as is the team approach (including the students).
                    Consider including energy use as well as broader sustainability as a regular
                    items on the agenda at Governors meetings and management meetings.
Sharing lessons     It is essential that lessons learned are shared as widely as possible to try to
learned             eradicate the same mistakes being made over and over again.
                    Acting as a mentor for another school (possibly with the same specialism)
                    which is just embarking on a building project should be considered. This can
                    be productive for both parties – helping to ensure that lessons are learned
                    from experiences gathered - during design and construction and beyond.
                    Due to the regular turn-over of both the staff and students learning is not
                    always passed on to newly arriving occupants – so effective staff induction
                    practices that include how the building works are considered essential – and
                    students should be encouraged to build up a good understanding as well.
Getting it right    The overall carbon footprint of a school needs to be considered as buildings
from the start      only represent about 40% of the total footprint.
                    Fully integrate all sustainable features from the start. For example - one
                    school has many innovative low carbon features. However, the renewable
                    energy solution was not integrated within the design, but was added late in the
                    process in response to the GLA policy and eventual budget release from
                    DCSF. It is therefore likely to result in a more expensive solution than if it had
                    been integrated from the start.
                    Although the school has a major biomass installation there is no on-site
                    generation of electricity. Installation of micro-generation should be considered
                    at the outset.
Simple design       Simple design features can work best – the right doors in the right places,
                    master on/off power switches and areas with separate heating controls for
                    extended hours are likely to have a more significant impact on energy use
                    than the more technical features.
                    Try to ensure that the operation of the building is designed to be as simple as
                    possible (e.g. so that caretakers can easily get the best out of their building)!
                    Sensible orientation, use of thermal mass, highly insulated structure, simple
                    controls, with a clear energy strategy in place are all considered important
                    elements.
                    In one school visited the lighting controls are independent of the BMS and are
                    not fully automatic. In some areas switching is manual, in others occupancy
                    controls switch lighting on but do not take account of daylight. External lights
                    are controlled by photocells but are not timed. This is very complicated – so
                    there are potential advantages to be gained through integrating these within
                    the BMS.
Design features –   If a school layout is spacious and largely conventional (e.g. rectangular
light and shade     classrooms and wide streets) creative use of day light via central light wells
                    and light-wells deep within classrooms should be considered.
                    Creative use of internal glazing to utilise daylight can create an open
                    atmosphere within the school
                    A creative staggered profile can allow first floor classrooms to provide solar
                    shading for classrooms below
                    Effective tree planting will pay dividends in the long term
Design features -   The orientation, building materials, organisation of space, use of natural light,
orientation         insulation, air tightness and ventilation etc should be aimed at reducing energy
                    use. This includes good summertime performance and careful façade design
                    to avoid cooling being added in rooms where the IT is – and to also avoid
                    “blinds down, lights on” as the default. There is no point having high daylight
                    factors if glare means the blinds are down most of the time.
                    A westerly orientation entrance-wise is often one to be avoided if possible, as
                    this is likely to result in a draughty building that is difficult and costly to run.
                    However, the internal layout can be designed to mitigate against this – and it
                    should be noted that in the eastern part of the country the prevailing wind in
                    winter is from the NNE, rather than from the west.
Design features -   It is cheaper and easier to have things such as automatic lighting switch-off
controls            facilities included in initial plans, rather than deciding to add these later.
                    To effectively control energy usage there must be local management of
                    systems (e.g. heating, ventilation, hot water) – and this needs to be combined
                    with suitable training and guidance.
Design features -   External space should be well designed – with consideration being given to
general             sedum roofs, useable roof terraces, and space for growing.
                    A well designed atrium can provide the wow factor – as well as being a very
                    flexible space for both work and play.
                    Effective insulation is a key factor in improving energy efficiency.
                    Advantage should be taken of heat generated – especially from ICT and
                    server rooms.
                    Consideration could be given to housing servers off-site, as this removes the
                    possibility of a requirement for additional cooling in schools
                    There should be greater use of draught lobbies to prevent heat loss through
                    external doors (especially when the building‟s orientation is challenging)
                    Gas rather than electricity is considered far more effective for general catering
                    use in kitchens by many – although the electrical operation of hot cupboards is
                    sometimes preferred.
                    Students from the School of the Built Environment at a local University helped
                    one school with the development of the design of the schools, including visits
                    from >20 undergraduates, so consider how to get others involved.
                    The passivhaus methodology should be carefully considered at the start of the
                    project.
Value               Value engineering out sustainable features should be resisted as strongly as
Engineering         possible
                    The implications of any changes (value engineering) to reduce costs (e.g.
                    metering, shading, ventilation automation etc) should be fully discussed with
                    potential users before being implemented.
Technology          One building project was designed to test a range of technologies, including
                    some highly innovative approaches. Therefore the building is complex for a
                    small primary school, as it has numerous potential sources of heat (heat
                    pump, solar thermal and conventional boilers), heating systems (ventilation via
                    TermoDeck, under-floor, and conventional radiators) and complex control
                    strategies. However, it is a very valuable learning tool
                    The use of an inter-seasonal heat store to capture solar radiation (via
                    playground surfaces) during summer, for use as a heat source (for ground
                    source heating) during winter can be very effective.
                    Easy access to photovoltaics (PVs) and solar thermal panels is very useful –
                    and in one school visited this is via the first floor roof area/garden.
                    Ground source heat pumps should be made visible to students – as a learning
                    tool (or possibly a mimic diagram/graphical representation is more practical?)
                    – as should other carbon reduction measures, where possible
                    At least 50% of water used can be gained by effective rain water harvesting.
                    Details for high standards of thermal insulation need to address thermal
                    bridges and air tightness
              One building visited was considered very exemplary in respect of: its
              heating/ventilation: highly insulated, heat recovery from ventilation systems,
              renewable heat sources, etc. (although its main feature – the inter-seasonal
              heat store – is not yet performing as intended). It is also exemplary in other
              respects – flexibility & adaptability (raft foundation, steel frame), rainwater
              collection, sustainable drainage and green roofs, waste management, the use
              of grounds, etc. - and the school has been awarded the EcoSchools „Green
              Flag‟. There is good use of thermal mass, and the biomass boilers worked well
              Strategic planning is required to ensure that items such as biomass boilers
              can be used to cover the whole of the school (e.g. when work being carried
              out in several phases).
              LAs should consider procuring woodchip in bulk and providing a
              supply/storage service for their schools
              It can be best to have biomass deliveries by blower, as if delivered in
              containers which are replaced upon delivery, this can result in some unused
              fuel being returned to the supplier! Alternatively a storage bunker in the
              ground could be considered.
              Installing smart meters with real time information is better than having
              numerous pulsed output sub-meters (of which one school had more than 50).
              Do your homework before procuring new IT equipment – one school replaced
              old laptops which used 300watts when in use, with new ones that only used
              15 watts.
              It is essential that the caretaker has adequate training to ensure that new
              equipment operates effectively.
              One side benefit of mechanical ventilation can be that teachers who suffer
              from hay-fever are able to breathe normally in summer (as happened for the
              first time ever in a school with farmland on two sides - currently growing oil-
              seed rape).
              Small urban wind turbines are not always very effective so, if feasible, it might
              be better for schools to buy into a fund which would put a larger turbine up in a
              suitable location.
Procurement   Effective procurement is key. In one case, prior to developing the brief, a
              number of studies were commissioned to look at numerous energy/carbon
              issues; all parties agree that the use of PFI had ensured that whole life costs
              were considered as the project developed; there was early supply chain
              involvement (ICT, M& E, etc.); and there is a healthy ongoing partnering
              relationship.
              PFI partners must work closely with schools to ensure they understand how
              their school works – and to foster a partnership ethos
              Non-PFI contractors need to recognise their obligation to ensure that a school
              works properly, and that occupants fully understand their role in keeping it
              working well, before they disappear!
              Post Occupancy Evaluations (POEs) are a really useful tool – and should be
              used for all buildings as a matter of course
Building      A comprehensive handover of a new building is essential – as is making sure
handover      you have been provided with detailed operating manuals
              Clear signage should be used throughout (e.g. switch off here!)
                                                                                         Annex B
Visit Feedback received – on a school by school basis

Responsibility for energy and how are others involved
Primary
School A               There are two energy monitors in each class – who ensure that everyone
                       thinks about energy consumption – and who ensure lights and PCs are off
                       if not in use. A teacher is also supports a team of year 6s who share data
                       against targets with the rest of the school (at assembly). The Head also
                       has an ongoing watching brief. Energy use is also always an item on the
                       premises Governors meetings – and the Head also always includes this in
                       his weekly newsletter.
School B               The new building is extensively metered, including a smart/display meter
                       (which was not operational during the visit). However, the energy
                       consumption/costs for the new building were not known.
School C               The Head and caretaker are responsible – And when they moved into the
                       school the energy saving elements of the building were emphasised –
                       which has developed a culture of awareness.
School D               Site manager (+ small team) are responsible for energy management –
                       unusual for a primary school – with the Building Management System
                       (BMS) console & web access to half-hourly data in site manager‟s office. It
                       was not clear how the Head or students were involved
School E               The school is responsible for energy but LA organises supply contracts
Secondary
School F               Total responsibility as privately owned school.
School G               There are clear targets for energy use, and the FM provider closely
                       monitors performance (electricity performance is currently 32kWh/m2
                       against a target of 35kWh/m2).
                        Energy is monitored via BMS – and this is viewed as essential to the
                        school‟s operation).
                        There are contractual obligations (e.g. to maintain minimum internal
                        temperatures of 18°C at all times) which may compromise energy
                        efficiency which are under investigation.
School H                Energy management seen by school as responsibility of PFI partner and
                        caretakers (who work for PFI partner) not the school. Evidence of poor
                        understanding between school and construction contractor (for example
                        school thought contractor had installed central on/off master switches).
                        School expects caretakers to switch everything off at night.

                        PFI partner acknowledged that they needed to work more closely with the
                        school as the school must be part of the management of the building.
School I                The Energy Manager takes the measurements and collates the information
                        using a software package produced by NIFES (National Industrial Fuel
                        Efficiency Service) a consultant group employed by The Carbon Trust,
                        who were in turn employed by the LA to produce a toolkit for schools to
                        reduce their energy use. The information gathered is distributed to the
                        stakeholders through the Sustainability page on the school‟s Website as
                        well as a day long activity with Year 7 last term. A week of assemblies
                        planned will bring the rest of the College population in to the loop.
School J                Not covered (n/c)
School K                Not currently clear what the energy performance of the building is as the
                        school does not have accurate data. Although all phases of school
                        designed to meet BREEAM Excellent, in practice the energy performance
                        of the building is poor.
School L   There is clarity that responsibility for the building lies with the school - and
           the school‟s specialism is Environment and Sustainable Development.

           This is shared between several members of the school‟s management
           team (incl. the vice-principal and premise manager – members of the
           Environment Action Team). The VP pays the bills, and the school directly
           profits if there are any energy savings, but with the added incentive of
           helping the environment.

           As a result of their specialism everyone seems to have a very positive
           attitude to the protection of the environment as evidenced by the use of
           local seasonal food in the restaurant, good recycling strategies and
           keeping packaging to a minimum.

           Described by the Head as a journey, but it is more holistic than just energy
           and the environment and includes food (with targets for foods grown
           locally).

           There is a real time display meter, but no historic data is included for
           comparison purposes, as this is not obtained from the BMS. However the
           BMS is used by students doing energy-related projects as part of the
           curriculum.
School M   There was no clear responsibility for energy use. The Director of Finance
           and Administration (DFA) reports expenditure on energy use to the
           Governors‟ Audit Committee.
           The school is new and the commissioning is still under way, so reliable
           energy consumption data is not yet available. Data has been requested for
           consumption so far. Running costs (£) are believed to be below the
           predicted level but the building is not yet fully occupied.
           The DFA is unaware of any benchmarks for energy use in schools or
           academies, but would like this information in order to benchmark the
           school. He believes that this would be of interest for the Finance Directors‟
           Forum, and a way of comparing to understand performance. He believes
           there would be a role for a simple calculator/spreadsheet for finance
           directors to input data to monitor, report and compare energy
           consumption.
           There is no public display of energy consumption in the reception, but two
           displays (one in secondary, one in primary) of the PV energy generation.
           The initial meter readings are four times higher than the BB87 prediction
           and 6% greater than Buro Happold predicted figures, despite the fact that
           the school is only at around half pupil capacity and does not have the
           extended hours use of facilities established yet. The architects are to
           investigate this. It is considered vital that reliable data is used following full
           commissioning of the school before any conclusions are drawn regarding
           its‟ performance.
School N   There is a clear target for energy use at 94kWh/m2 (c.f. median benchmark
           value of 190kWh/m2 for secondary schools). Achieved performance levels
           are close to this in some areas but it hasn‟t been achieved across all of the
           school.

           Responsibility for energy use is shared between the school and the PFI
           provider . The school has a PFI Governor.
Monitoring of energy use/savings
Primary
School A               The whole school uses the outputs of the ecoDriver system (which cost
                       £5k) to assess energy use. The importance of measurement was
                       emphasised as being key – and by acting on the results gathered to effect
                       change. Finding funding for renewable technology is the final step to
                       achieve a significant energy reduction.
School B               See earlier
School C               The caretaker has a day to day role in monitoring and managing this. The
                       Head analyses the situation when the energy bills arrive. However, the
                       point was made that as fuel prices have risen dramatically over the same
                       period as the new school has been in operation, it has been difficult to
                       disaggregate effects of the new design from these rising costs. However, it
                       is acknowledged that energy use/savings can be monitored qualitatively as
                       well as quantitatively!
School D               There are 30 meters and sub-meters at site, all interfaced with BMS, and
                       approximately 50% transmit data to the web where it is monitored by both
                       the school and the LA‟s property agents.

                        There is no certainty about the school‟s energy bill (it is still in a period of
                        transition as services are being re-commissioned) but it is known to be
                        greater than £30k p.a. (about £150 per pupil compared to the national
                        average of £60-70).
School E                A Eco-driver is to be installed (having learned about this from another
                        school, via the Ashden Awards). There has been a POE and there is
                        remote monitoring in the architects‟ office. There are two elected eco-
                        monitors for each class who sit on the school council, which meets every
                        week.
Secondary
School F                This school is designed and built to meet the local micro climate conditions
                        of its location. The upkeep costs are understood to be 20-25% less than
                        normal construction.

                        The orientation, building materials, organisation of space, use of natural
                        light, insulation, air tightness and ventilation etc are all aimed to reduce
                        use of energy.
School G                See above
School H                Monitored by the PFI partner at their offices in a nearby location - and
                        action also taken if users are not happy with the temperature or other
                        aspect. There is no energy model for the building. Energy management
                        of the building is seen as a management issue with users that still needs
                        addressing.

                        There is a BMS for each room and metering throughout the building with
                        an eco-warrior data logger taking half-hourly data. This could be easily
                        linked to the school ICT system with a display screen in reception, some
                        hardware and a software linkage package at little cost – a suggestion that
                        could be fed back to the LA but the PFI partner indicated that this was
                        originally proposed to LA who subsequently refused.

                        A monthly report goes to the LA for fossil fuel, electricity, gas and water.
                        School aware that all energy was monitored centrally offsite, but not
                        apparently how the contract worked in respect of any gain going to the LA
                        and they do not see the bills. Also the PFI partner is not aware of how
                        school pays for or budgets for its energy.
           The school advised that energy use in the first three months was
           considerably higher than anticipated – but they were not surprised,
           attributing this to lights being on all the time (but this is considered to be
           PFI partner‟s responsibility - not staff or students).

           The school appeared poorly informed (for example re lack of rainwater
           collection, where lighting controls had been installed and how they worked,
           back-up supplies for heating or that contractor had offered a smart
           metering solution to the LA).

           ICT – the school is changing from laptops to desktops (-not part of original
           contract). The IT strategy will have a big influence on energy especially as
           only half the students are in place [at time of visit]. The IT provider has
           been working on an automatic switch off facility (although it would have
           been easier to build this into the facility at the start). IT is not under the
           control of PFI partner.

           Misunderstandings about ground source heat pumps and not visible to
           students, not clear if they could operate to cool school too. Lighting has
           been left on unnecessarily, and there is confusion about
           presence/absence of automatic occupancy controls for lighting.
School I   Weekly readings are taken and compared to typical use from the previous
           period, using the software we can adjust the usage to take into account the
           atmospheric conditions prevalent at the time. Obviously colder days use
           more energy than warmer days and the energy manager uses Degree Day
           Data to adjust fossil fuel energy usage to account for unusual temperature
           differences in the weather.
School J   n/c
School K   In early 2009 a smart metering package was installed but prior to that the
           school was unable to disaggregate their usage from that of the adjacent
           leisure centre. The DEC has yet to be produced. However, energy bills
           are higher than another new school in the area which had been more
           traditionally built.
School L   Energy is monitored using the BMS and bills – and there are half a dozen
           meters. Although the Carbon Trust did a very positive report in 2008, they
           did consider that there was scope to reduce consumption by 17% overall.
           Since then the school have incorporated some of the more affordable
           measures recommended, and will be able to assess the results soon.

           Student access to BMS is difficult. There is a display in the internet café
           area but it shows current information only and it is difficult to get this into
           the curriculum.

           Occupation of the building was gradual. One meter was found some time
           after the opening and this resulted in an additional bill of £25K for energy
           that had not been budgeted for.
School M   Covered above
School N   Energy is a standing agenda item for monthly meetings between the
           school and its PFI provider, and it is reportedly discussed in depth.

           Metering (some of which is interfaced with the BMS) allows energy
           consumption for various purposes (heating, hot water, lighting, auxiliary
           and small power) to be assessed and allows comparisons between
           different parts of the school. This has highlighted some operational issues
           that have been addressed through tailored training.
Procedures to ensure that energy/carbon stays on the agenda
Primary
School A              There must be a reward or incentivisation to encourage energy reduction.
                      This school includes energy use once a week in assembly – and the head
                      gives the pupils £10 if they achieve their energy targets. They regularly
                      have carbon free Fridays (or as low as possible anyway), which have
                      involved the whole community in a picnic – and which encourages
                      teachers to teach innovatively with no energy use. They recently also
                      managed to go a whole hour during a school day without any energy use
                      whatsoever – possibly a first?

                        They also ensure community engagement through the 100 club – whereby
                        the families of pupils undertake to use less than 100 kws a week in the
                        home.
School B                n/c
School C                At the moment the delay in installing a wind generator keeps energy firmly
                        on the agenda.

                        In the long term, this school‟s LA plans to provide display meters to all their
                        schools. This will be sited prominently to raise awareness further.
School D                There are several renewable energy systems (wind turbine, PV, solar
                        thermal, ground source heat pump combined with inter-seasonal heat
                        storage), some of which are clearly visible. The BMS interfaces with the
                        school‟s ICT network and there are plans to present this information via a
                        display screen in the reception area of the school.
School E                Carbon savings are budget driven
Secondary
School F                n/c
School G                n/c
School H                Seen by school as the responsibility of the PFI partner and ICT provider
                        (school has only relatively recently opened).

                        The caretaker recently transferred to the employ of the PFI partner –
                        change management underway.

                        The PFI partner commented that possibly a review of its minimum
                        temperature requirements was needed which were not geared to schools.
                        West-facing orientation of building makes temperature controls difficult (but
                        was planned to face a new access road – yet to be built).

                        Energy/carbon is an agenda item on meetings but there is no direct
                        representation from schools at these.
School I                Energy and Sustainability are both relatively new topics in the school and
                        as such have maybe not received prominence. However, they are now
                        pushing for this to be an agenda item at all SLT and Governors Meetings.
School J                n/c
School K                Not covered
School L                The Carbon Trust report has generated some agenda items at the GB
                        meetings, which also cover the school‟s specialism – broader
                        sustainability. As the whole ethos of the school revolves around this,
                        energy matters will always remain a priority for everyone at the school.

                        They have held a Climate change conference at the school and also a
                        Carbon Challenge with BP.
                        It is not a general item on management meetings, but the Carbon Trust
                        report is - and at each meeting there is a specialism report which
                        sometimes includes energy.

                        Energy is carefully monitored but the budget has been exceeded.
                        However, they do have a „switching off‟ culture in the school.
School M                n/c
School N                n/c

Organisations other than the school are involved in energy (e.g. local authority, energy
supplier)
Primary
School A               Ecodriver (a local company), who provided the metering/monitoring system
                       - and EDF, who provided funding, are involved - as are the LA, - but only
                       to a limited degree.
School B               The school receives energy management support from the Newark and
                       Sherwood Energy Agency.

                        Students from the School of the Built Environment at Nottingham
                        University helped with the development of the design of the schools,
                        including visits from >20 undergraduates.
School C                The LA supports the school
School D                The local authority‟s (LA) property agents provide support which the site
                        manager acts upon (e.g. installations of timers on printers, photocopiers,
                        water boilers, etc.). There is a contracted service with a metering company
                        for accessing half hourly consumption data for ~15 meters/sub-meters.
                        The BMS is remotely monitored at Trend‟s HQ in Leeds.
School E                n/c

Secondary
School F                n/c
School G                The contractor provides an on site caretaking service but have access to a
                        specialist engineering team which supports (~5) other schools in the area.
School H                PFI partner and school caretakers. The tariff was negotiated by the LA to
                        allow for bulk buying.
School I                The school has strong links to their LA and have regular discussions
                        regarding energy usage. At present they do not include their energy
                        supplier as they are sourced and appointed on the school‟s behalf by the
                        County Council, however a closer association in the future is not
                        precluded.
School J                n/c
School K                n/c
School L                The school has total responsibility.

                        The Carbon Trust did a report on the school in 2008 and contained a 9
                        point action plan which, if followed, suggested that a 17% saving in energy
                        could be made.
School M                It was thought that the council drove the sustainability agenda in the
                        building design and procurement. However, neither the DFA nor the Head
                        of Facilities Management were working at the school at the time, and were
                        therefore not involved in the design process.
                        The inclusion of the biomass boiler was in response to the GLA 10%
                        renewables policy.
School N                The LA has been involved throughout the project and provide support
                         where necessary (as the LA is committed to low energy/carbon schools).

Use of the schools energy performance or building within the curriculum
Primary
School A               Sustainability is fully embedded throughout the curriculum - and is an
                       integral part of the school ethos as a result of the Head‟s passion for this –
                       and his enthusiasm has taken all the staff and pupils with him. Different
                       sustainability topics that are age specific are set every term.
School B               Students have been involved in producing videos and audio broadcasts as
                       they study literacy – clips included interviews with local people to discuss
                       sustainability/global warming, celebration of earth day at the school, etc.

                         Students were involved in the construction project for the new build and
                         visited the new building at various stages of construction.
School C                 When the pupils first moved into their new school, they all did energy-
                         related projects - mainly around PV cells. However, since then nothing
                         specific has been incorporated into the curriculum as energy saving
                         happens naturally thanks to the design of the building. The Head
                         commented that this is what he thought should happen in the future i.e.
                         energy saving should not be something you have to make a big song and
                         dance about, it should just be an integral part of school life.
School D                 This was not probed during the visit but much of the public information that
                         is available about the school includes details of the extent to which the
                         environment features within the curriculum. Educational advisers and
                         pupils were involved in the design and construction of the school and were
                         involved early enough to help to develop the project brief.
School E                 The school studies sustainability in „term-projects‟. There is an intranet
                         that pupils and families can access. There is a strong culture of recycling
                         that the pupils take home.
Secondary
School F                 n/c
School G                 This was not explored in depth but the contractor referred to the fact that
                         they involve pupils in discussions about energy use.
School H                 They are going for eco-school status, as the Head‟s previous school got
                         the bronze level in three weeks, so it was viewed as a quick win. This will
                         raise pupil awareness of energy issues.

                         There is no display meter, which Head saw as a very good opportunity
                         missed, as he could see the benefits of this as something that could be
                         incorporated into several areas of the curriculum. It was his view is that the
                         building scored 9.5 out of 10 as an opportunity for learning, but was 1 out
                         of 10 as of now. As noted above, the Eco-warrior data logger could be
                         linked to a display.

                         Teachers have been asked to build workings of the ground source heat
                         pumps into the curriculum.

                         One positive initiative is that the community and pupils use a poly-tunnel
                         on the site to produce food for the school.
School I                 School energy use is addressed in several ways within the curriculum -
                         Year 7 are given an entire day on Sustainability, of which Energy is one
                         module, and an assembly is given to each year group entirely on energy
                         use within the school. All year groups are taught in Humanities and
                         Science the principles of energy conservation and sustainability. The
                         energy production from the school PV panels is displayed on a large
           screen behind reception, daily.
School J   The science facilities at the school were refurbished as part of Project
           Faraday. The new facilities provide ingenious ways to help students learn
           about energy use:
           Thermal insulation
           As part of the refurbishment, an existing window was converted into a
           cavity filled wall. The wall was divided into fours sections, each of which
           was filled with different types of thermal insulation. Temperature sensors
           (thermocouples) were fitted to the inner and outer faces of the brick
           courses, and the monitored data provides information on the relative
           effectiveness of each material.
           Renewable Energy
           A solar array generates electricity for the classrooms (~2.5kW under ideal
           conditions) and is used to learn about alternative energy. A permanent
           display provides details of the electrical power, the accumulated output
           and CO2 saved. An output from the unit can be interfaced with a standard
           PC to monitor and log performance.
           Another smaller solar panel and wind turbine are situated on the roof of the
           building. Their outputs are fed into a computer which also monitors the
           wind speed and incident radiation from an on-site weather station. These
           allow students to see how the performance of these renewable energy
           systems varies with environmental conditions.
           Energy monitoring systems
           All electrical devices are monitored using a domestic energy monitor which
           is linked wirelessly to a display panel and computer, allowing the effect of
           any electrical appliance on the total energy consumption can be
           monitored. Similar monitors are wired into key distribution boards around
           the facilities allowing comparison of energy usage.
           The heating is controlled by a building management system (BMS) which
           can be interrogated via a panel situated within the laboratory. Data from
           this panel is also available remotely via a website.
School K   Enthusiasm and commitment from staff to use the building to embed
           sustainability in the curriculum.
School L   As noted above, BMS is used to support students‟ energy projects.
           However the school acknowledged that more information on the display
           meter would also play a useful part (and the school is taking action to
           effect this).
           They need to expand the BMS to the next stage, recognise they could do a
           lot more and would like some help.
School M   The DFA and Head of FM were not aware of any use of the building within
           the curriculum, but it is possible that this does go on. It was noted that this
           is despite the school‟s specialism in Humanities and Global Citizenship. It
           has since been agreed that the science department will start to initiate
           building related learning activities!
           The solar PV is monitored by students and there is involvement from
           science teaching staff.
School N   This was not explored in depth during the visit but the head teacher said
           that meters are interfaced with the BMS, and students have access to this
           data.

           The head teacher described the school as an „honest building‟ which
           allowed students to understand how the building works and observe how it
           is serviced.
Particular problems/barriers and how have they been overcome
Primary
School A               Sustainability is not perceived as being about the here and now – so is not
                       generally given the importance that it needs to have!

                        Whilst acknowledging that IT has a significant impact on energy use, as a
                        result of thorough research the school has bought new laptops that only
                        use 20 kws per day – when previously these used 300 kws!!!!
School B                Funding the project was problematic – and where sponsorship was
                        identified it was qualified with a requirement for it to be match-funded by
                        the LA.

                        There were numerous times when the design team or construction team
                        wanted to explore potential changes to the design particularly in
                        sustainable areas where they had no previous experience. These were
                        defended by the school (particularly the head teacher) and often required
                        school staff researching potential design methods.
School C                The Head worked closely with the Designer as the plans developed – and
                        any problems were sorted en-route. For example, originally the plan was to
                        have fewer but deeper bore holes, but when the required depth proved
                        problematic, they opted for more, shallower ones instead, to achieve the
                        same result.

                        The one problem still to be resolved is getting the planning permission for
                        the wind turbine.
School D                There have been a number of problems associated with commissioning
                        the building and its services:

                              o   the ground source heat pump was not operational at the time of the
                                  visit (Due to installation using a plastic compression type fitting
                                  which leaked. On future schemes welded pipe construction will be
                                  used);
                              o   output from the (20kW) wind turbine appears to peak at ~20-30% of
                                  its rated output and early indications are that the value of the
                                  electricity it saves will barely meet the annual cost of maintenance;
                              o   there have been problems heating the extremities of the building
                                  using the ThermoDeck ventilation system (the mechanical air
                                  supply is currently being operated on 50% recirculation rather than
                                  on 100% fresh air as designed in order to save energy and achieve
                                  a faster heat up). Also, fan speeds have been increased to heat
                                  spaces but the higher volumes of air passing through the air inlet
                                  terminals have raised noise levels;
                              o   the condensing boiler has been set to operate at temperatures of
                                  around 70°C so the school is not currently benefitting from the
                                  efficiencies of condensing).

School E                They did have to do value engineering of £600k which was sad but
                        manageable

                        The caretaker has been trained by the boiler manufacturer/installer to
                        ensure this operates effectively - and has received some on-going help
                        from them to support his learning.
Secondary
School F                n/c
School G   There were initial problems with commissioning the BMS which are
           gradually being overcome.
School H   Orientation of the building is a major problem (west-facing) but was
           apparently a condition of planning permission.

           Temperature control - the school feels it has a lack of control, as this is
           viewed as PFI partner‟s responsibility.

           The building system set to work at 18 degree minimum temperature but is
           considered too low for comfort. There is a major problem in the reception
           area, as cold air is blasted in every time the doors open (and affects the
           rest of the building as well). An air curtain is being discussed as a possible
           solution, but in the meantime there are several large heaters that appear to
           be in constant use in the Reception area.

           There is mechanical ventilation – with no opening windows.

           There is no Co2 monitoring in teaching areas.

           All parties need to accept responsibility for switching things off and
           reduction of energy overall.

           As noted above, the caretakers now work for the PFI partner, so the
           school do not feel they can approach them directly if there is a problem.
           There is no performance pay linked to energy management for caretakers.

           Potable drinking water from the mains is still not sorted – and bottled water
           is relied upon.
School I   The only issues that have really impacted upon energy awareness have
           been the lack of knowledge imparted by the designers of the school‟s
           Energy systems. It took some time to establish where all the meters were
           and the areas they were measuring. A BMS system was installed during
           construction, but its operating system was accessible only to the
           commissioning contractor. The school have since had a remote
           workstation installed to allow access to the controls for heating, ventilation
           and hot water systems. Local control of these systems, tailored to
           changing requirements, has allowed a saving in energy. Initially teachers
           were circumnavigating/hindering the sustainable features such as the
           natural ventilation but they have now learned to make these systems work
           for them.

           It was pointed out that switching off PCs whenever not in use is not always
           practical, due to the time it takes to boot them up again when needed! –
           Faster technology is needed.

           The fact that there is a regular turn-over of both the staff and students
           means that learning is not always passed on to newly arriving occupants –
           so effective staff induction practices that include how the building works
           are considered essential – and students should be encouraged to build up
           a good understanding as well.
School J   n/c
School K   The school felt that poor energy performance could be largely attributed to
           two causes – the failure of technical energy saving kit to operate and the
           lack of understanding from the architects of how the school needed to
           operate.
           The first phase included a ground source heat pump which had never
           worked. It leaked, and was then built over by contractors for phase two
           and then leaked again.

           Little or no technical support provided by council or contractors, and
           maintenance costs were very high (attributed to poorly performing council).

           In terms of poor design the staff highlighted a simple example – the need
           to keep fire doors propped open all day as students need to access the
           building from outside but doors only had releases on the inside (and this
           also destroyed the benefits of having U values of 0.24W/m2k).

           Initial consideration was given as to whether the school could provide
           energy for the Millennium Community (when built) but discussions were
           shelved as it is difficult to integrate planning applications – and as the
           housing development stalled because of the current economic climate.)
School L   This was not a „design & build‟ and there was a tension between the
           architects and builders. It was evident that a lot of things were not
           complete/working when the move in commenced.

           The Vice Principal is acting as mentor for another school with the same
           specialism. She thinks it is brilliant to be involved in a project from scratch
           (as she wasn‟t involved in the design of school L) – as she can help
           ensure that the new school is able to profit from the lessons learned.

           Examples of this are the full integration of sustainability from day 1, as well
           as joined-up thinking and the hopeful avoidance of short term decisions
           being made as a result of value engineering (- e.g. the atrium has too
           much glare on sunny days, as a result of the impact of value engineering
           savings). A qualified premise manager is considered essential as is the
           team approach (including the students). There is the need to re-enforce
           good practice regularly, e.g. turning everything off when not is use – even
           though they do have some automatic switch-off facilities as well.

           There is good community use, especially adult learning in what is a very
           deprived area. It was recognised that extended hours do impact on energy
           consumption – but that there has to be a balance between this and the
           benefits derived by the community as a whole. The school also has climate
           change conferences for the wider community.

           Bench-marks for schools/academies are a work in progress – and there is
           an active forum which covers energy.

           PV – they would not have spent as much on the PV system as they
           believe it could have been better spent on other carbon reduction
           initiatives.

           Recycling points – these have been introduced since the Head‟s arrival,
           and good practice being demonstrated by the Environmental Action Team.

           Boiler – this was thought not to be adequate for the job, as certain areas
           are too cold - and they think that the high top-filled, water-filled radiators in
           the atrium area are not operating efficiently.
School M   The biomass boiler has not yet been used due to late commissioning of
           the fuel store. Full gas backup is provided and school remarked on the
                        cost of maintenance for both systems. Biomass provides space heat and
                        hot water for the „halls building‟ (which has highest hot water load with
                        sports changing rooms). Due to the phasing of the construction (and late
                        implementation of the GLA 10% renewables requirement), the biomass
                        only serves one of three buildings.
                        Concern over the need for weekly woodchip deliveries, and fluctuating
                        prices. There is a new proposal to use a LA bulk woodchip procurement
                        and storage service
                        Lighting controls commissioned in 2009 are considered to be a huge cost
                        for little benefit. [However, as these are generally considered to be cost
                        effective, it is possible that this is a result of inefficient commissioning?].
                        Earth tubes have been commissioned but are not used due to the fan
                        noise being unacceptable to the local community.
                        The PVs are considered to be very expensive („and they don‟t even run the
                        display TV‟). The PVs laminated in glass (cost £25k) have been broken
                        and have zero electricity output but are unlikely to be mended due to lack
                        of funding. However, these were installed for curriculum enhancement, not
                        as a result of a robust business case.
School N                The project had been carefully considered and there was a lot of upfront
                        planning.

                        In order to demonstrate that the PFI provider was meeting its requirements
                        some systems and the methods of monitoring are complex. They are
                        capable of providing valuable information but additional training has been
                        required relative to conventional school buildings.

                        The section through the teaching wing is symmetrical which means that
                        one of the upper floor clerestory windows is south-facing; when asked it
                        was admitted that the sun-shading had been taken out in a cost-cutting
                        exercise.

                        The school being on the edge of the town with farmland on two sides,
                        currently growing oil-seed rape, one side benefit of the mechanical
                        ventilation is that the teachers who normally suffer from hay-fever are able
                        to breathe normally in summer, for the first time ever.

What schools would do differently if they could start again
Primary
School A            As a result of securing funding early, the technology was installed after
                    which behaviour change was addressed. The Head though it would be
                    better if the school had started with the behaviour change – and then
                    supported this by installing the necessary kit.
School B            Installation of micro-generation. Although the school has a major biomass
                    installation there is no on-site generation of electricity.
School C            Nothing came to mind
School D            Nothing would be done differently, although the project was intended to
                    test a range of technologies, including some highly innovative approaches.
                    The intention is not to replicate the project in its entirety (the building is
                    complex for a small primary school, having numerous potential sources of
                    heat (heat pump, solar thermal and conventional boilers), heating systems
                    (ventilation via TermoDeck, under-floor, and conventional radiators) and
                    complex control strategies.
School E            If starting again they would explore the passivhaus methodology.
            Lessons for others are: to engage with the pupils, their parents and staff -
            and then commit the time to work cliosely with the architect all along.
Secondary
School F    Not covered
School G    The lighting controls are independent of the BMS and are not fully
            automatic. In some areas switching is manual, in others occupancy
            controls switch lighting on but do not take account of daylight. External
            lights are controlled by photocells but are not timed. There are potential
            advantages to be gained through integrating these with the BMS.
            The site has numerous sub-meters (>50) which have pulsed outputs – and
            many have not been calibrated or commissioned properly. Smart meters
            with real time information would have been preferred.
            The school would have chosen to have biomass deliveries by blower (as
            containers are replaced upon delivery which inevitably results in unused
            fuel being returned to the supplier).
            The operational team did not feel they provided input to the design.
            However, any issues that arise are fed back to the contractor‟s
            construction team to inform design decisions for future projects.
School H    The Head would like a display meter, as it is seen as a potentially valuable
            resource. He acknowledged the effectiveness of the LA when it came to
            consultation and community/student involvement – but pointed out that he
            took up post after the school plans had been agreed.

            Rainwater harvesting (it was proposed but taken out at design stage).

            Better design of entrances and a different building orientation. More zonal
            control and meters – a common metering strategy (but the PFI partner
            installed some metering anyway). More robust strategy to manage value
            engineering out of items like metering.

            Make ground source heat pumps visible to students.

            Take advantage of heat generated from ICT and server room in particular.

            PFI partner will now not undertake a contract where ICT is not under its
            direct control. This should be integrated with the building.

            Use of standard energy model – the current one is unwieldy, e.g. the
            school is supplying breakfast which is not currently included.
School I    The school has been well designed and well equipped, but in the energy
            manager‟s opinion it has been engineered in such a way as to make local
            control and management challenging. This is partly due to the choice of
            current methods of heating and cooling, for instance - the passive
            ventilation system, whilst effective in use, was not accessible by on site
            staff and was so costly and time consuming to alter to suit local
            requirements. The under-floor heating, whilst economic in its use, is also
            prone to failure through pipe rupture and lack of local control.

            A large part of the college‟s frustration with the systems has been the lack
            of knowledge and understanding of those systems – and a comprehensive
            induction programme and operating manuals would have greatly assisted.
School J    n/a
School K    More opportunity for the school to put their experiences of operating the
                         phase 1 building into the brief for subsequent phases.

                         Acceptance of requests for simple energy saving devices, for example a
                         master on-off switch in the ICT room. This was refused as it was seen as
                         additional to BREEAM requirements and therefore unnecessary. The
                         school is installing these at their own expense.

                         The phased approach to contracting tended to look as each building
                         individually rather than the school site as a whole – therefore instead of
                         linking the ground source heat pumps from phase 1 to subsequent phases,
                         new technical kit such as solar panels and wind turbines were installed.
School L                 The view of the VP is that they just need to build on what they‟ve got –
                         taking the learning forward.

                         “Increase the visibility of the building as a learning tool – this is what we
                         need to impress on future generations.” Further development of “the 3Rs,
                         Community and Climate Change”.

                         They would have ensured that aspects linked to solar glare and
                         automation of the mechanical venting system were not valued-engineered
                         out. The atrium does provide a wow factor but needs to be managed for
                         glare and over-heating (requiring manual opening by caretaker), as well as
                         leakage from time to time. However, the heating still needs sorting, as the
                         boilers are not adequate.

                         The Head, as a very new arrival, wants to ensure that the specialism is
                         fully integrated throughout the curriculum – to help build the sustainability
                         and community ethos further - and to involve everyone in the school in
                         this. For example, the catering staff to have a role in working with students
                         doing hospitality courses – and the finance team also to get involved in
                         related projects.

                         They would push the relationship with the local community, impact of
                         healthy eating and whole issue of community carbon footprint further.
School M                 n/c
School N                 Greater use of draught lobbies to prevent heat loss through external doors.

                         The headteacher considered that one particular teaching area could have
                         been improved, and that the teacher consulted for that particular space
                         had not fully considered the options/possibilities.

                         The automatic controls for the ventilation units were stand-alone and there
                         were potential advantages to be gained through integration with the BMS

Any striking or innovative features
Primary
School A                The fact that this school has been so successful in reducing energy as a
                        result of refurbishment, retrofit measures and good behaviours is very
                        impressive – heating by over 20% and electricity by 78% (-the total cost of
                        measures was £150k, but……this is a small primary, which generally
                        operates only in normal school hours - so doesn‟t have the same
                        challenge as some other schools).
School B                     good examples of day-lighting and natural ventilation
                             biomass boilers is a cabin with illustrative diagram showing the
                     biomass fuel cycle, and a visible fuel store/silo;

School C    Well designed with a focus on ease of movement between indoor and
            outdoor working and playing, so children are not just stuck in the
            classroom all day. The school was lucky enough to have its own vegetable
            patch which the children seemed to really enjoy cultivating… and eating!
            The school kitchen made every attempt to include local produce on the
            menu, including what was actually grown at the school. In addition to that,
            there was even a kitchen designed specially for the children with work
            surfaces at different levels to cater for the different ages.
School D         The use of an inter-seasonal heat store to capture solar radiation
                   (via playground surfaces) during summer, for use as a heat source
                   (for ground source heating) during winter.
                 The school layout is spacious and largely conventional (rectangular
                   classrooms and wide streets) but with creative use of day light via
                   central light wells and light-wells deep within classrooms.
                 Access to PVs and solar thermal panels is via first floor roof
                     area/garden.

School E    n/c

Secondary
School F    Highly insulated (green) roof which reaches the ground on two elevations,
            eliminating the need for facades.

            Detailed for thermal bridges, air tightness, high standards of thermal
            insulation.

            Creative use of internal glazing to utilise daylight, allow observation and
            create an open atmosphere within the school.

            The fair-faced load bearing concrete finishes were durable and effective in
            stabilising internal temperatures, but there were differences of opinion on
            the internal finishes ranging from „aesthetically pleasing‟ to „oppressive‟.
            Some areas were gloomy due to the dark wood staining and lack of
            artificial daylight in some recesses and the ground floor corridor spaces –
            some of the surfaces were also showing signs of marking e.g. sticky tape.

            Absence of ICT – other than a single suite (connected to server room
            without mechanical cooling), there was typically a single PC per classroom
            and a pull-down whiteboard with, shared across the whole school, one
            projector.
School G     Exposed thermal mass combined with natural ventilation – air
                movement was noticeable in some areas
                 Exceptional summertime performance
                 Rainwater recycling providing >80% of WC flushing
                 Simplified construction – no screeds
School H    The atrium is an impressive area, there are very few corridors, the home
            bases and integral toilets are well designed and work well – and the
            acoustics are excellent. Natural light and ventilation are considered very
            good.

            The building use is very flexible as a teaching and learning environment
           which in itself breaks down a lot of barriers.

           Overall the design is good and incorporates most of the features promoted
           by BSF – impressive and user-friendly atrium; comfortable, versatile home
           bases with safe bully-proof loos; light and bright; good acoustics; extended
           service provision (although this is not fully embedded yet); and one of it‟s
           unique features is an internal garden with internal terraces in this offering
           additional break-out space.

           As noted above, temperature control is an ongoing issue.
School I   The school has been designed with large circulation spaces and glazed
           areas, whilst making the building very attractive to the user it also presents
           issues with heating and ventilation. To overcome these issues a passive
           ventilation system has been installed which allows windows to open
           automatically once a set point temperature is reached. Likewise the BMS
           switches the heating on once the temperature falls below a set point. The
           school has also been equipped with PV panels on the roof which generate
           electricity which is then fed back into the school electrical system.
School J   n/a
School K   The school was designed to meet high sustainability criteria and included
           the requirement for the school to meet BREEAM excellent.

           They suggested that simple design features – such as the right doors in
           the right places, master on/off power switches and areas with separate
           heating controls for extended hours would have a more significant impact
           on energy use than the more technical features.
School L   The solar atrium has the „wow‟ factor.

           The underground sports hall is an excellent use of space and there is good
           natural light throughout.

           The energy display is also considered a very useful tool but could do more.

           50% of water used is gained by effective rain-water harvesting.

           The external space is really well-designed and the building exterior
           impressive. There are turf roofs, and a really attractive and useable roof
           terrace. There are also very good gardens and growing areas behind
           earlier years‟ classrooms.
School M   The school has many innovative low carbon features, but there is
           insufficient data available to indicate how successfully it is reducing carbon
           in operation. The renewable energy solution was not integrated within the
           design, but added late in the process in response to the GLA policy and
           eventual budget release from DCSF, so is therefore likely to have been a
           more expensive solution than a fully integrated renewable solution.
           Due to the urban location, the school has no parking spaces for students
           or staff, and relies on a strong travel plan. Many staff and students cycle.
           There are green and brown roofs on many of the buildings.
School N         Simple & straightforward features: exposed thermal mass – soffits
                  and high density blockwork - with clearly visible and well co-
                  ordinated services;
                 There is a core block for non-school letting with hall/gym, dining
                 There is creative staggered profile to allow first floor classrooms to
                  provide solar shading for classrooms below
                               Absence of renewable energy systems or low carbon heating (e.g.
                                biomass)


Suggestions for particular actions for DCSF/ZCTF
Primary
School A               There needs to be a debate around the relative importance of achieving
                       results verses sustainability - sustainability must become a way of life
                       rather than just another initiative!! To emphasise its importance there
                       should be another key measure on par with core learning targets.
                       However, encouragement should be given by posing suitable questions
                       and reflecting on best practice, rather than by diktat.

                        Sustainability can be a good way of involving disaffected pupils (which
                        might be of special relevance to less eco-friendly secondary schools?). As
                        long as pupils fully understand why reducing energy consumption is
                        important they are likely to engage and get involved.

                        Heads must be warmed up and fully engaged in the sustainability agenda
                        – and fined/penalised in some way if they aren‟t!
School B                It was suggesed that training is required for school leaders so that they
                        understand the basic principles of sustainability/low carbon design.
School C                Effective insulation is the primary driver to improving energy efficiency.

                        Based on discussion, there appear to be two key issues that need to be
                        addressed nationally if real progress is to be made to reduce/negate
                        carbon footprints in the future:

                           Planning Permission – if there is a genuine desire to move the
                            sustainability agenda to the next level, then brave (and potentially
                            unpopular!) decisions will have to made in the future around the
                            planning permission process. Individual views might not be able to be
                            given the same weight in the future – as otherwise nimbyism will
                            always affect the ability to install equipment that could genuinely make
                            a difference! It‟s pointless Central Government having a clear view on
                            the way forward if this is not supported at Local Government level!
                           Finance - as many sustainable measures only show a return over the
                            long term, it‟s crucial that the existing annual budgetary system (with a
                            limited ability to role into the next year) is reviewed, as this currently
                            only supports short-termism! – e.g. at the moment schools cannot go
                            into deficit, which is likely to preclude the funding of long-term
                            schemes. If longer term loans could be provided - to the school itself
                            rather than an individual - then more could possibly be done in schools
                            that are not going receive significant investment from BSF and PCP?
School D                n/c
School E                More money! The ABCD (-New Deal for Communities) funding really
                        made a difference - e.g. to make the school carbon neutral would cost
                        £300k for pvs – the roofs are there but not the money.
Secondary
School F                The architect applauded the ambition of a zero carbon school but
                        commented that the approach to zero was different to that for Passivhaus,
                        although they are not mutually exclusive.
School G                No comment
School H                There is a role for DCSF/ZCTF to ensure best practice is shared effectively
                        as there is no feedback on what works and what does not.
           Work to bring about cultural and behavioural change.

           The definition of low/zero carbon should be clarified as soon as possible.

           Reliability of renewable technology is an issue.

           Drawbacks of the carbon calculator in respect of ICT and catering.

           For bidders, DCSF should develop a common metering strategy, and
           energy model, energy and Co2 consumption should be considered (base
           and variable), improved benchmark/target information, robust design as
           part of the bid which cannot be valued engineered out by LAs, the
           procurement system should be overhauled. Perhaps an incentive for
           bidders to reduce overall carbon footprint of school should be offered.

           Ventilation and AC strategy need to be looked at.

           Carbon intensity of fuel sources need to be standardised.

           Gas, and not not electric, is most effective in kitchens.

           There should be more feedback from school users.

           There should be a standard PoE.

           Temperature minimum and maximums needed revision to avoid
           unnecessary heating and cooling.
School I   The school‟s experience had taught them that to effectively control energy
           usage there must be local management of the systems –and this needs to
           be combined with suitable training and guidance.

           A strong and continuing degree of co-operation with the LA and the
           Construction Company and the Design Team is essential to the
           satisfactory management of the building.

           Innovation should be encouraged more by DCSF and ZCTF. Many LAs
           are very cautious, being very aware of the need to spend public funding
           effectively. However, there are times, especially in areas such as
           sustainability, when an element of risk is necessary – and things that have
           not been fully tried and tested will need to be used – as that‟s the way
           innovations are tried and tested in the first place.

           LAs should be encouraged to relax planning permission where possible –
           to ensure that wind turbines can be installed more easily when viable. The
           school had funding - and a suitable turbine had been identified which could
           have been installed in the ideal location – but planning permission was
           subsequently turned down. Rejection should always be for sound reasons
           – and not as a result of nimbyism.

           POEs are a really useful tool – and should be used for all buildings as a
           matter of course (- although the LA do monitor progress regularly they are
           looking to formalise this process in the future).
School J   n/a
School K   One suggestion from the school to improve the process would be for the
           brief to set carbon reduction/energy use targets and for the contractor to
                         be accountable if these were not met. This would include a thorough
                         evaluation of the installation and maintenance costs, and the predicted
                         benefits in terms of energy use.

                         The school was critical of BREEAM and architects‟ use of this, and felt it
                         led to ticking boxes rather than an overall consideration of how energy
                         would be used in the building.
School L                 It is important to disseminate the lessons learned effectively, to try to
                         ensure that everyone gets things right first time as it can be difficult and
                         costly to back-track later, especially for technical matters.

                         Value engineering should be discussed with potential users before being
                         implemented.

                         There is an active forum of the first 12 academies constructed. The
                         construction costs and energy in use could be assessed and
                         benchmarked.

                         Also it was suggested that it would be an interesting exercise to assess the
                         difference in approach and performance of the existing academies with
                         business sector sponsors and those with charitable/religious sponsors.
School M                 n/c
School N                 n/c

The potential of measures taken by school visited for wider roll-out/replication to other
schools
Primary
School A               The measures taken by the school are encapsulated in a little booklet
                       called Carbon Countdown which has been produced by the Head – with
                       actions categorised as follows: 1. create the team, 2. monitor and
                       measure, 3. en-light-en the practice, 4. shut down and upgrade, and 5.
                       report and celebrate. It is hoped that all or some of this can be included in
                       the meter information pack.
School B               n/c
School C               n/c
School D               n/c
School E               n/c
Secondary
School F               n/c
School G               n/c
School H               n/c
School I               As already mentioned the school were part of the pilot programme initiated
                       by their LA in conjunction with The Carbon Trust and NIFES. Its objective
                       was to reduce energy expenditure and also CO2 production. As such they
                       have learnt a lot about how their building and its inhabitants use energy
                       and where they can look for savings. It would make sense for other
                       schools to make use of this experience and „expertise‟.
School J               n/c
School K               n/c
School L               n/c
School M               n/c
School N               n/c

The potential to be a regional exemplar now, and
Primary
School A    Yes- in all the ways mentioned above
School B    This project was a good example of user consultations (~20 meetings held
            prior to initial concept designs being drawn up) stakeholder engagement
            and client involvement in the project.
School C    Not covered
School D    The building is particularly exemplary in respect of its heating/ventilation:
            highly insulated, heat recovery from ventilation systems, renewable heat
            sources, etc. (although its main feature – the inter-seasonal heat store – is
            not yet performing as intended).

            It is also exemplary in other respects – flexibility & adaptability (raft
            foundation, steel frame), rainwater collection, sustainable drainage and
            green roofs, waste management, the use of grounds, etc. and the school
            has been awarded the EcoSchools „Green Flag‟.
School E    This was one of the first schools to achieve BREEAM Outstanding rating –
            this certificate and the A rated EPC are a source of pride.
Secondary
School F    The building was exemplary in aspects of it‟sdesign and in its function as a
            school.
School G    Good use of thermal mass, successful operation of a highly insulated
            structure, and a clear energy strategy having been determined
            Successful operation of biomass boilers
            The project is a good example of doing simple things well rather than
            layering complexity into a design
School H    This has the potential to be a regional exemplar but only after additional
            investment which might not be significant if carefully thought out &targeted.
School I    n/c
School J    n/c
School K    n/c
School L    n/c
School M    The building is recognised as a successful example of school design in a
            series of awards (see below). It features many environmental measures
            which are expected to contribute towards low carbon operation – these are
            themselves of interest. The school overall should not be used as an
            exemplar until there is evidence to suggest that it is operating at low
            carbon. This should be tackled through a proper POE programme and
            thorough investigation of where the energy is going.
School N    This is a good example of user consultations, stakeholder engagement
            and early involvement of suppliers.

            Contractually the project has been successful: prior to developing the brief
            a number of studies were commissioned to look at numerous
            energy/carbon issues; all parties agree that the use of PFI had ensured
            that whole life costs were considered as the project developed; there was
            early supply chain involvement (ICT, M& E, etc.); and there is a healthy
            ongoing partnering relationship.

            The building itself is particularly exemplary in the way it has addressed the
            fundamentals of simple good design – orientation, use of thermal mass,
            highly insulated structure, and a clear energy strategy having been
            determined
Whether, with additional investment, the school has the potential to be a regional zero
carbon exemplar school.
Primary
School A               The school is considering the possibility of installing a hybrid boiler to
                       provide an integrated heating system. Their long term aim is to become a
                       zero carbon school – so additional funding should help them get there –
                       possibly the only refurbished school we are aware of with the possibility of
                       achieving this?

                         The Head thinks there are three points to achieve zero carbon with any
                         trading or off-setting.
                              Firstly we must be striving to use as little energy as possible and
                                 making sure that what we do use is as energy efficient as possible.
                              Secondly we need to be generating on-site clean energy so that
                                 over the year we are generating as much as, if not more than, we
                                 are consuming. That is still a very big challenge!
                              Thirdly we need to be measuring our energy data (on-going) and
                                 sharing our performance with the wider school community. This
                                 will ensure we keep the work high profile. It will also ensure we are
                                 consistently looking for ways to refine and improve good practice.
School B                 n/c
School C                 n/c
School D                 n/c
School E                 To make the school carbon neutral would cost £300k of PVs – the roofs
                         are there but not the money!
Secondary
School F                 n/c
School G                 n/c
School H                 n/c
School I                 The school would still like to pursue alternative energy production on the
                         Campus - at present they have PV panels which produce around 12,500
                         KWh. The plans to install solar panels for hot water production have not
                         materialised and they would be keen to see this happen.

                         In addition they would like to investigate the possibility of GSHP and
                         whether there is any mileage in either reducing the size or relocating the
                         wind turbine, or even if there are any manufacturers of ducted turbines.
School J                 n/c
School K                 n/c
School L                 n/c
School M                 n/c
School N                 n/c

				
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Description: Task Force visits to case study schools