Docstoc

dealing with hampshires waste

Document Sample
dealing with hampshires waste Powered By Docstoc
					Dealing with Hampshire’s waste
The way forward
Contents

Foreword
Summary

Consultation
Background Briefing
The Task
The Options
Financial Impact

An Integrated Waste Management Strategy
Making the Strategy Work

Action Plan

Appendices

References
Development of Recycling in Hampshire
Environmental Impact
Glossary

Foreword

Every day of our life we produce waste. We fill our dustbins and are happy that our local
council empties it each week from our doorstep. Britain has been collecting waste like this for
years. Hardly anyone gives much thought to where it goes.

That waste is taken somewhere for disposal, either to large holes in the ground (landfill sites)
or to incinerators for burning. Now the holes are filling up and the present incinerators are
becoming obsolete. In Hampshire our problem is particularly acute. For some time now we
have been developing a strategy to tackle the issue head on.

Every year 635,000 tonnes of waste produced by the public of Hampshire requires disposal.
With rising population and continued growth of waste to meet the needs of a consumer
society we could see this mountain of waste rise to over 700,000 tonnes by the end of the
century.

This report gives the facts as we know them. Our strategy for dealing with our waste problem
puts a great deal of emphasis on avoidance, reuse, and especially recycling. However, we
are still left with a considerable amount that cannot be dealt with by these means.

We need to deal with this by either finding many more landfill sites or by using waste
treatment processes that are the best environmentally available. Landfill sites are difficult to
find and there are not many waste processing options. Even the best available may cause
some local concern.

What we are seeking, however, is to involve everyone in the debate to find the solution. We
all need to be involved if the strategy is to work. We produce it, so it's our problem.

During September and early October 1993, both the County Council and the 13 District
Councils will consider formally the issues in this report. Through the autumn and winter, there
will be the opportunity for a wide range of organisations to make their views known; parish
councils, environmental groups and the public at large.

What must emerge is a coherent and agreed approach for moving the mountain. To succeed
it must be an approach which recommends widespread public support.

That support will rest on understanding the size and scope of the problem and on the
limitations of any individual initiative in providing a solution. Only a strategy which integrates a
series of waste disposal methods is likely to have the capacity to deal with Hampshire's waste
problem.

We don't have much time. Current disposal arrangements will run out very soon. New ones
must be commissioned and any gap between the two filled with workable temporary
measures.

We believe that with the elected bodies of County and District Councils working together as
they are we can put in place collection, recycling and processing systems so that Hampshire
mill have the best integrated system in the country.

This report sets out the process of consultation which we believe will involve everyone who
has an interest in the debate. It also provides some information on the amounts of waste we
expect to he dealing with and the processes available to us. There is a section on how much
this will cost. Finally there is a separate appendix on the local environmental issues that may
emerge.

Hampshire has the chance to put in place the first truly integrated waste management system
in the UK and put the county on a par with the best in Europe. It is therefore a great
opportunity for us all.

Summary

    o   Currently Hampshire County Council must dispose of 635,000 tonnes of household
        and commercial waste every year.
    o   Allowing for the growth of the county's population but taking into account the impact
        of recycling initiatives, it is expected that the County Council will still have to dispose
        of a minimum of 460,000 tonnes of non-recyclable waste by the year 2000.
    o   Hampshire's current disposal facilities are coming to the end of their life. By the end
        of 1996, the county's incinerators must cease operation; existing landfill sites are
        rapidly filling up and cannot be replaced.
    o   Hampshire's County and District Councils agree that what's needed is an integrated
        system of waste disposal which should include waste minimisation, re-use, recycling,
        resource recovery and disposal. The integrated system must bring together new
        collection methods, storage facilities, materials processing facilities and resource
        recovery processes.
    o   The integrated solution which emerges must command wide public consent which will
        come from a major process of public consultation about the options for waste
        disposal available to Hampshire's 14 local authorities.

Consultation

"Consultation has to be done early before the decision is made".

"People must be made aware of the problems if they are to be consulted".

These are two very valid points of view that have recently been made about consultation
processes. It is important that there is something real to consult on and that people's views
will be taken on board before any final decision is made. This consultation process will be full
and frank.
The views of the public and interested groups will be made known prior to any decision.

However, there is a need for the consultation to be focused so that views can be developed in
time to allow a replacement system to be put in place before all the existing means of
disposing of waste are exhausted. Ideally, this would mean a consensus emerging by the
spring of 1994.

Proposed Approach

Hampshire's District Councils and the County Council have developed the concept of three
regional areas which are the most natural to consider the waste which is produced in these
areas. The regions are based on the District Council boundaries:

    o   Hart, Basingstoke and Deane, Rushmoor;
    o   Test Valley, Eastleigh, Southampton, New Forest, Winchester; and
    o   East Hampshire, Havant, Portsmouth, Gosport, Fareham.

Members and officers have been using these groupings already to debate issues associated
with integrating collection systems with recycling facilities. Their work is presented in this
report.

It is proposed that three regional advisory panels be set up to communicate information to the
public and to include local communities in evolving the way forward based broadly on these
three areas but sufficiently flexible to ensure the public relate to the area in which they have
most interest. They will act as a sounding board for components of the plan as it is developed,
and ideas, questions and matters of concern will be fully debated.

These panels would advise the community's elected representatives. They would comprise a
wide cross section of the local community, including such groups as parish councils,
environmental groups, business groups, local social organisations, health representatives etc.
Each group would be chaired by an independent person and they would have access to
information and advice provided by both County and District Council members and officers,
and others.

There will also be:

    o   Local information sessions designed to give local residents an open forum with the
        chance to cross/question technical experts on the options and their local impact.
    o   Community discussion programmes, providing an in-depth opportunity to discuss the
        options and offer feedback on detailed aspects of their implementation.
    o   A regular newsletter. Available by mail to all those who wish to receive it, the
        newsletter will provide updates and briefing on the progress of the debate on the
        options for disposing of Hampshire's waste.
    o   Other communications. These will include regular media briefings, advertising, local
        press and use of the County and District Councils' own communications channels.

The above programme is a real commitment to public consultation. It needs to be undertaken
within a timetable to ensure that the outcomes mesh with the timetable to put new systems in
place.

Ideally, regional panels will be set up by the end of September and they might meet
onanionthlybasistiritilFebriiaryl994. In March all the groups would come together to give their
findings to enable the County Council to consider them in April 1994.

During this period regular newsletters and media briefings will also take place.
Communication methods will vary according to local needs and we will listen to the views of
the panels on the subject.
The panels and the public generally will be asked for comments on such questions as:

    o   will you be prepared to separate your waste in your home into various elements to
        help recycling?
    o   should we aim to deal with Hampshire's waste within the county, rather. than
        exporting it to other areas?
    o   are you willing to pay more to achieve higher levels of recycling and more
        environmentally friendly methods of waste disposal?

Background Briefing

This section focuses on the problem posed by disposing of Hampshire's household and
commercial waste collected by the county's 13 District Councils. It highlights the County
Council's objective of 'disposing' of unavoidable waste in a safe, reliable, environmentally
sensitive and cost-effective manner, whilst maximising its use as a resource.

Alongside initiatives to promote waste minimisation, re-use and recycling,the County Council
aims to promote the use of environmentally acceptable waste reduction systems, particularly
resource recovery processes to reduce landfill demands.

There is widespread support for the five key elements in the County Council's waste
management framework.

They are:

    o   Waste minimisation
    o   Re-use of materials
    o   Materials recycling
    o   Resource recovery
    o   Landfill of unavoidable waste

Since the County Waste Management Plan was adopted in 1989 other factors which will have
an influence on the implementation of the strategy have emerged. These are:

    o   Environmental Protection Act, 1990. The County Council can no longer operate
        waste disposal facilities itself. It must enter into contract arrangements with the
        private sector following a tendering procedure.
    o   The White Paper 'This Common Inheritance', the Government's environmental
        charter, gives clear support for the development of recycling and resource recovery.
        The Government has set a national target of recycling 25% of household waste by
        the turn of the century.
    o   Waste Collection Authority Recycling Plans. Under the Environmental Protection
        Act, District Councils are required to produce a recycling plan with their proposals for
        achieving higher levels of recycling.
    o   Private Sector Interest in Recycling. The private sector is showing positive signs of
        responding to the challenge of recycling and working in partnerships with local
        authorities to find solutions.
    o   County Minerals and Waste Local Plan. The consultation draft published in
        September 1992 refines policies in the Waste Management Plan and proposes
        specific sites for waste management. A revised plan will be placed on deposit in
        autumn 1993. It will become a key document in determining planning applications for
        future long term disposal facilities.
    o   Previous Experience. The County Council discovered after an initial attempt to
        implement the resource recovery element of the strategy with an energy from waste
        plant in Portsmouth, that people disliked the proposal because of the proposed
        volume of waste to be handled, and a commonly expressed view that the proposal
        did not demonstrate a commitment to recycling.
    o   County Waste Management Plan Review. Under the Environmental Protection Act,
        the County Council is required to produce a review of the Waste Management Plan.
        The County PIanning Officer - responsible for waste regulation since 1992 - has
        already started work on the review. The new plan will update the figures and the need
        for new waste management facilities.
    o   Review of Local Government. Although the Review itself will not affect the
        development of an integrated approach, the formation of groupings of councils to
        consider waste functions has helped create a forum for debate and development of
        an integrated approach.

There has also been a great deal of further information collection, particularly on the
environmental implications of long term disposal options. A closer working relationship has
developed between all Hampshire local authorities involved in waste -management. This has
included a joint visit to France and Germany by Portsmouth and Southampton City Councils
and the County Council to investigate integrated systems. These proposals are based on the
combination of new knowledge and experience gained since 1989. Above all, there is a
recognition that dealing with waste disposal in isolation is not a realistic option.

The Task

Our task relates to the disposal of waste collected from households by the refuse collection
service together with bulky and garden wastes (amenity waste) delivered to the 27 household
waste recycling centres. It also includes waste collected from commercial properties by the
refuse collection service. The constituents of these wastes are mainly paper, plastics, metals,
glass and food and vegetable matter but there are small amounts of more hazardous
materials such as household chemicals, paints and batteries.

The amount of waste produced each year in Hampshire varies according to:

    o   changes in the nature of what we buy e.g. packaging
    o   changes in how much we buy and use, which is subject to varying economic climates
        population growth
    o   increase in the number of households
    o   recycling achievement.

A forecast to the year 2001 could mean that a staggering 700,000 tonnes of waste will need
disposal with recycling at the current level. This is made up as follows:

Table 1 (tonnes per annum)

                   Household          Amenity             Commercial         TOTAL
Current waste      465,000            145,000             60,000             670,000
(1991/2)
Less Currently     20,000             15,000              -                  35,000
recycled (6%)
Currently          445,000            130,000             60,000             635,000
requiring disposal
Add:               15,000             5,000               -                  20,000
Growth in
households
Growth in waste    50,000             15,000              -20,000*           45,000
stream at 1%
Potential          510,000            150,000             40,000             700,000
Requiring
disposal
Reflecting projected reductions in commercial waste collected by District Councils.

It is therefore important that as much as possible is done to reduce this amount. Broad
forecasts of what might be the best and worst cases have been made based upon two levels
of achievement due to programmes of waste minimisation, reuse, recycling and composting.

For example, if District Councils succeed in attaining a 15% recycling level and progress is
made with composting, then 615,000 tonnes per annum will still require further treatment and
disposal.

The best case example is based on reduction levels of 40% for both household and amenity
waste and would require treatment and disposal of 460,000 tonnes per annum.

Achievement of these levels would put Hampshire alongside the very best in Europe and
require a major commitment from all those involved. The levels are dependent upon a number
of factors:

    o   Major changes in collection practices
    o   Major changes in waste processing and disposal practices
    o   Public commitment and participation
    o   District and County Council policy and funding decisions
    o   Sustainable markets for recovered materials.

Clearly, a major reduction in tonnage represents a long-term aspiration which may or may not
be achieved. It would certainly take several years to implement. However, it is the intention of
Hampshire's 13 District Councils to achieve at least a 25% level of recycling.

Table 2 (tonnes per annum)

                                  Reduction due to                Maximum Quantity requiring
                                  minimisation, reuse, recycling, disposal
                                  composting
Worst Case
Household                         60,000                            1,450,000
Amenity                           25,000                            125,000
Commercial                        -                                 40,000
TOTAL                             85,000                            615,000
Best Case
Household                         190,000                           320,000
Amenity                           50,000                            100,000
Commercial                        -                                 40,000
TOTAL                             240,000                           460,000

But the County Council must make plans to ensure that it can comply with its legal duty to
arrange for the disposal of all collected and amenity waste. That means provision of an
effective range of facilities. It is therefore vital that the county has the capacity to cater for a
range of potential volumes of waste around the forecast figures, based on an integrated plan.

The Options

The five key elements of the County Council's framework are now discussed in turn.
Successful implementation of this framework is based on the premise that, in addition to the
District and County Councils working together, the active participation of the public is also
required.

The framework is also guided by two key assumptions:

    o    that waste should be seen as a resource, and either collected for recycling as an
         acceptable substitute for virgin raw materials or processed in some way so as to
         harness its energy for the production of electricity or steam; and
    o    that for environmental reasons, we should aim to reduce our reliance on landfill for
         household and commercial waste.

Waste Minimisation

There is a view, frequently voiced by many people, that there is too much waste and the key
culprit is a lot of unnecessary packaging around goods. Some people try very hard to avoid
using unnecessary packaging but others require the convenience and like the appearance
and presentation of products.

Industry argues that packaging waste accounts for, at most, 25% of our waste and that it is
needed for reasons of hygiene, security, convenience and marketing. There are also industry
- sponsored organisations whose role is to consider ways of avoiding unnecessary packaging.
Industry tends to take a wider view, balancing the need to maximise care and efficiency in
transporting, handling and storing products, together with the need to produce quality
products with a long shelf life.

There is a growing consensus amongst consumers and industry that waste minimisation is a
worthwhile and achievable aim. It is difficult to predict what impact there will be on the waste
stream. People's behaviour will need to change before it is significant, and this will take time.

Local authorities' role here is to encourage and educate. Programmes of education and
publicity help and material has been produced for use in schools. Waste is an issue that has
emerged from the days when it was 'out of sight, out of mind'. It is now an important
environmental issue, and by educating today's children, tomorrow's adults will make a
significant contribution to waste minimisation.

Re-use

A complementary way of avoiding waste is to re-use materials. Some years ago re-use was
more prevalent and today there are but a few isolated, yet important examples such as the
milk bottle. The rise in disposable products for convenience and cost reasons has changed
behaviour. However, charity shops, recycling centres, and car boot sales are showing how
much value some waste items have, and more and more is being re-used in this way.

While local authorities have no legal role in this area, encouragement, education and
leadership by example are the means by which action can he demonstrated.

Recycling

Collection of paper, glass, metals and textiles has been going on for many years by the use of
conveniently placed 'banks'. In Hampshire, there are also 27 multi-purpose recycling centres
where a wider range of materials is collected, as well as dealing with householders' amenity
waste.

At present Hampshire's recycling achievement is nearly twice the national average.

Table 3 Total tonnages collected (1991/92) are:
       County Council Recycling Centres                    22,000 tonnes
       District Council systems                            12,000 tonnes
       Metal Recovery: Chineham Incinerator                900 tonnes
       TOTAL                                               34,900 tonnes

This total is nearly 6% of the waste produced in Hampshire against a national average of3%.
The Government has set a target to increase recycling levels to 25% by the end of the
century.

On a large scale, recycling becomes a different task to the one currently undertaken. It is
estimated by the District Councils that at the very best with existing means of collecting
materials a recycling level of no higher than 15% could be achieved.

To achieve a higher level requires a fundamental change in the way waste is collected, and
needs the participation of the public. Experimental systems in the UK and Europe have shown
that it is possible to collect more materials if householders separate waste in the home. About
80% of those involved in these experiments take part and collection levels of 20% - 30% are
achieved.

Currently these systems are expensive, as they need a new collection system to be
introduced often with different types of collection bins, new vehicles and more staff. Also more
places are needed as temporary stores for large amounts of separated material; and if mixed
materials are collected they will have to be sorted at a materials recovery facility.

However, Hampshire's local authorities have agreed a countrywide recycling framework, and
District Councils has produced formal recycling plans as now required by law. The task ahead
is to develop a strategy for implementing recycling which will link collection systems with
storage and processing facilities. This strategy will show how the County and District Councils
can develop a sustainable flow of high quality segregated materials in order to ensure that
markets can he maximised for a long term and that a stable price per tonne is obtained for the
materials.

The County Council will continue to provide multipurpose sites as collection points for those
materials not generally catered for in local 'bank' systems, e.g. cardboard, oil, car batteries,
bric-a-brac etc. The garden waste which is delivered to these sites is potentially useful for 'low
tech' composting into soil conditioners and mulches.

Composting of kitchen waste and other organic material is possible and some pilot schemes
exist. To do this on a large scale, however, needs the development of a major processing
facility such as an anaerobic digestion plant. (See further discussion in the next section on
resource recovery).

Resource Recovery

Resource recovery is the utilisation of materials and/or energy from the waste stream.

Even after recycling as much as realistically possible, there is a projected minimum of
460,000 tonnes of material requiring disposal, or more if a lesser recycling performance is
achieved. The task of arranging for its disposal via contractors is the responsibility of the
County Council.

At present there is no resource recovery benefit derived from waste disposal in the county,
apart from ferrous metal recovery at the Chineham Incinerator. Yet it is now technically
possible for the waste stream to benefit the community by way, of fuel producing heat and/or
power. The Government is keen to see such projects implemented.
The County Council's policy is to derive the maximum resource recovery benefit from this
waste stream. Resource products can be achieved by means of the following processes (all
of which are outlined in this document):


Basic Low Technology Processes

Dry Recyclables                               materials recovery facility

Green Waste                                   aerobic composting

Landfill                                      gas collection

High Technology Processes

Energy Production                             energy from waste via mass burn plants

                                              refuse - derived fuel plants

                                              gasification

                                              anaerobic digestion


Landfill Gas Extraction

All landfill sites accepting biodegradable wastes produce methane gas. In some sites, this gas
is controlled by either flaring or venting, but in larger sites the accumulation of gas can be
piped into a gas recovery area and used for the production of energy, either heat or electricity.
There are no sites within Hampshire which are large enough to make the utilisation of landfill
gas viable. Use of the system would mean shipping waste from Hampshire in large quantities
to other parts of the country.

Gasification

Gasification is an emerging heat-generating process and may be an improvement upon
existing incineration methods in the longer term. There are currently no plants viable to deal
with household waste. The County Council has recently embarked on a joint application with
a local company for a European Community THERMIE grant to assist in funding an
experimental gasification scheme. lt is hoped that the project will be able to go ahead in the
near future and will contribute to the next generation of waste disposal solutions.

Anaerobic Digestion

This process converts the organic part of household waste, producing a 'biogas' for use as
fuel, a liquid which can be used as a fertiliser and compost suitable for use as a soil
conditioner. The process deals only with biodegradable matter: plastic, glass, metal and all
other non-organic materials have to be separated from the organic matter before treatment.

Of the waste stream 30% could be dealt with via this process and up to 50% if all the paper
and card could be included. But there are not many anaerobic digestion plants operating for
household waste and the technology is proven only for relatively modest tonnages.

Energy from Waste via Combustion

There are two basic techniques for recovering energy from household waste in conjunction
with combustion. The mass-burn process involves waste being incinerated, with the heat
released used to raise steam. This is then fed to district heating or used to power a turbine for
electricity generation. Ferrous metals can be recovered for recycling from the residue.
Residues require only about 20% of the landfill space taken up by untreated waste. In some
European countries, the furnace ash is also used as a construction material, bait this may not
he possible in the UK due to environmental regulations.

The other system is the two stage 'refuse-derived fuel' process. Incoming waste is shredded
and screened to remove the incombustible part, including metal for recycling. The products
are a fuel fraction, which can be burned in industrial boilers and a reject fraction which must
he landfilled, but which demands just 40% of the space required by untreated waste.

There is understandable public concern about the health and environmental aspects of
incineration. Yet there is now sufficient scientific and environmental evidence to show that
modern incineration processes are safe and pose no environmental danger.

Landfill

Unlike some of its European partners, the UK relies on landfill for about 90% of its waste
disposal needs. Most other European countries employ a more diverse range of disposal
solutions. 1,and fill in the UK bas historically been seen as a cheap waste disposal option.
This situation is changing as the result of a range of pressures:

European and UK legislation and local planning policies are set to affect landfill in two ways.
First, the locations for landfill sites will be restricted for pollution control and planning policy
reasons. Second, where sites are allowed, higher environmental standards will add
significantly to costs. This could close the cost gap between landfill and other disposal
options. A further increase in landfill charges is being considered by the Government by
means of some form of landfill tax or levy.

In the longer term the European Community may seek to relegate landfill to the disposal
method of last resort, possibly with restrictions on landfilling biodegradable waste. The policy
already exists in the Netherlands and both Germany and France are moving in that direction.
This is already the County Council's policy and this strategy presumes against the landfill of
raw household waste.

Hampshire has few landfill sites available. The aim of the County Council's waste
management policies is therefore to minimise the need for landfill, as far as reasonable and
practicable. There will continue to be a significant demand for landfill for the disposal of
privately collected commercial and industrial wastes (for the disposal of which the County
Council is not directly responsible), and for that household waste which cannot be dealt with
in any other way.

Use of 'out-of-county' landfill is not seen as an environmentally satisfactory solution in the
long term, since it does not meet the County Council's wishes for sustainability. The County
Council's policy is to husband the available capacity for the disposal of wastes for which there
is no other disposal route. When the County Council tested the financial implications of an
out-of-county solution in 1991, an annual premium of £1.9 million was required to finance a
local energy from waste solution instead of an out-of-county landfill solution. The County
Council decided it was prepared to pay this price on environmental grounds and because of
the benefits which would flow from resource recovery.

Making a choice

Of course, the County Council can only use the systems which reputable companies are
prepared to provide and operate. It has invited private sector companies to put forward broad
proposals on how they could deal with Hampshire's long-term waste disposal, and there has
been significant interest in offering solutions.
The Environmental Protection Act prohibits the County Council from discriminating in favour
of one type of waste disposal contractor. But in choosing from companies submitting tenders,
environmental, public health and recycling standards can be taken into account as well as
cost. It is hoped that this consultation process will help the County Council to develop an
integrated waste management policy incorporating resource recovery working with the private
sector.

There are important pressures on the County Council to ensure that the long-term
infrastructure is quickly put in place. Landfill space is rapidly declining. By the end of
November 1996, existing incinerators existing incinerators will no longer be authorised by Her
Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution to operate, as they will not meet new emission standards
which will then apply.

Financial Impact

Hampshire is unique in the UK It has five incinerator sites and currently uses incineration for
40% of collected household and commercial waste. Declining availability of landfill and the
need to cease operating existing incinerators by the end of 1996 means that new systems are
vital. Although the policy presumption is against landfill, it is useful to look at financial
projections of comparative costs.

The average market price of household waste landfall at private sector sites in Hampshire is
£17 per tonne. It is projected that landfill costs will increase by the year 200O as a result of
the implementation of new higher standards and UK laws which will demand greater
regulation, monitoring and after care.

The current average cost for incineration is £30 per tonne, including historic capital
investment. The new generation of energy from waste incinerators would charge in the range
of £40 - £50 per tonne although, with the award of a Non-Fossil Fuel Order, costs might be
reduced by about £10-£15 per tonne.

However, the continued availability of the Non-Fossil Fuel Order for household waste
depends on Government policy and it would be better to consider it as a bonus rather than a
necessity.

In comparison with landfall, energy from waste projects, once established, have the capability
for dealing with the disposal problems for a longer period than landfall. The possibility of a
landfill levy and legislative measures to restrict the use of landfill may well give energy from
waste a price advantage in the next ten years.

Inevitably then, whatever strategy we adopt, future waste disposal costs for Hampshire will
increase significantly. Nevertheless, a resource recovery solution should have the advantage
of greater price stability for 20-25years. The overall cost for Hampshire in establishing major
new long-term facilities could rise from an annual expenditure of £10.2 million to £30 million
per annum. The cost for the districts in implementing a recycling strategy could range from a
marginal change up to an extra £2 million per annurn.

An integrated waste management strategy

Hampshire's local authorities believe that the range of waste management options outlined
here should be harnessed to provide an overall solution. Since each element is
interdependent, only their implementation as a co-ordinated whole will see effective use of
minimisation, re-use, recycling, resource recovery and disposal.

This means major changes to collection methods. It also means a network of sites for
handling and temporary storage of materials prior to reprocessing. These facilities are called
Materials Recovery Facilities. Hampshire would need between one and three of these.
A Materials Recovery Facility could be incorporated in a total resource recovery site where
anaerobic digestion, energy production via incineration or the processing of refuse- derived
fuel also takes place. An example is that proposed for a new town of Cergy- Pontoise north of
Paris, where a new site is being developed to house three facilities for:

    o   production of compost
    o   sorting of materials for reprocessing
    o   production of heat and power via incineration of that element of the waste stream
        which remains.

This concept could work well for Hampshire if suitable sites of sufficient size are available. If
not, some processing might have to take place on different sites. The implementation of all
elements of this integrated approach depends on costs and will take time.

Introducing source-separated collection systems requires planning and public education and
rests on a continued flow of materials from the District Councils so that markets for the sorted
materials can be secured. Finally, the development of any major resource recovery facility
takes several years before it can commence operation. If district heating is involved, this also
requires a market and the development of an infrastructure of pipes for the transfer of steam.

Making the strategy work

The public has demonstrated concerns over a range of issues including:

    o   The link with recycling
    o   Emissions and residues and their environmental impact
    o   Incineration as a process
    o   Overall throughput (waste from other communities was perceived as
        being’dumped’on the host community).

The size of processing facility is clearly an important factor. There needs to be a balance
between the concept of community facilities and the need for economies of scale. The likely
acceptable range of plant capacity for a resource recovery process is probably in the range of
100,000 - 200,000 tonnes per annum. At the lower end of this range schemes may be
unaffordable without a system designed to provide district beating as well as electricity
generation.

Clearly each resource recovery project will still involve a plant of significant scale, particularly
as there will be a need to provide extensive environmental protection equipment. If planning
were to he undertaken on the minimum projected disposal quantity of 460,000 tonnes per
annum and the limited use of local landfill to provide flexibility in accommodating recycling
developments, then between three to five plants will be required to deal with the remaining,
waste. This is based on a presumption that the plant would be in the 100 - 200,000 tonnes
per annurn range.

Full environmental statements will of course be required as part of the planning approval
processes for major new facilities. An appendix gives a broad outline of the environmental
issues. In addition, it is particularly important that any project is developed with a high
standard of architectural design (even though this may add to the costs).

Action Plan

Hampshire must solve its waste problem. Specification is needed and needed now. A seven-
point plan is suggested that:

    o   Hampshire's local authorities develop a programme for the minimisation, reuse, and
        recycling of waste to achieve a minimum of 25% reduction in waste requiring
        disposal.
    o   Specific proposals for the long term be developed by District and County Councils in
        consultation with local people and local interest groups.
    o   Hampshire local authorities determine the plan for the provision of adequate waste
        processing facilities, taking into account local views.
    o   Hampshire local authorities determine the most efficient methods for collection of
        waste based on the process agreed.
    o   Composting and anaerobic digestion be developed to further reduce waste requiring
        final disposal, subject to technical investigations and affordability.
    o   3 - 5 resource recovery facilities be developed.
    o   Final disposal of ultimate waste is achieved by utilising landfill

Appendix A

References

Hampshire Waste Management Plan 1988 - 2001

(a) Background and Report of Survey
(b) Policies and Proposals

Hampshire Minerals and Waste Local Plan Consultation Draft Septernber 1992

Hampshire Waste minimisation and Recycling Strategy June 1992

Submitted Hampshire County Structure Plan 1991

Planning and Transportation Committee report item No.4, 7th July 1992 Environmental
Protection Act 1990

Government White Paper: This Common Inheritance 1992

Waste Management Paper No.28 - Recycling

Study Visits

November 1990
Europe - Paris, Luxembourg, Essen, Dusseldorf, Herten

January 1991
USA - Bangor, Boston, Panama City, Miami

January 1991
Denmark - Copenhagen

March 1991
Germany - Essen and Dusseldorf

October 1991
Germany - Essen and Dusseldorf

November 1991
USA - York County
Edmonton Energy from Waste Plant and Composting Pilot

September 1992
Adur District Council
October 1992
Denmark and Sweden

November 1992
Europe - Limoges, Paris, Amiens, Munich

February 1993
South East London Combined Heat and Power (SELCHP) project

March 1993
Denmark - Elsinore

Appendix B

Framework for the development of recycling in Hampshire

"The policies and plans of individual authorities for the development of waste minimisation
and recycling should be developed having regard to local conditions and the following overall
framework:

    1. Schemes should be affordable, having identified all financial costs and having regard
        to social and environmental benefits.
    2. Schemes should be implemented and run in the most cost effective way.
    3. Schemes should be sustainable.
    4. Schemes should, where applicable, take account of the policies and plans of other
        authorities involved in recycling and waste minimisation.
    5. Schemes should have regard to, and where appropriate develop co-operation with
        other authorities in Hampshire and elsewhere.
    6. Industry and other bodies should be involved where appropriate in order to maximise
        opportunities for recycling and the securing of long-term markets.
    7. Schemes should aim to maximise recovery pates and public participation.
    8. Targets for recycling and minimisation should be established and reviewed.
    9. Provision should be made for monitoring progress/ achievement of waste recycling
        and minimisation targets.
    10. There should be a commitment to improving data and information relating to
        recycling.
    11. Schemes should be backed by a commitment to educate and influence the public and
        industry.
    12. Provision should be made for publicising and promoting recycling schemes as
        appropriate'.

Appendix C

Environmental Impact

The environmental impact of the various options must be considered to ensure the over all
effects do not nullify any of the benefits hoped to be achieved. Our waste contains a wide
range of materials some of which can contain hazardous substances.The handling and
processing of our waste has to take these into account.

It is very difficult to measure the impact of each option. Clearly, the savings in raw materials,
landfill and energy consumption or production are the most easily identifiable indicators of
how "green" the option is. However, more localised environmental issues must be considered
when specific proposals are presented to a local community. Issues such as traffic, noise or
visual impact are as important as the wider issues.

In some cases, proposals for waste handling facilities, including those used for processing
recyclables, will he subject to an Environmental Assessment in conjunction with the planning
application. Although the legislation refers to such facilities handling 75,000 tonnes of waste
or more a year, an Environmental Assessment may well he required for smaller facilities if
they are likely to have significant effects on the environment by virtue of their size or location.

Here we highlight the potential areas of concern and risk to the environment involved with
each option.

Avoidance and Reuse

Obviously this has the greatest effect in avoiding environmental impact. However,
encouraging the reuse of household items as a socially acceptable option will certainly lead to
an increase in market outlets this in turn will produce an increase in car boot sales, sales at
recycling centres and the like. Such activities have obvious impact on tile areas concerned,
for instance traffic.

Recycling

Most recycling schemes are considered a worthwhile community investment. There is a
general perception that recycling is environmentally friendly and has no adverse
environmental impact. The manufacturing of products via a recycling system generally
requires less energy and saves raw resources, but this is not always the case. Often the final
'manufacturing' process is not carried out in Hampshire and is not a local issue. Unless
efficient transport systems are used, the energy spent on moving materials may offset the
environmental gain from the recycling process. So too may the need for transfer stations and
bulk storage areas. Land use ,traffic movements and pollution from lorries must all be taken
into account. People should not travel miles to recycle smaller quantities. Where recycling is
pursued it must be sound in both financial and environmental terms.

Aerobic Composting

Probably the easiest and the most acceptable of all methods because of its 'natural' concept.
Composting 'yard' or amenity wastes generally present fewer problems than composting
kitchen wastes, partly because litter, smell and fly problems are minimised and partly because
machinery is needed on site to remove potential contaminants from kitchen waste.

Smells can be controlled by the use of 'controlled environment buildings' using bio-filters. This
gives rise to further concerns about visual impact. However, most aerobic schemes involve
only the 'garden' element of household waste and are operated on flat open sites away from
housing. The only buildings normally required are barns used for storage of final products.
There is potential for contamination of ground or surface waters from the 'liquors' produced in
the composting process. These liquids would be 'contained' and would be checked for
contamination by heavy metals or pesticides. Sites used for such composting schemes would
have impermeable surfacing and closed drainage systems.

Anaerobic Digestion

Unlike aerobic composting, anaerobic digestion systems require large reaction vessels to
contain the waste as it is processed. This gives an industrial appearance to an otherwise
natural system and needs to be carefully sited to avoid visual intrusion.

Depending on scale, plant facilities are subject to a similar range of local environmental
issues applicable to other industrial processes:- noise, smell, visual intrusion, traffic. Both the
processing and the collection service must be carefully considered. Proper precautions must
be taken to control atmospheric pollution from the burning of biogas.

Resource Recovery (Energy from Waste)
    o   Concern falls into four main areas:
    o   Plant residues and emissions
    o   The size of plants
    o   Traffic generation
    o   Visual impact

Atmospheric emissions are a very emotive subject and attitudes have been moulded by

past experience resulting from ill equipped and poorly operated plants. Modern systems and
strict new EC legislation control emissions to ultra-low levels. This is amply demonstrated in
Europe where emissions and residue disposal are controlled, well within the legal standards

Although small in volume, fly ash represents a major environmental impact since it contains
concentrations of heavy metals. This waste would be disposed of at landfill sites operated
under very strictly controlled conditions.

The environmental benefit of energy recovery for local district heating schemes is one of the
reasons these systems are built very close to housing (in Europe). This demands careful
consideration of the management of traffic flows, the elimination of smells and the
minimisation of operating noise.

However, a significant environmental benefit is that incineration avoids the land filling of raw
household waste in large volumes and the consequent production of methane gases.
Methane is a 'greenhouse' gas and is more harmful than the carbon dioxide produced by
incineration.

Although landfill is now considered to be the waste management option or last resort, it is
nevertheless the only disposal -method available for some wastes. Potential environmental
impacts arising from landfill therefore have to be minimised - they cannot be avoided. Apart
from greenhouse gas ‘emissions’, modern landfill sites are engineered to be contained and
the major issues are therefore localised.

Landfill sites have historically been considered 'temporary' facilities generally used to restore
former mineral workings or reclaim coastal areas. The potential for problems to emerge
following completion has led to recognition of the need for long periods of aftercare lasting
decades, so the concept of a 'temporary' facility has been replaced by one of a permanent
storage site.

The major issues of concern are the potential to pollute water and generate landfill gas. This
can migrate and endanger nearby properties. Such problems can minimised by careful site
selection and engineering containment measures. However, preventative monitoring is very
difficult after infilling has been completed and the very vigorous evaluation of potential sites is
vital to avoid these problems.

Appendix D

Glossary

Aerobic Composting
The natural braking down of organic waste into compost.

Anaerobic Digestion
A resource recovery process which digests kitchen waste and other organic waste into
compost and a biogas.

Atmospheric Emissions
In this context, emissions into the atmosphere produced by the processing of waste in landfill,
or by resource recovery systems. Emissions are subject to EC and national guide lines set to
ensure the minimum pollution to the environment. Control of emissions from large scale waste
combustion processes is by Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution.

'Biogas'
Term used for the gas produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of
oxygen that can be used as a fuel.

’Bring' Systems of Recycling
The provision of banks or collection points for the public to deliver their recyclable material.

Calorific Value
The heat produced by a given weight of fuel on completion of combustion. These values are
expressed in terms of British thermal units per pound (Btu/1b) or kilojoules per kilogramme
(Kj/kg)

1 Btu/lb = 2.33KJ/kg

The calorific value of household waste is about one-third that of coal.

Commercial Waste
Means waste from premises used wholly or mainly for the purposes of a trade or business or
for sport, recreation or entertainment (Section 75 (7) of the EPA).

District Heating
The use of the waste hot water used in energy production to heat hospitals, schools, homes
etc. by pumping through a pipe network system.

Energy from Waste (EFW)
The harnessing of energy in the form of electricity or heat released from waste combustion.

Refuse Devised Fuel (RDF)
This is the term applied to fuel pellets or 'floc' produced from waste (household or
commercial) by shredding and separating out the non-combustible element. Pelletisingis
sometimes used to produce fuel pellets that can be used as a fuel in suitable industrial
boilers.

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
Refers to the assessment of the environmental impacts likely to arise from a major action (i.e.
legislation, a policy, a programme or project) significantly affecting the environment.

Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)
The 1988 EEC Directive requires an EIS as part of the development control procedure.
(A statement of results from the EIA). It must include:

    o   a description of the project
    o   a description of the environment affected;assessment of the important effects of the
        project on the environment
    o   justification of the project from alternative view
    o   a non-technical summary

Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1990
The law to make provision for the improved control of pollution arising from certain industrial
and other processes., to re-enact the provisions of the Control of Pollution Act 1974 relating to
waste on land with modifications regarding the functions of the regulatory and other
authorities concerned in the collection and disposal of waste and to make further provision in
relation to such waste.
Ferrous Metals
Metals containing iron that are magnetically removed from the waste stream for recycling.

Fly Ash
The product residue resulting from the cleaning of gases from an incineration process.

Gasification
Waste treatment process where waste is heated to produce a combustible gas that can be
burned in excess air to generate heat.

Greenhouse Gas
Gases, e.g. methane, carbon dioxide, CFC’s emitted from a variety of sources and processes,
said to contribute to global warming by trapping heat between the earth and the atmosphere.
Methane produced at landfill sites is a major contributor.

Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution
The Government agency responsible for regulating prescribed industrial processes, including
waste combustion plants, to prevent pollution of land, water and air.

Household Waste
Means waste from domestic property, caravan, residential home, educational establishment
or premises forming part of a hospital or nursing home (Section 75 (5) of the EPA).

Household Waste Recycling Centre (HWRC)
A site provided in accordance with Section 51 (i) (b) of the Environmental Protection Act to
which the public may deliver household waste. A range of materials (e.g. metals, paper,
glass, engine oil) is recycled at these sites.

Industrial Waste
Means waste from any factory or premise used for the provision of public transport, public
utility or postal services (Section 74(6) of the EPA).

Integrated Waste Management
A strategy for the management of waste utilising a range of environmentally sound systems
and processes. Typically it would include the promotion of waste minimisation, materials
recycling, resource recovery and landfall.

Landfill Gas (Methane)
A by-product from the digestion by anacrobic bacteria of decaying matter in waste deposited
in landfill sites. The gas is predominantly methane (65%) together with carbon dioxide (35%)
and trace concentrations of a range of vapours and gases.

Landfill Tax
Proposed tax or levy to be incurred for all waste to be landfilled in an attempt to make it a
more expensive option and thus make alternative options more attractive.

'Liquor'
Concentrated liquid, maybe toxic, produced as a result of the decomposition of organic waste.
If contaminated, e.g. from a landfill site, it is referred to as leachate.

Materials Recovery Facility (MRF)
Site where mixed, recyclable waste is, either mechanically or manually, separated, baled and
stored prior to reprocessing. Systems exist in the US for the separation of recyclable
materials from the mixed waste stream bi-it these are not fully utilised in the UK
Minerals and Waste Local Plan
Strategy Document produced by County Planning Authority to set out detailed policies and
guidance on minerals and waste development.

The main issues that are addressed in the Hampshire Plan are:

    o   How much aggregate will need to be supplied in Hampshire, how much mineral
        extraction should take place, and how much land will be needed?
    o   How much waste will need to be disposed of in Hampshire, by what means, and how
        many waste disposal sites will be needed?
    o   What other development will be needed for the supply of minerals and management
        of waste?
    o   Where should the new sites for mineral working, waste disposal and other
        development be located?
    o   How can the County Council ensure that essential minerals and waste development
        is carried out in the least environmentally damaging way?
    o   How can the County Council ensure that minerals and waste sites are restored and
        returned to a satisfactory and beneficial condition?

National Recycling Target
Government-set target to local authorities to recycle 25% of all household waste by the
year.2000. This is equivalent to half of the recyclable waste.

NFFO / Non-Fossil Fuel Order
A commitment to produce energy from Non-fossil fuel sources as required by the Electricity
Act 1989.

Planning Application
Request for permission to develop an area of land to the local planning authority.

Recycling
The collection and separation of materials from waste and subsequent processing to produce
marketable products.

These marketable products can be in the form of:

    o   materials such as paper and board;
    o   finished products partly or totally consisting of recycled materials;
    o   fuel - solid, liquid or gaseous;
    o   energy - heat or electricity; and;
    o   cornpost.

(Waste Management Paper No. 28)

Residue
The restiltant volurne that is to be disposed of from incineration. It consists of ash and clinker.
(see Fly Ash)

Resource Recovery
The recovery of materials, fuel or energy from waste.

Soil Conditioner
Term used to describe the solid product of aerobic/anaerobic digestion that can be added to
soil to enhance its fertility.

Structure Plan
A written statement, approved by the Secretary of State for the Environment, of the County
Planning Authority's general policies and main proposal for change over a period of up to 15
years.

THERMIE Grant
Grant provided by the EC that has been established for the promotion, implementationand
dissemination of innovative energy saying technologies.

Waste Collection Authority (WCA)
Outside Greater London, the council of a district charged with the responsibility for the
collection of household waste.

Responsibilities of the Waste Collection Authorities

The Environmental Protection Act confers the following duties and powers on District Councils
as Waste Collection Authorities:

    o   A duty to arrange for the collection of household waste and, if requested from
        commercial and industrial premises.

    o   A duty to deliver for disposal all waste collected by the authority, other than waste for
        which arrangements for recycling have been made to places directed by the waste
        disposal authority.

    o   A duty to inform the waste disposal authority of any new arrangements it proposes to
        make for recycling.

    o   Powers to provide plant and equipment for the sorting and baling of waste retained by
        the authority for recycling.

    o   Powers to require household waste to be placed in receptacles of a specified type
        and number, including for the separation of waste which is to be recycled and that
        which is not.

    o   A duty to carry out investigations and prepare a recycling plan in respect of
        household and commercial waste arising in its area.

    o   Powers to make payments based on net savings in collection costs (collection
        credits) to third parties who collect waste, which would not otherwise be collected by
        the authority, for recycling.

    o   Powers to buy or otherwise acquire waste with a view to recycling it and to use, sell
        or otherwise dispose of waste (or anything produced from it) belonging to the
        authority.

Waste Disposal Authority ('WDA) the council of a non-metropolitan county in England
responsible for the disposal of controlled waste collected in its area by the WCAs and for the
provision of areas for residents the deposit their household waste and its disposal.

Responsibilities of the Waste Disposal Authority
The Environmental Protection Act 1990 confers the following duties and powers on the
County Council as Waste Disposal Authority:

    o   A duty to arrange for the disposal of controlled waste collected in its area by the
        Waste Collection Authorities.

    o   A duty to arrange for places to be provided at which persons resident in its area may
        deposit their household waste and for the disposal of waste so deposited.
    o   Powers to make arrangements with waste disposal contractors for them to recycle or
        provide heat and/or electricity from waste for which the authority has disposal
        responsibilities.

    o   Powers to object to a Waste Collection Authority having household or commercial
        waste recycling where arrangements have already been made with a waste disposal
        contractor to recycle the waste.

    o   A duty to make payments based on net savings in disposal costs (disposal credits) to
        Waste Collection Authorities who recycle waste rather than deliver it to the Waste
        Disposal Authority for disposal.

    o   Powers to make payments based on net savings in disposal costs (disposal credits)
        to third parties who collect waste for recycling where the waste would otherwise be
        delivered to the Waste Collection Authority for disposal.

    o   Powers to buy or otherwise acquire waste with a view to its being recycled and to
        use, sell or otherwise dispose of waste or anything produced from it for which the
        authority has disposal responsibilities.

    o   Powers to own plant and equipment and make this available to waste disposal
        contractors for the purpose of enabling them to keep or treat waste prior to its
        removal for disposal, or facilitate its transportation.

    o   Powers to hold land and make this available to waste disposal contractors for the
        purpose of enabling them to treat, keep or dispose of waste.

Waste Disposal Plan
Statutory document produced by County Councils to set down the kinds and quantities of
waste arisings and the arrangements which should be made for its disposal. The Waste
Disposal Plan is called the Waste Management Plan in Hampshire.

Waste Minimisation
The process of reducing the quantity of waste arising (also known as waste reduction). The
definition includes waste avoidance, reuse, recycling and recovery.

Waste Regulation Authority means the council of a non-metropolitan county in England.

Responsibilities of the Waste Regulation Authority
The EPA confers the following duties and powers on the County Council as Waste Regulation
Authority (WRA):

    o   A duty to issue Waste Management Licences;
    o   Inspection of all Waste Management facilities;
    o   The production and updating of a Waste Disposal Plan and an annual report,
    o   A duty to register all carriers of waste under the Control of Pollution (Amendment) Act
        1989;
    o   A duty to inspect and monitor all closed landfill sites;
    o   The production and maintenance of Public Registers of all licensed facilities;
    o   Control over the movement and disposal of hazardous waste; and Participation in
        regional arrangements for waste management.

Waste

(a) any substance which constitutes a scrap material or an effluent or other unwanted surplus
substance arising from the application of any process; and
(b) any substance or article which requires to be disposed of as being broken, worn out,
contaminated or otherwise spoiled.

White Paper 'This Common Inheritance'
Government Environmental Charter outlining all aspects of environmental concern from the
street corner to the stratosphere, from human health to endangered species.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:55
posted:2/24/2010
language:English
pages:22