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					Mass Notification
Systems in the
Terminal
Environment
                                   Rajeev K. Arora, P.E.
                                  Executive Vice President

                                   Manik K. Arora, P.E.
                                   President and CEO




March 8th, 2007
30th Annual Airports Conference
Hershey, Pa                             Gary Pollack
                                   Product Manager – Mass
                                     Notification Systems
Goals

To discuss Mass
Notification Systems

To understand the
role of Mass
Notification in
Aviation facilities.
Look at the use of consolidated systems
to meet this need.
Presentation Overview

•What is Mass Notification?

• Current Landscape at Aviation Facilities

• Mass Notification in the Airport Environment

• Present & Future Technologies

• Challenges Involved

• Questions
What is Mass
Notification?
 What is a Mass Notification System?

A management tool that provides detailed
instructions and information to occupants and
responders.

•The objective of mass notification
is to manage people's actions
during and after an incident or
event.
•Use of the system is not limited to
emergencies
•Messages may be localized or
multiple messages transmitted to
different areas simultaneously
What is a Mass Notification System?


•An MNS may be installed in a single building or
facility, throughout a campus or a large geographic
area.
•Notification combines the use of tones, intelligible
voice communications, visible signaling, and textual
and graphical information
   • The instructions may be pre-recorded or live
   • Messages may also be sent to two-way radios,
     pagers, mobile and fixed telephones, PDAs, etc.
 Mass Notification vs. Public Address

•Mass Notification System installations are similar to Fire Alarm
systems. They:
    • Must use equipment listed by a nationally recognized testing
      laboratory (NRTL).
    • Are installed and inspected following recognized building
      codes.
    • Are required to monitor the integrity of all components and
      their interconnection
•Most PA system installations:
   • Do not require equipment listed by a nationally recognized
     testing laboratory.
   • Are not required to comply with building codes
   • Do not supervise system integrity.
When needed in an emergency the system must work!
Where did the MNS Concept Begin?
Mass Alerting has been around for a long time.
•Air raid sirens from WWII and the cold war
•Sirens for Tornado, Hurricanes, and tsunamis.
The modern concept of mass notification began with the DoD.
•The Kobar Tower Report issued on 7-31-97 concluded:
    • No effective alarm systems,
    • No mass notification capabilities
    • And that damage and loss of life could have been
      minimized
•UFC 4-010-0, DOD Minimum Antiterrorism Standards for
Buildings
     • issued7/31/2002
     • UFC 4-010-01 is analogous to the building code
     • Requires antiterrorism features in buildings
• UFC 4-021-01, Design and O&M: Mass Notification Systems
    • issued 12/18/2002, multiple revisions since
    • UFC 4-021-01 analogous to NFPA standards
    • Criteria for MNS design. Installation, & maintenance
NFPA Gets Involved
        •At the request of DoD NFPA forms a Mass Notification Task
        Group as part of the NFPA 72 update.
            • Mass Notification is included in NFPA 72-2007
                • A new Annex is added. Scope closely follows UFC
                  4-021-01
                • References to Fire Alarm in the body of the text
                  modified top allow for Mass Notification where
                  appropriate
                • Other changes made to allow for MNS.
                • Mass Notification allowed a higher priority then fire
                  alarm
        •The NFPA Standards Council adds a standing Technical
        Committee for Mass Notification Systems
        •These new standards will change the way safety,
        security, and building systems are integrated to
        save lives.
  MNS Moves from Military to Civilian
•As the NFPA process moved along many people saw that
MNS systems were not just for military force protection
•First people looked at using these systems to minimize the loss
of life from terrorist activities against government and civilian
targets
•Next they were considered for weather and geologic events
•This was followed by thoughts of using the same systems for
industrial accidents.
•On June 26, 2006, Executive order issued by George Bush
   • Titled “PUBLIC ALERT AND WARNING SYSTEM”
    • “It is the policy of the United States to have an effective,
      reliable, integrated, flexible, and comprehensive system to
      alert and warn the American people in situations of war,
      terrorist attack, natural disaster, or other hazards to public
      safety and well-being (public alert and warning system),
      taking appropriate account of the functions, capabilities, and
      needs of the private sector and of all levels of government in
      our Federal system, and to ensure that under all conditions the
      President can communicate with the American people. “
  Why Not Use The Fire Alarm System?
•Different Objectives
   • Fire Alarm
       • Evacuate or Stand by to Evacuate
           • People are conditioned to leave the way
             they arrived
   • Mass Notification
       • Evacuate or Stay Put or Relocate to a Safer place
           • Correct response will vary with each incident.
   • What happens when a security or terrorist event includes the
     activation of the fire alarm system?
       • Evacuation may not be the appropriate response. Often
         the fire alarm is used to make people easier targets.
       • Information and instructions need to direct and reassure
         all of the facilities occupants.
Current Landscape
Current Landscape

 Issues affecting Emergency Notification,
       Management, and Response

                         •Lack of Integrated
                         Emergency Management
                         Systems
                         •Increasing traffic at Airports
                         •Lack of Latest Technologies
                         •Human Response in
                         Emergencies
                         •Changes in Priorities Post
                         911
                         •Operations Emergency
                         Response Plan
    Current Landscape

           Lack of Integrated Emergency Management Systems
                                (Typical)

 FIRE ALARM             TACS        INFO DISPLAY         ROAD SIGNAGE       GROUND CONTROL
• Initiation via   • Activation     •Receives             • Message         • Communications
Heat, Smoke,       via Automatic    information           Display through   through phone
Manual Pull,       pre-             from Airline          local             lines and/or Radio,
Waterflow,         programmed       host, FAA ATC         programming or    manual messaging
Monitor            messaging or     System,               through network
                                    Subscription
Module Input       Manual                                 communication
                                    Services
                   Override                               via PC
                                    (FlightView)
• Notification
via Speakers,      • Notification   • Displays Airline
Strobes, Horns,    via Speakers     Departures and
Bells                               Arrivals
                   • Systems        Information
• Control          either           and
through            complex wide     Advertising,
Addressable        or specific to   Visual Paging,
Control            terminal         etc.
Modules
 Current Landscape

          Lacking Latest Technologies
• MNS centered around Fire
Alarm System because of
stringent code requirements

• Speaker technology lacking
due to stringent UL Standards

• New trends in Terminal
design leading to need for
greater technology to
increase voice intelligibility
(i.e. Reverberation/Echo)
Current Landscape

    Human Response in Emergencies

“…the response in an
Assembly building could
be expected to be slow,
and in some instances,
occupants may
completely ignore the
signal”
Current Landscape

   Human Response in Emergencies


“…it is not so much the
type of building that
makes a difference but
the occupants perception
of their role in the
building”
 Current Landscape

       Human Response in Emergencies

“…In an assembly building
such as an AIRPORT, the
activation of the fire alarm
without any additional cue
may not trigger any particular
response from occupants
visiting these premises”

“ Visitors act as visitors; they wait to be told and directed
by staff if something is expected of them”
Current Landscape
                      Egress Issues

Although all airports are
configured differently, the
majority of Class I/Large
Hub facilities host 50,000 –
200,000 occupants on
average each day.

Many of these occupants
are new to the facility and
will have no idea what to
do in response to an
emergency signal.
Current Landscape

         “When do I pay attention?”


• Multiple sounds and lights
  are part of the normal
  background

• Lack of Voice Intelligibility

• Lack of Voice Evacuation
Current Landscape

 Where do they go!

•Evacuation plans may
cause more problems, then
help
•Placing occupants on
tarmac raises security
concerns
•Returning to unsecured
areas delays departures


  Goal is to relocate screened passengers area that
        allows for easy return to holding room.
Current Landscape

      Changes in Priority POST 911

 Reconsider Emergency Response for the
 following events.
     Fire
     Viral Outbreak
     Weather events
     Chemical spills
     Maintenance Emergencies
     Terrorist attacks
Current Landscape

         Emergency Response Plan

   • Police,
   • Fire Department
   • Maintenance
   • Operations



                    •Different responsibilities
                    •All important facets of
                    the Emergency Response.
  Mass Notification
   Systems in the
Terminal Environment
Expanding the Traditional Fire Alarm System




                         TRADITIONAL
                           BUILDING
                             FIRE
                            ALARM
                            SYSTEM
System Architecture – Integrating Existing Systems
                      Manual or                                                  Roadway
   I                 Automated                                                    Signage
                     Emergency
   N                                                                               System
                   Alarm(Non Fire)      COMMAND
   P
       Traditional Fire                                Manually activated
   U                                     CENTER                                   Ground
         Alarm Input                                      Emergency
   T                                                                              Control
                                                        Alarm(Non Fire)
   S

   I
   N
   T                                                                 MUFIDS
   E         FIRE ALARM                   Public
                                         Address                     Visual
   R            SYSTEM
                                         System                      Paging
   F
   A                                                                (AODB)
   C
   E
   S

         Activation
   O                       Activation                                Activation of
           of Fire
   U                       of Amber                              MUFIDS/Visual Paging
           Alarm                                                  Emergency Textual
                          Emergency       Activation
   T      Strobes                                                 Information Mode
                            Strobes           of
   P
                                           TACS/FA
   U
                                            Public
   T                                       Address
   S                                        System
A look at the AODB Interface
Real World Terminal Scenarios


 Situation :
 • Fire
 • Security Breach, Bomb Scare
 • Chemical Release
 • Fuel Spill
 • Etc.

 MNS Advantage:
 • Consolidated Visual, Audible, and Textual
 Notification
 • Uniform Messaging to Emergency Responders
 • Broadcast messaging – Radio, SMS, Internet,
 Intermodel Systems,
  Future
Technology
Challenges Involved

• What systems should be integrated to form the complete mass
notification system?

• Who will manage and operate the facility’s mass notification
system: police, fire, airport operations, others?

• How do we assign the priority levels of potential events both
emergency and no-emergency?

• How do we reduce or eliminate false activations and the
inconvenience caused to airport and airline operations?

• What paging capabilities will the airlines have during the
different types of events?

• Are fire code variances required in order to interface the fire
and other non-fire systems?
Questions
Contact Information

                         Rajeev K. Arora, P.E.
                         Executive Vice President
                         T: (732) 602-6220
                         F: (732) 602-6227
                         rarora@aroraengineers.com
www.aroraengineers.com
                         Manik K. Arora, P.E.
                         President and CEO
                         T: (610) 459-7900
                         F: (610) 459-7951
                         marora@aroraengineers.com

                         Gary Pollack
                         Product Manager Mass Notification Systems
                         T: (480) 507-7791
                         F: (480) 507-7791
                         gary.pollack@ge.com
  www.gesecurity.com
Contact Information


Internet Resources

UFC 4-010-01
• http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_4_010_01.
  pdf

UFC 4-021-01
• http://www.wbdg.org/ccb/DOD/UFC/ufc_4_021_01.
  pdf

				
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