PRINCIPLES OF INCLUSION and GOOD PRACTICE by sdfsb346f

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									The following information, including principles of inclusive
practice, an equalities glossary and a quiz, has been developed
by Children and Families Equalities staff. Although it was written
primarily for Children and Families staff, we think it will also be
useful for Parent Councils and to support inclusive parental
involvement in general.

Over the next few months, we intend to develop training
materials specifically for and with Parent Councils. In the
meantime, we hope the following information will be of use.
                   PRINCIPLES OF INCLUSION and GOOD PRACTICE


             Inclusive services and groups are designed to
             accommodate and welcome everyone. They are not just
             about physical access or slotting people into existing
             groups, clubs, or centres, but a holistic and dynamic
             approach which recognises that everyone has a right to be
include and that diverse abilities, needs and cultures are natural and
desirable.

                            Inclusion embraces
                             Anti-discrimination
                            Celebrating diversity
                   A balanced workforce or membership
                        The social model of disability
                Supporting colleagues to overcome barriers
              Group work and management styles and methods
              Consulting with participants and non-participants

                Some examples of recommended procedures
   Explain to people who are new that we are sometimes obliged to ask
    confidential personal questions to make sure that we aren‟t
    discriminating against anyone.

   Ask people when they enrol or sign up, if there is anything specific we
    can provide that will help them to participate. Ensure this information is
    passed on to the appropriate member of staff.

   Check that all programmes and activities are „equality-proofed‟ i.e. that
    there are no barriers to prevent anyone from being involved.

   Check that the development of the programme and activity has taken
    account of the views, needs and abilities of all participants.

   Make publicity available in plain English, community languages, large
    print, tape, easy read format with symbols and pictures, Braille or other
    alternative formats and include descriptions of access, maps and
    availability of support.

Additional support available
Interpreting and Translating Service (ITS) for speakers of other languages
and for Deaf people. This includes Sign Language Interpreters and note
takers, handouts in large print, Braille, using symbols to head up sections
and taped notes.
 Tel. 0131 242 8181
Additional support is also available where needed e.g. classroom assistants,
induction loop, adapted furniture and equipment (e.g. computer software
and hardware, manual sewing machine)
                    DEFINITION of TERMS

Anti-discrimination
Refers to an approach that is taken which challenges unfair or unlawful
treatment of individuals or groups based on a specific characteristic of that
group, e.g. colour, age, disability, sexual orientation etc

Asylum Seeker
A person who has left their country of origin, has applied for recognition as
a refugee in another country, and is awaiting a decision on their application
(United Nations High Commission for Refugees)

Bigot
A person who is intolerant of any ideas other than his own, especially on
religion, politics or race (Collins English Dictionary)

Bullying
An abuse of power that is defined by its effects. People who are bullied are
seriously upset by something someone else has done or said to them. They
may fear that this will happen again and may feel powerless to stop it
happening.

Disability
According to the Disability Discrimination Act, you are disabled if you have a
mental or physical impairment that has a substantial adverse effect on your
ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities and the effect is long-term
or likely to be (i.e. 12 months or more).

Discrimination – direct
There are two forms of direct discrimination
 Treating a person less favourably than any other person is or would be
   treated in the same or similar circumstances.
 Failing to make a reasonable adjustment for a disabled person

Discrimination – indirect
Indirect discrimination happens when an apparently non-discriminatory (and
unjustified) condition or requirement is imposed upon everyone and this has
the effect of disadvantaging certain people.
E.g. making ability to drive an essential criterion for a post that does not
require use of a car discriminates against certain disabled applicants who
cannot drive.

Diversity
Variety: a variety of something such as faith/ belief, colour, gender, sexual
orientation, ability, culture, socio-economic status, urban/rural, or age.

Equalities
A revised term for „Equal Opportunities‟.
Equal Opportunities
This is about making sure everyone has a chance to participate on an equal
basis and to be treated appropriately. Work towards equal opportunities
often focuses on the nine areas in the Scotland Act. These are sex or marital
status, race, disability, age, sexual orientation, language, social origin,
religious beliefs and other personal attributes.
(Scottish Civic Forum. “What is Mainstreaming?” Briefing Paper)

The prevention, elimination or regulation of discrimination between persons
on the above grounds
(Schedule 5, Section L2 of the Scotland Act)

Homophobia
All aspects of oppression of Lesbians, Gay men, or Bisexual People such as;
exclusion as friends, cold shoulder, snide comments, verbal harassment,
assault, rape and murder based on the person‟s perceived or actual sexual
orientation.

Transphobia; as above but relating to people who are transgender or are
perceived to be transgender, including cross dressers, drag queens,
individuals transitioning from one gender to the other, transitioned
transgender people.

Inclusion
An approach designed to accommodate and welcome everyone, recognising
that everyone has a right to be included and that diverse strengths,
abilities, needs and cultures are natural and desirable. City of Education
Council Community Education Adult Tutors Handbook

Institutional Racism
The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and
professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic
origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour
which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance,
thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic
people.
Lord Macpherson Inquiry into the death of Stephen Lawrence

Mainstreaming
This is about building an equalities perspective into every part of an
organisation‟s work. It doesn‟t mean that special work on equalities should
not happen – in fact, things like monitoring the impact of work on different
equalities groups is very much part of mainstreaming. Mainstreaming is
about making sure that equal opportunities is something that everybody
thinks about and that it is part of every process from the beginning” (Scottish
Civic Forum. “What is Mainstreaming?” Briefing Paper)

Multiculturalism
“For or including people of several different races, religions, languages and
traditions” (Oxford English Dictionary). Multi-culture, multi-faith and multi-
race have been the main way of approaching race relations in recent years,
within politics and education.

Positive Action
This allows for a disability, gender, religion or belief, sexual orientation,
age or racial group to receive
 access to education and training or welfare for particular work
 encouragement to take advantage of opportunities
(Where it can be shown that these groups have been disadvantaged in the
past or presently under-represented)

Prejudice
An opinion formed beforehand, especially an unfavourable one based on
inadequate facts (Collins English Dictionary)

Racist Incident
„Any incident perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person.‟
(1999 McPherson Report into the death of Stephen Lawrence).
NB. This definition requires all initial and subsequent investigations of
an allegation of racism to be treated seriously

Refugee
A person who is outside the country of their nationality who has a well-
founded fear of persecution and has been granted leave to remain in
another country.

Social Exclusion
“The deprivation of opportunity to participate in society”.
Scottish Government (formerly Scottish Executive). Scottish Council for Voluntary
Organisations Home Page

Social Inclusion
The process by which efforts are made to ensure that everyone, regardless
of their experience and circumstances, can achieve their potential in life.
An inclusive society is characterised by a striving for increased equality, and
a balance between individuals‟ rights and duties and increased social
cohesion.

Within Scotland, several objectives have been identified which are seen as
steps to ensuring better social inclusion:
 Increased employment
 Improved educational achievement
 Improved health
 Reduced crime
 Improved physical employment

Social Justice
There is no single account or definition of social justice that is indisputably
correct or agreed. Some similarities and differences exist in definitions. …
Policies to create social justice will depend crucially on what definition of
social justice is being used. The Scottish Government‟s (formerly Scottish
Executive‟s) social justice targets identify five groups … children, young
people, families, older people and communities.
Robina Goodlad, University of Glasgow

One definition of social justice is:

“The equal and fair distribution of social values such as freedom, income
and wealth and the opportunity to take part in society”.
Scottish Government (formerly Scottish Executive), Regeneration Statement, 2002, p. 29
                                EQUALITIES QUIZ

This quiz covers equalities legislation and cultural awareness. The
quiz, and the answers which follow, aim to stimulate discussion and
provide information on a range of equalities topics.
               Some questions have more than 1 answer

    1 Which of the following groups are directly protected by legislation
    against discrimination?
                                Black People
                             Gay/Lesbian People
                              Disabled People
                              Gypsy/Travellers
                               People over 60
                               Asylum Seekers
                                    Men
                                    Sikhs


2      The Rights of the Child give all children the right to:
A       Protection from violence and harmful treatment
B       Tell their parents what to do
C       Access mass media information
D       Choose not to wear school uniform


3      What percentage of Edinburgh’s population is estimated to be
       Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT)?
A      1%
B      5%
C      12%
D      20%


4      During which decade did adverts appear in the West Indies and the
       Indian sub-continent asking for people to come and work in
       Britain?
A      1990s

B      1920s

C      1950s

D      1980s


5      A refugee is:
A      Anyone who has left his/her own country for safety
B    Anyone allowed to stay in another country due to fear of persecution
     in his/her own country
C    Anyone who has chosen to look for work in a country other than the
     one in which they were born.
D    Anyone who does not like his/her own country.


6    How many Black or Ethnic Minority members of the Scottish
     Parliament (MSP) were elected in 2007?
A    2
B    0
C    1
D    3


7    Council employees are required to show the steps they have taken
     to include people with disabilities
     True or False?


8    What percentage of Edinburgh’s population is over age 60?
A    10%
B    20%
C    30%
D    35%


9    Discrimination on the basis of (older) age in employment was/ will
     be outlawed in the UK at the end of
A    2004
B    2006
C    2008


10   If you are employed by the Council and you ignore a racist
     incident, this is breaking the law.
     True or False


11   Is the Council legally required to make reasonable adjustments to
     its buildings to be accessible to disabled people?
A    Yes, all buildings
B    Yes, but only certain ones such as libraries and sports centres
C    Not unless a disabled person asks for this
D    No


12   An asylum seeker is
A    someone who is an illegal immigrant
 B      someone who is an economic migrant
 C      someone who is entitled to extra welfare benefits
 D      someone who has applied for recognition as a refugee in another
        country

 13    If you have particular views on sexual orientation because of your
       religious beliefs, you have the right on the grounds of religion to
       refuse to work with a gay or lesbian colleague?
       True or False

14    Which of the following terms may be unacceptable to the relevant
       group?
 A      Handicapped
 B      Gay
 C      Ethnic Children
 D      Girls

 15    Which of the following impairments are covered by the Disability
       Discrimination Act (DDA)?
 A     Dyslexia
 B     HIV/AIDS
 C     Body piercing
 D     Visual impairment

 16    Which of the following behaviours could be unacceptable harassment or
 bullying?
 A      Ignoring a colleague
 B      Downloading porn on the Internet
 C      Telling homophobic jokes in the workplace
 D      Publicly challenging a colleague for racist behaviour

 17    Which of the following will be unlawful indirect discrimination?
 A      Holding an important meeting when part time staff cannot attend
 B      In a job advert, asking for Janitors to be over 5ft 10 tall
 C      In a job advert, asking for a female secretary
 D      Insisting on male staff having short hair and/or being clean shaven

 18 Identify 3 different types of (non verbal) greeting used by people in
     other parts of the world

 19    In which 2 cultures is eye contact traditionally considered to be
      disrespectful or inappropriate?
                                  ANSWERS

    1   Which of the following groups are currently directly protected by
    legislation against discrimination?

Black People     YES - Race Relations Act (RRA) 1976 and Race Relations
            Amendment Act (RRAA) 2000

Gay/Lesbian People YES - The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation)
            Regulations 2003 and Equality Act (Sexual Orientation)
            Regulations 2007
Disabled People    YES - Disability Discrimination Act 1995 & 2005
Gypsy/Travellers YES and NO - Romany Gypsies are protected by the RRA
            but there has as yet been no test case for e.g. Scottish
            Travellers.
People over 60      YES – The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006
            prohibits discrimination in employment, training and Adult
            education on basis of age (this also applies to young people)
Asylum Seekers     NO - could be protected under RRA but not as asylum
            seekers
Men                YES - Men as well as women are protected by the Sex
            Discrimination Act 1975, although of course it was designed to
            address the overwhelming discrimination against women
Sikhs              YES – Equality Act 2006 makes it unlawful to
            discriminate on the grounds of religion or belief in the
            provision of goods, facilities and services, education etc

2       The Rights of the Child give all children the right to:
A       Protection from violence and harmful treatment
B       Access mass media information

    3 What percentage of Edinburgh‟s population is estimated to be
    Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT)?
C       12%
        This is roughly based on a national estimate of 6% and takes into
        account the popularity of Edinburgh as a capital city.


4       During which decade did adverts appear in the West Indies and the
        Indian sub-continent asking for people to come and work in
        Britain?
C       1950s

5       A refugee is:
B       Anyone allowed to stay in another country due to fear of persecution
        in his/her own country
6    How many Black or Ethnic Minority Members of the Scottish
     Parliament (MSP) were elected in 2007?
C    1 - Bashir Ahmad (first BME MSP)

7    Council employees are required to show the steps they have taken
     to include people with disabilities
     True – this is part of the Disability Equality Duty

8    What percentage of Edinburgh’s population is over age 60?
B    20% (2001 census)


9    Discrimination on the basis of (older) age in employment was/ will
     be outlawed in the UK at the end of
B    2006 - The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006



10   If you are employed by the Council and you ignore a racist
     incident, this is breaking the law.
     True
     A racist incident is defined by anyone involved, especially the
     victim(s). (McPherson Report and Race Relations Amendment Act
     (RRAA)). Council staff have a legal obligation under the Race
     Relations Amendment Act to eliminate racial discrimination and
     promote good relations between people of different races. However,
     it is not certain whether individual staff or the employer is legally
     liable.


11   Is the Council legally required to make reasonable adjustments to
     its buildings to be accessible to disabled people?
A    Yes, all buildings
      However, cost is taken into account in determining „reasonableness‟.


12   An asylum seeker is
D    someone who has applied for recognition as a refugee in another
     country
      NB. The myth that asylum seekers are really just economic migrants
      is unfounded. The main countries of origin of asylum seekers are not
      the poorest countries in the work but the countries dominated by
      conflicts and human rights abuses.
      The term illegal migrant is not defined anywhere in UK law. The
      term was found to be racist, offensive and misleading by the
      Advertising Standards Authority in 2002.
13    If you have particular views on sexual orientation because of your
      religious beliefs, you have the right on the grounds of religion to
      refuse to work with a gay or lesbian colleague?
      False
      Everyone has the right to be treated with dignity and respect no
      matter what their sexual orientation.

14   Which of the following terms may be unacceptable to the relevant
     group?
A    Handicapped – seen as disparaging. Preferred term is „disabled
     people‟.
C    Ethnic Children – everyone has an ethnicity. Preferred term is „ethnic
  minority‟, „     minority ethnic‟, „black‟ or „Black and Minority Ethnic‟
  (BME). If in doubt, ask!

       NB. The term „girls‟ is acceptable for girls of teenage age and below.
       Older than that, the preferred term is women. To call women over 20
       „girls‟ (e.g. girls in the office) can be seen as patronising, demeaning
       and insulting, unless the term is used by one of the „girls‟ in the
       group
15     Which of the following impairments are covered by the Disability
       Discrimination Act (DDA)?
A      Dyslexia – DDA 1995
B      HIV/AIDS – DDA 2005
D      Visual impairment – is covered where it impacts on one‟s day-to-day
activities

16    Which of the following behaviours could be unacceptable harassment
      or bullying?
A     Ignoring a colleague – if it causes distress and especially if
      perpetrated by a group against an individual.
B     Downloading porn from the Internet – this is known to be offensive
      particularly to women and certain religious groups.
C     Telling homophobic jokes in the workplace – if it is done in a way that
      is frightening or threatening and/or is repeated behaviour, it would
      constitute harassment.

17    Which of the following will be unlawful indirect discrimination?
A     Holding an important meeting when part time staff cannot attend –
      this could indirectly discriminate against women under the SDA
      because women are more likely than men to work part time due to
      caring commitments.
B     In a job advert, asking for Janitors to be over 5ft 10 tall – not
      justifiable and would be illegal under the Sex Discrimination Act and
      Disability Discrimination Act.
C     In a job advert, asking for a female secretary – this is direct
      discrimination unless exempt for specific post, e.g. working in a
      women‟s‟ refuge.
D    Insisting on male staff having short hair and/or being clean shaven –
     this would be illegal under the Sex Discrimination Act and indirectly
     discriminates against some religious beliefs.

18   Identify 3 different types of (non verbal) greeting used by people in
     other parts of the world

     Kissing cheek – popular in Southern Europe, Latin America and Middle
     East
     Nodding
     Bowing – Ojigi is a traditional greeting in Japan
     Kissing air cheek to cheek
     Pressing noses - Hongi is a traditional greeting in New Zealand
     Placing palms together and bowing - Namasté or Namaskar from South
     Asia

19   In which 2 cultures is eye contact traditionally considered to be
     disrespectful or inappropriate?

     Women in Asian Culture)
     Women from the Middle East) this is due to the influence of Islam
     Women in African culture)   and/or traditions of feminine modesty

     Traditionally, younger people from African, Oriental and Caribbean
     cultures do not look their elders in the eye when being spoken to.

								
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