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PRINCIPLES OF INCLUSION and GOOD PRACTICE
The following information, including principles of inclusive practice, an equalities glossary and a quiz, has been developed by Children and Families Equalities staff. Although it was written primarily for Children and Families staff, we think it will also be useful for Parent Councils and to support inclusive parental involvement in general. Over the next few months, we intend to develop training materials specifically for and with Parent Councils. In the meantime, we hope the following information will be of use. PRINCIPLES OF INCLUSION and GOOD PRACTICE Inclusive services and groups are designed to accommodate and welcome everyone. They are not just about physical access or slotting people into existing groups, clubs, or centres, but a holistic and dynamic approach which recognises that everyone has a right to be include and that diverse abilities, needs and cultures are natural and desirable. Inclusion embraces Anti-discrimination Celebrating diversity A balanced workforce or membership The social model of disability Supporting colleagues to overcome barriers Group work and management styles and methods Consulting with participants and non-participants Some examples of recommended procedures Explain to people who are new that we are sometimes obliged to ask confidential personal questions to make sure that we aren‟t discriminating against anyone. Ask people when they enrol or sign up, if there is anything specific we can provide that will help them to participate. Ensure this information is passed on to the appropriate member of staff. Check that all programmes and activities are „equality-proofed‟ i.e. that there are no barriers to prevent anyone from being involved. Check that the development of the programme and activity has taken account of the views, needs and abilities of all participants. Make publicity available in plain English, community languages, large print, tape, easy read format with symbols and pictures, Braille or other alternative formats and include descriptions of access, maps and availability of support. Additional support available Interpreting and Translating Service (ITS) for speakers of other languages and for Deaf people. This includes Sign Language Interpreters and note takers, handouts in large print, Braille, using symbols to head up sections and taped notes. Tel. 0131 242 8181 Additional support is also available where needed e.g. classroom assistants, induction loop, adapted furniture and equipment (e.g. computer software and hardware, manual sewing machine) DEFINITION of TERMS Anti-discrimination Refers to an approach that is taken which challenges unfair or unlawful treatment of individuals or groups based on a specific characteristic of that group, e.g. colour, age, disability, sexual orientation etc Asylum Seeker A person who has left their country of origin, has applied for recognition as a refugee in another country, and is awaiting a decision on their application (United Nations High Commission for Refugees) Bigot A person who is intolerant of any ideas other than his own, especially on religion, politics or race (Collins English Dictionary) Bullying An abuse of power that is defined by its effects. People who are bullied are seriously upset by something someone else has done or said to them. They may fear that this will happen again and may feel powerless to stop it happening. Disability According to the Disability Discrimination Act, you are disabled if you have a mental or physical impairment that has a substantial adverse effect on your ability to carry out normal day-to-day activities and the effect is long-term or likely to be (i.e. 12 months or more). Discrimination – direct There are two forms of direct discrimination Treating a person less favourably than any other person is or would be treated in the same or similar circumstances. Failing to make a reasonable adjustment for a disabled person Discrimination – indirect Indirect discrimination happens when an apparently non-discriminatory (and unjustified) condition or requirement is imposed upon everyone and this has the effect of disadvantaging certain people. E.g. making ability to drive an essential criterion for a post that does not require use of a car discriminates against certain disabled applicants who cannot drive. Diversity Variety: a variety of something such as faith/ belief, colour, gender, sexual orientation, ability, culture, socio-economic status, urban/rural, or age. Equalities A revised term for „Equal Opportunities‟. Equal Opportunities This is about making sure everyone has a chance to participate on an equal basis and to be treated appropriately. Work towards equal opportunities often focuses on the nine areas in the Scotland Act. These are sex or marital status, race, disability, age, sexual orientation, language, social origin, religious beliefs and other personal attributes. (Scottish Civic Forum. “What is Mainstreaming?” Briefing Paper) The prevention, elimination or regulation of discrimination between persons on the above grounds (Schedule 5, Section L2 of the Scotland Act) Homophobia All aspects of oppression of Lesbians, Gay men, or Bisexual People such as; exclusion as friends, cold shoulder, snide comments, verbal harassment, assault, rape and murder based on the person‟s perceived or actual sexual orientation. Transphobia; as above but relating to people who are transgender or are perceived to be transgender, including cross dressers, drag queens, individuals transitioning from one gender to the other, transitioned transgender people. Inclusion An approach designed to accommodate and welcome everyone, recognising that everyone has a right to be included and that diverse strengths, abilities, needs and cultures are natural and desirable. City of Education Council Community Education Adult Tutors Handbook Institutional Racism The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantage minority ethnic people. Lord Macpherson Inquiry into the death of Stephen Lawrence Mainstreaming This is about building an equalities perspective into every part of an organisation‟s work. It doesn‟t mean that special work on equalities should not happen – in fact, things like monitoring the impact of work on different equalities groups is very much part of mainstreaming. Mainstreaming is about making sure that equal opportunities is something that everybody thinks about and that it is part of every process from the beginning” (Scottish Civic Forum. “What is Mainstreaming?” Briefing Paper) Multiculturalism “For or including people of several different races, religions, languages and traditions” (Oxford English Dictionary). Multi-culture, multi-faith and multi- race have been the main way of approaching race relations in recent years, within politics and education. Positive Action This allows for a disability, gender, religion or belief, sexual orientation, age or racial group to receive access to education and training or welfare for particular work encouragement to take advantage of opportunities (Where it can be shown that these groups have been disadvantaged in the past or presently under-represented) Prejudice An opinion formed beforehand, especially an unfavourable one based on inadequate facts (Collins English Dictionary) Racist Incident „Any incident perceived to be racist by the victim or any other person.‟ (1999 McPherson Report into the death of Stephen Lawrence). NB. This definition requires all initial and subsequent investigations of an allegation of racism to be treated seriously Refugee A person who is outside the country of their nationality who has a well- founded fear of persecution and has been granted leave to remain in another country. Social Exclusion “The deprivation of opportunity to participate in society”. Scottish Government (formerly Scottish Executive). Scottish Council for Voluntary Organisations Home Page Social Inclusion The process by which efforts are made to ensure that everyone, regardless of their experience and circumstances, can achieve their potential in life. An inclusive society is characterised by a striving for increased equality, and a balance between individuals‟ rights and duties and increased social cohesion. Within Scotland, several objectives have been identified which are seen as steps to ensuring better social inclusion: Increased employment Improved educational achievement Improved health Reduced crime Improved physical employment Social Justice There is no single account or definition of social justice that is indisputably correct or agreed. Some similarities and differences exist in definitions. … Policies to create social justice will depend crucially on what definition of social justice is being used. The Scottish Government‟s (formerly Scottish Executive‟s) social justice targets identify five groups … children, young people, families, older people and communities. Robina Goodlad, University of Glasgow One definition of social justice is: “The equal and fair distribution of social values such as freedom, income and wealth and the opportunity to take part in society”. Scottish Government (formerly Scottish Executive), Regeneration Statement, 2002, p. 29 EQUALITIES QUIZ This quiz covers equalities legislation and cultural awareness. The quiz, and the answers which follow, aim to stimulate discussion and provide information on a range of equalities topics. Some questions have more than 1 answer 1 Which of the following groups are directly protected by legislation against discrimination? Black People Gay/Lesbian People Disabled People Gypsy/Travellers People over 60 Asylum Seekers Men Sikhs 2 The Rights of the Child give all children the right to: A Protection from violence and harmful treatment B Tell their parents what to do C Access mass media information D Choose not to wear school uniform 3 What percentage of Edinburgh’s population is estimated to be Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT)? A 1% B 5% C 12% D 20% 4 During which decade did adverts appear in the West Indies and the Indian sub-continent asking for people to come and work in Britain? A 1990s B 1920s C 1950s D 1980s 5 A refugee is: A Anyone who has left his/her own country for safety B Anyone allowed to stay in another country due to fear of persecution in his/her own country C Anyone who has chosen to look for work in a country other than the one in which they were born. D Anyone who does not like his/her own country. 6 How many Black or Ethnic Minority members of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) were elected in 2007? A 2 B 0 C 1 D 3 7 Council employees are required to show the steps they have taken to include people with disabilities True or False? 8 What percentage of Edinburgh’s population is over age 60? A 10% B 20% C 30% D 35% 9 Discrimination on the basis of (older) age in employment was/ will be outlawed in the UK at the end of A 2004 B 2006 C 2008 10 If you are employed by the Council and you ignore a racist incident, this is breaking the law. True or False 11 Is the Council legally required to make reasonable adjustments to its buildings to be accessible to disabled people? A Yes, all buildings B Yes, but only certain ones such as libraries and sports centres C Not unless a disabled person asks for this D No 12 An asylum seeker is A someone who is an illegal immigrant B someone who is an economic migrant C someone who is entitled to extra welfare benefits D someone who has applied for recognition as a refugee in another country 13 If you have particular views on sexual orientation because of your religious beliefs, you have the right on the grounds of religion to refuse to work with a gay or lesbian colleague? True or False 14 Which of the following terms may be unacceptable to the relevant group? A Handicapped B Gay C Ethnic Children D Girls 15 Which of the following impairments are covered by the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)? A Dyslexia B HIV/AIDS C Body piercing D Visual impairment 16 Which of the following behaviours could be unacceptable harassment or bullying? A Ignoring a colleague B Downloading porn on the Internet C Telling homophobic jokes in the workplace D Publicly challenging a colleague for racist behaviour 17 Which of the following will be unlawful indirect discrimination? A Holding an important meeting when part time staff cannot attend B In a job advert, asking for Janitors to be over 5ft 10 tall C In a job advert, asking for a female secretary D Insisting on male staff having short hair and/or being clean shaven 18 Identify 3 different types of (non verbal) greeting used by people in other parts of the world 19 In which 2 cultures is eye contact traditionally considered to be disrespectful or inappropriate? ANSWERS 1 Which of the following groups are currently directly protected by legislation against discrimination? Black People YES - Race Relations Act (RRA) 1976 and Race Relations Amendment Act (RRAA) 2000 Gay/Lesbian People YES - The Employment Equality (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2003 and Equality Act (Sexual Orientation) Regulations 2007 Disabled People YES - Disability Discrimination Act 1995 & 2005 Gypsy/Travellers YES and NO - Romany Gypsies are protected by the RRA but there has as yet been no test case for e.g. Scottish Travellers. People over 60 YES – The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 prohibits discrimination in employment, training and Adult education on basis of age (this also applies to young people) Asylum Seekers NO - could be protected under RRA but not as asylum seekers Men YES - Men as well as women are protected by the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, although of course it was designed to address the overwhelming discrimination against women Sikhs YES – Equality Act 2006 makes it unlawful to discriminate on the grounds of religion or belief in the provision of goods, facilities and services, education etc 2 The Rights of the Child give all children the right to: A Protection from violence and harmful treatment B Access mass media information 3 What percentage of Edinburgh‟s population is estimated to be Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual or Transgender (LGBT)? C 12% This is roughly based on a national estimate of 6% and takes into account the popularity of Edinburgh as a capital city. 4 During which decade did adverts appear in the West Indies and the Indian sub-continent asking for people to come and work in Britain? C 1950s 5 A refugee is: B Anyone allowed to stay in another country due to fear of persecution in his/her own country 6 How many Black or Ethnic Minority Members of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) were elected in 2007? C 1 - Bashir Ahmad (first BME MSP) 7 Council employees are required to show the steps they have taken to include people with disabilities True – this is part of the Disability Equality Duty 8 What percentage of Edinburgh’s population is over age 60? B 20% (2001 census) 9 Discrimination on the basis of (older) age in employment was/ will be outlawed in the UK at the end of B 2006 - The Employment Equality (Age) Regulations 2006 10 If you are employed by the Council and you ignore a racist incident, this is breaking the law. True A racist incident is defined by anyone involved, especially the victim(s). (McPherson Report and Race Relations Amendment Act (RRAA)). Council staff have a legal obligation under the Race Relations Amendment Act to eliminate racial discrimination and promote good relations between people of different races. However, it is not certain whether individual staff or the employer is legally liable. 11 Is the Council legally required to make reasonable adjustments to its buildings to be accessible to disabled people? A Yes, all buildings However, cost is taken into account in determining „reasonableness‟. 12 An asylum seeker is D someone who has applied for recognition as a refugee in another country NB. The myth that asylum seekers are really just economic migrants is unfounded. The main countries of origin of asylum seekers are not the poorest countries in the work but the countries dominated by conflicts and human rights abuses. The term illegal migrant is not defined anywhere in UK law. The term was found to be racist, offensive and misleading by the Advertising Standards Authority in 2002. 13 If you have particular views on sexual orientation because of your religious beliefs, you have the right on the grounds of religion to refuse to work with a gay or lesbian colleague? False Everyone has the right to be treated with dignity and respect no matter what their sexual orientation. 14 Which of the following terms may be unacceptable to the relevant group? A Handicapped – seen as disparaging. Preferred term is „disabled people‟. C Ethnic Children – everyone has an ethnicity. Preferred term is „ethnic minority‟, „ minority ethnic‟, „black‟ or „Black and Minority Ethnic‟ (BME). If in doubt, ask! NB. The term „girls‟ is acceptable for girls of teenage age and below. Older than that, the preferred term is women. To call women over 20 „girls‟ (e.g. girls in the office) can be seen as patronising, demeaning and insulting, unless the term is used by one of the „girls‟ in the group 15 Which of the following impairments are covered by the Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)? A Dyslexia – DDA 1995 B HIV/AIDS – DDA 2005 D Visual impairment – is covered where it impacts on one‟s day-to-day activities 16 Which of the following behaviours could be unacceptable harassment or bullying? A Ignoring a colleague – if it causes distress and especially if perpetrated by a group against an individual. B Downloading porn from the Internet – this is known to be offensive particularly to women and certain religious groups. C Telling homophobic jokes in the workplace – if it is done in a way that is frightening or threatening and/or is repeated behaviour, it would constitute harassment. 17 Which of the following will be unlawful indirect discrimination? A Holding an important meeting when part time staff cannot attend – this could indirectly discriminate against women under the SDA because women are more likely than men to work part time due to caring commitments. B In a job advert, asking for Janitors to be over 5ft 10 tall – not justifiable and would be illegal under the Sex Discrimination Act and Disability Discrimination Act. C In a job advert, asking for a female secretary – this is direct discrimination unless exempt for specific post, e.g. working in a women‟s‟ refuge. D Insisting on male staff having short hair and/or being clean shaven – this would be illegal under the Sex Discrimination Act and indirectly discriminates against some religious beliefs. 18 Identify 3 different types of (non verbal) greeting used by people in other parts of the world Kissing cheek – popular in Southern Europe, Latin America and Middle East Nodding Bowing – Ojigi is a traditional greeting in Japan Kissing air cheek to cheek Pressing noses - Hongi is a traditional greeting in New Zealand Placing palms together and bowing - Namasté or Namaskar from South Asia 19 In which 2 cultures is eye contact traditionally considered to be disrespectful or inappropriate? Women in Asian Culture) Women from the Middle East) this is due to the influence of Islam Women in African culture) and/or traditions of feminine modesty Traditionally, younger people from African, Oriental and Caribbean cultures do not look their elders in the eye when being spoken to.
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