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The Information Processing Family of Models

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					                                 The Behavioural Systems Family of Models

         Model                Developer (or                                         Purpose
                               redeveloper)
Social Learning         Albert Bandura; Carl        The management of behaviour: Learning new patterns of behaviour,
                        Thoresen; Wes Becker        reducing phobic and other dysfunctional patterns, learning self control
Mastery Learning        Benjamin Bloom; James       Mastery of academic skills and content of all types
                        Block
Programmed Learning     B.F. Skinner                Mastery of skills, concepts, factual information

Simulation              Many developers; Carl       Mastery of complex skills and concepts in a wide range of areas of
                        Smith and Mary Foltz        study
                        Smith provide guidance
                        through 1960s when
                        design had matured

Direct Teaching         Thomas Good; Jere           Mastery of academic content and skills in a wide range of areas of
                        Brophy; Wes Becker;         study
                        Siegfried Englemann; Carl
                        Bereiter
Anxiety reduction       David Rinn; Joseph          Control over aversive reactions; Applications in treatment and self
                        Wolpe; John Masters         treatment of avoidance and dysfunctional patterns of response.
(Joyce, Weil, Calhoun, 2004, p34)




                                The Information Processing Family of Models
          Model                   Developer (or                                        Purpose
                                  redeveloper)
Inductive thinking          Hilda Taba                  Development of classification skills, hypothesis building and testing,
(classification oriented)   (Bruce Joyce)               and understanding of how to build conceptual understanding of concept
                                                        areas.
Concept Attainment          Jerome Bruner               Learning concepts and studying strategies for attaining and applying them. Building
                            Fred Lighthall              and testing hypotheses
                            (Bruce Joyce)
Scientific Inquiry          Joseph Schwab and many      Learning the research system of the academic disciplines – how
                            others                      knowledge is produced and organized.
Inquiry training            Richard Suchman             Causal reasoning and understanding of how to collect information,
                            (Howard Jones)              build concepts and build and test hypotheses
Cognitive growth            Jean Piaget                 Increases general intellectual development and adjust instruction to
                            Irving Sigel                facilitate intellectual growth.
                            Constance Kamii
                            Edmund Sullivan
Advance organisers          David Ausubel               Designed to increase ability to absorb information and organize it,
                            (and many others)           especially in learning from lectures and readings.
Mnemonics                   Michael Pressley            Increase ability to acquire information, concepts, conceptual systems
                            Joel Levin                  and metacognitive control of information processing capability.
                            (and associated scholars)
Picture-word inductive      Emily Calhoun               Learning to read and write, inquiry into language.
(Joyce, Weil, Calhoun, 2004, p26)



                                            The Personal Family of Models

          Model                   Developer (or                                        Purpose
                                redeveloper)
Non directive teaching    Carl Rogers                 Building capacity for personal development, self understanding,
                                                      autonomy and esteem of self.
Awareness training        Fritz Perls                 Increasing self-understanding, self esteem and capacity fro exploration. Development
                                                      of interpersonal sensitivity and empathy
Classroom meeting         William Glasser             Development of self understanding and responsibility to self and others

Self actualization        Abraham Maslow              Development of personal understanding and capacity for development

Conceptual systems        David Hunt                  Increasing personal complexity and flexibility in processing
                                                      information and interacting with others

(Joyce, Weil, Calhoun, 2004, p32)



                                              The Social Family of Models

          Model                 Developer (or                                        Purpose
                                 redeveloper)
Group investigation       John Dewey; Herbert         Development of skills for participation in democratic process.
                          Thelen; Shlomo Sharan;      Simultaneously emphasizes social development, academic skills and
                          Rachel Hert-Lazarowitz      personal understanding.
Social Enquiry            Byron Massialas;            Social problem solving through collective academic study and logical reasoning
                          Benjamin Cox;
Jurisprudential inquiry   James Shaver; Donald        Analysis of policy issues through a jurisprudential framework.
                          Oliver                      Collection of data, analysis of value questions and positions, study of
                                                      personal beliefs
Laboratory method         National Training           Understanding of group dynamics, leadership, understanding personal
                          Laboratory (many            styles
                            contributors)
Role playing                Fanny Shaftel              Study of values and their role in social interaction. Personal
                                                       understanding of values and behaviour
Positive interdependence    David Johnson; Roger       Development of interdependent strategies of social interaction.
                            Johnson; Elizabeth Cohen   Understanding of self – other relationships and emotions
Structured social inquiry   Robert Slavin and          Academic inquiry and social and personal development. Cooperative
                            colleagues                 strategies for approaching academic study.
(Joyce, Weil, Calhoun, 2004, p29)

				
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