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  Critical Issues in Human
   Resource Development

              Dr. Jamnean Joungtrakul
       President and CEO, BLCI GROUP and
Senior Industry Fellow, Graduate School of Business,
     Curtin University of Technology, Australia

3300/71, 11th Floor, Tower B,Elephant
Tower Paholyothin Road, Chompol,
Chatuchack, BKK 10900
Tel 02-937-3773 Fax 02-937-3770
Email: jamnean@blcigroup.com
Website: www.blcigroup.com
         Food for Thought-1

The major objective of doctoral education is to
 produce professional researchers
PhD degree is a research degree and all efforts
 in studying must concentrate in research
Coursework is a process for students
 preparation for research work and counted for
 only about 20% of the total course

     Food for Thought-1 (cont)
The final product of a PhD studying is
 dissertation or doctoral thesis
Whether you will complete your doctoral
 degree or not depends largely on the quality of
 your thesis
So start work on your thesis now. In fact, by
 now you should have chosen your research
 topic and done some literature review or even
 have your draft of your candidacy already

          Food for Thought-2
 ...the holder of a doctorate is someone who is recognized
  as an authority by the appropriate faculty. In modern
  terms it is useful to think of this as becoming a fully
  professional researcher in your field. Let us try to
  spell out what becoming a full professional means:
 First, at the most basic level it means that you have
  something to say that your peers want to listen to.
 Second, in order to do this you must have a command
  of what is happening in your subject so that you can
  evaluate the worth of what others are doing.
 Third, you must have the astuteness to discover where
  you can make a useful contribution.

     Food for Thought-2 (cont)
 Fourth, you must have mastery of appropriate
  techniques that are currently being used, and also
  beware of their limitations.
 Fifth, you must be able to communicate your results
  effectively in the professional arena.
 Sixth, all this must be carried out in an international
  context; your professional peer group is worldwide. (It
  always was, of course, but the rate of diffusion is
  infinitely faster than it used to be.) You must be aware
  of what is being discovered, argued about, written and
  published by your academic community across the
                                   Phillips and Pugh, 1994, p. 19
           Presentation Plan

Part 1: Current Issues in HRD

Part 2: Discussion of Selected Critical Issues

Part 3: Discussion

Part 4: Q&A

 Part 1: Current Issues in HRD

HRD Theory
HRD Theory Application
HRD and Competitive Advantage
HRD Scope and Status
HRD Process and Evaluation
HRD and Human Capital Development
HRD and Culture
HRD and Ethics
HRD and Research
Part 2: Discussion of Selected
        Critical Issues

Issue 1: HRD Theories

      Most HRD theories in used are
            Western theories
Western theories are created and developed to
 resolve Western problems
They are created and developed in response to the
 needs of the Western society
They are created and developed under the frame
 of references of the Western culture
Western culture is different from our culture
How we can assure that those theories are
 applicable to our country?

Western theories are not universal

 It is naive to expect those theories to apply
 automatically in significantly different cultures.
 For example, American-made management
 theories that reflect Americans‟ preoccupation
 with individualism are out of place in countries
 such as Mexico, Brazil, and Japan, where
 individualism is discouraged

                          Kreitner 1998, pp. 114-115.

Western theories are not one size fits all

  Management cannot implement management
  [industrial relations] theories wholesale from
  abroad. Effective leaders cannot choose their
  styles at will; what is feasible depends to a large
  extent on the cultural conditioning of the
  leader‟s subordinates. Culturally „unfitted‟
  management theories are of limited use and
  might do more harm than good

                                  Komin 1990, p. 262.
Issue 2: HRD Theory Application

   The application of HRD theories

Almost all theories in use now are Western
Cultural dimensions were totally left out
Universal or parochial approach is usually
 used in most organization
The one size fits all concepts are applicable
 in most organization

The nature of HRD theories application

Revolution rather than evolution:
 destroying old things and replacing with
 new things
Incomplete cycle of change management:
 structure-process-behaviour; mostly
 concentrating on structural issues
Not taking into account the cultural
 dimensions: not preparing people for change
 resulting in unsuccessful changes
The complete change management cycle




The Three Tree Model-1

                                                2472 Years

                                            Gap between the
                                            Two philosophies
                                            Thai 822 Years
   2472 Years    822 Years

 Western        Thai Tree    The New Thai
  Tree                           Tree
    The Three Tree Model-2

                 A = Western System
A     B   C      B = Integrated System
                 C = Thai System

    The Three Tree Model-3

                 A = Western System
A     B   C      B = Integrated System
                 C = Thai System

 The Three Tree Model-4

I&D       C&D       R&D
Issue 3: HRD and Competitive

        Competitive advantage
To be competitive in the globalization situation we
 must have our own competitive edge
Adam Smith seminal word of “the wealth of a
 nation is in its people” is still true today
To be competitive we must have competitive
 people and other management factors are now
 controllable i.e. material; money; machine;
 marketing and management
We must have our own strength and identity and
 our own theories and knowledge that can be used
 as our competitive edge
            Sun Tsu‟s strategy

“Know your enemy, know yourself, and you can
  fight a hundred battles with no danger of defeat.
  When you are ignorant of the enemy but know
  yourself, your chances of winning and losing are
  equal. If you don‟t know both your enemy and
  yourself, you are bound to perish in all
  battles…know the terrain, know the weather,
  and your victory will be complete.”
 (Chen, 1995, p. 42)

 The principles of Sun Tsu‟s strategy

 The major principles of strategies;
 The importance of moral influences;
 The quality a good general should and should not
 The role of climate and terrain in determining the
  situation of the battle;
 The strategy of enlarging one‟s comparative
 The importance of organization and training;
 The proper usage of discipline which combines
  severity and benevolence
         The principles of
      Sun Tsu‟s strategy (cont)
“With careful and detailed planning, one
 can win, with careless and less detailed
 planning, one cannot win. How much less
 chance of victory has one who does not
 plan at all! From the way planning is done
 beforehand, one can predict victory or
 defeat.” (Chen, 1995)

 Application of Sun Tzu‟s theory

At least
We have to choose the battle field
We must have our own strategies
We must have our own weapons
We must have high capable generals
We must have well trained armed forces

 Let‟s take a look at our Thai situation
 We cannot choose the battle field
 We use the Western strategies to fight with the
  Western competitor
 We use the Western weapons to fight with the
  Western competitor
 Our general were trained in Western strategies
  mostly by the Western Armed Forces
 Our armed forces were trained by the trainers who
  were trained in Western strategies and mostly by the
  Western armed forces
 I wonder what would the result is likely to be? And
  what should we do?
Issue 4: HRD Scope and Status

       The scope of HRD

Personnel Development
Organisation Development
And what else?

    The scope of HRD in practices

It is rather confused in organising HRD functions
 in an organisation
Most HRD function comes under human
 resource management function
The practitioners are confused of their functions
 i.e. most OD responsibilities are counted as HRM
Lack of knowledge and skills of practitioners in
 HRD are clearly evidenced and actions needed to
 be taken urgently
    The status of HRD practitioner
            in organisation
 Most HRD organisation in a company is a small unit or
  section under HR Department
 The title of HRD practitioners are at the supervisory or
  junior management level
 The compensation paid to HRD practitioners is
  comparatively lower than other section head in the HR
  Department not to mention those in other departments
 The budget allocated to HRD section is usually limited
 A lack of qualified competent HRD practitioners is
  clearly evidenced and actions needed to be taken

HRD is a discipline or field of study




   HRD as a profession- Criterion
          for profession
 A defined area of competence
 an organised and important body of knowledge
 identified with a career field
 competence individuals enter the profession by controlled
 principles and practices supported by research
 involvement of working professionals in academic
 programme of continuing education
 graduates who exercise independent judgement
 practice under HRD code of ethics
 journal for publication of HRD research
Looking at HRD profession in Thailand

No                                    Criterion                         Mark   Scored
1    A defined area of competence                                        10      0
2    an organised and important body of knowledge                        10      6
3    identified with a career field                                      10      6
4    competence individuals enter the profession by controlled access    10      0
5    principles and practices supported by research                      10      3
6    involvement of working professionals in academic programmes         10      3
7    programme of continuing education                                   10      6
8    graduates who exercise independent judgement                        10      2
9    practice under HRD code of ethics                                   10      2
10   journal for publication of HRD research                             10      3
                                  Total                                 100     31

A sample of effort to make HR a well accepted
     profession in Thailand by PMAT

Establishment of and independent Human
 Resource Management Institution of
Governed by board of directors comprise
 of senior HR practitioners both in private
 and public sectors and academic
Annual budget allocated by PMAT base on
 annual plans and programmes proposed by
 the IPM
          The IPM Services

Research and networking with education
 and research institutions
Thailand HR Journal and publications
HR consulting services
Promotion activities for strengthening HR
 practitioners‟ status i.e. The National
 Distinguished HR Practitioner Award
HR practitioner accreditation

Issue 5: HRD Process and

 HRD process –ADDIE

A = Analysis
D = Design
D = Develop
I = Implementation
E = Evaluation

      HRD process in practices

Mostly done without need analysis
Programmes are most copied from others
 or the Western programmes
Materials or visual aids are imported from
 the Western countries
Doing quite well in implementation
Mostly using Kirkpatrick‟s four level
 evaluation and very rare in cost benefit
 HRD cost benefit evaluation enhances
          HRD credibility

At present it is perceived that budget for HRD
 activities is considered as an expenses rather
 than an investment in people
To change this mind-set we have to show that
 HRD contributes to the high performance of
 the organisation
In order to do this we have to show the ROI of
More researches are needed badly in this area

Issue 6: HRD and Human Capital

       Quality of Human Capital
 A lot of complains about the poor quality of our
  human capital
 It was complained that Thai people are now less
  creative than in the past or than the population of
  other countries
 Some complaints even stated that Thai people are
  now could not think or “Kitt Mai Pen”
 Some complaints state that Thais are too much
  “thinking in the box rather than thinking out of the
 It is a big challenge for HRD students, academic and
        Are we really not thinking
             out of the box?
 No, I don‟t think so. I think that we do thinking out of the
  box too much
 The concept of thinking out of the box is the Western
 The Western needs this concept because their people are
  so well discipline
 Traditionally the have very strong laws, rules and
  regulations and the enforcement is very strong and stern
 But when globalisation comes they have to make a lot of
  changes to cope with the ever changing situations
 They have to do the deregulation and encourage people to
  be more creative and not to continue thinking inside the
   Our problem is not to have Thai people
       thinking out of the box -Why
Thai land is the land of free people. We have our
 proverb “Tarm a rai dai tarm jai kue Thai taeh”
We don‟t like being forced. We think that the
 rule is established in order that people can break
We have our own way of interpret things to suit
 our ways. We always have the way out and
 bending the rule
We have a lot of thinkers but most of the
 thinking is in the useless manner. We have a lot
 of “Srithanonchai” and we admire him so much

   Our real problem is to have Thai people
          thinking in the box-Why
 We are not less creative but what we need is to
  create in a useful way. We need to organise our
  thought. We need to think systematically-system
 Unfortunately our culture does not enhance and
  promote the required qualities for system thinking.
  We need to adjust or change our culture to suit
  with the present and future situation
 How to do this is a big challenge for HRD students,
  academic and practitioners. We need more
  researches in cultural development and changes

Issue 7: HRD and Culture

   The concept of culture

 A pattern of shared assumptions/invented
discovered and shared by a given group, as it
learns to cope with its problems of external
adaptation and internal integration, that has
worked well enough to be valid, and,
therefore, is to be taught to new members of
the group as the correct way to perceive,
think and feel in relation to those problems

                           Schein 1992, p. 12
  The important of culture
Culture comes from within people and is put
together by them to reward the capacities
that they have in common. Culture gives
continuity and identity to the group. It
balances contrasting contributions, and
operates as self-steering system which learns
form feedbacks. It works as a pattern of
information and can greatly facilitate the
exchange of understanding. The values
within a culture are more or less harmonious
                   Hampden-Turner 1994, p. 21
   The impact of culture
A fish discover its need for water only
when it is no longer in it. Our own
culture is like water to a fish. It sustains
us. We live and breathe through it.
What one culture may regard as
essential, a certain level of material
wealth for example, may not be so vital
to other culture. (Trompenaars &
Hampden-Turner, 1998).

     Cultures are both desirable
          and undesirable
 Cultures are changed form time to time and it is
  necessary to be changed
 When the culture is too strong and not supporting the
  new goal of the organisation such organisation will
  face with the problem
 Changing culture is changing mind-set of the people
  so it must be done in a proper and in a complete cycle:
 If the people are not changing nothing is changed and
  change management is incomplete
 Cultural change is a major agenda for Thai HRD
  students, academic and practitioners
   Rethinking the Thai culture

Some important cultural concepts to
be reviewed include

The concept of Bunkhun
The concept of Kreng Jai
The concept of saving face
The concept of criticism avoidance

   The concept of Bunkhun
This concept is the concept of gratitude or
repaying of favour with favour (Komin 1990). It
is instilled in the Thai people deeply and will be
quite difficult to change. For example some
employers claim that to hire labour was to
render „Bunkhun‟ in the form of money income
to employees (Piriyarangsan 1989). There are
limitations in applying this concept as it may go
beyond proper practice.

     The concept of Kreng Jai

Its closest meaning is „to be considerate, to feel
reluctant to impose upon another person, to take
another person‟s feelings (and „ego‟) into account,
or to take every measure not to cause discomfort or
inconvenience for another person‟. Kreng jai refers
to such attitude predisposing to one‟s resulting
behavior towards someone else. Kreng jai behavior
is to be observed by all, superior, equals, and
inferiors, including intimate relationships like
husband-wife, and close friends, with differences in
degree...(Komin 1990, pp. 161-162).

  The concept of saving face
Whenever there is any problem to be solved
that would directly or indirectly involve
persons, the first criterion to consider is saving
the „face‟- - the „ego‟ - - of the persons involved.
The Thai would usually find indirect ways to
soften a negative message. Most important is to
avoid public confrontation, regardless of
whether it involves an inferior, an equal or
worse still, a superior. To make a person lose
„face‟, regardless of rank, is to be avoided at all
cost (Komin 1990, p. 160).
The concept of criticism avoidance

 This concept reflects that “the Thai are very
 „ego‟ oriented, to the extent that it is very
 difficult for the Thai to dissociate one‟s idea and
 opinion from the „ego‟ self. This is why strong
 criticism to the expressed idea is often
 automatically taken as criticism to the person
 holding those ideas” (Komin 1990, p. 160).

     Thai culture is also called
      Thai-Buddhist culture
Some Buddhist philosophy and principles to
be reviewed include;

The principles for helpful integration
The principles of success
The quality of a good or genuine person
The principles of collective responsibility

The principles for helpful integration

  The Buddha‟s four principles for helpful
  integration or qualities that bind people in unity
  are also to be practiced by both parties. They
  are: giving; amicable speech; helpful action;
  and participation (Payutto 1999). Both parties
  “are to help through contribution of money,
  material things, or knowledge; to help through
  speech; to help through physical action; and to
  help through participation in facing and
  resolving problems”(Payutto 1999, p. 21).

     The principles of success

To achieve common goals both parties are to
practice the Buddha‟s four conditions that
lead to the success of any undertaking. They
are: having a hearth of zeal; doing with
effort; committing oneself to the task; and
using wise investigation (Payutto 1999). When
applying to the real work situations “these
four conditions may, in short, be remembered
as love of work, tenacity, dedication, and
circumspection” (Payutto 1999, p. 36).

     The quality of a good or
         genuine person
Buddha provides seven qualities which can
apply to both parties in dealing with each
other, performing their duties and conducting
their lives. They are: knowing principles,
knowing causes; knowing objectives, knowing
results; knowing oneself; knowing moderation;
knowing occasion; knowing company; and
knowing persons (Payutto 1999).

The principles of collective responsibility

Meeting often and regularly;
Meeting together, dispersing together, and doing
 together what is needed to be done together;
Neither instituting laws and regulations not
 communally agreed upon simply out of
 convenience or personal preference, nor
 denigrating or abolishing things already instituted,
 upholding the main provisions established as the
Honouring and respecting the elders long in
 experience, giving weight to their words;
         The principles of collective
            responsibility (cont)
Honouring and respecting the woman-folk,
 protecting them from abuse and ill-treatment;
Honouring and revering the shrines, holy places
 and national monuments, which are memorials
 arousing virtue and centres of community spirit,
 not neglecting to honour the ceremonies required
 for those places as dictated by tradition; and
Organizing rightful protection, support and
 sanctuary to monks and priests who maintain
 examples for the people, gladly receiving them and
 wishing for their comfort
Issue 8: HRD and Ethics

           The concept of Ethics

Ethics is to do what is right and not to do what is
We are facing with ethical problems and will
 continue to be so for a long time
We all need to find some ways to put an end to
 this problem
Culture is one of the major barriers for Thais
 ethical development
Ethics is a major agenda for Thai HRD students,
 academic and practitioners
 Some researches indicated that:

Almost 50% of the secondary school
 students believe that there is nothing wrong
 with paying tea or grease money to
 government officials
More than 50% of them also believe that
 cheating is acceptable as long as you have
 explicit performance output

 What would happened in the future if these people
complete their study and entrance to labour market

We need to rethink our HRD process to instil
 ethics in all phase of education
We may have to follow and adapted what
 Harvard has done by using the same question:
 can ethics be taught?
We need to do more research on ethics and
 apply at the individual, organisation and
 national levels
Begin with oneself first would be an
 appropriate approach
Issue 9: HRD and Research

        HRD research in Thailand

 Most researches conducted in Thailand is quantitative in
 It is done to test a theory rather than building a theory
 The major objective of qualitative research is conducted to
  build theory
 The major part of times is devoted to the teaching of
 The qualitative research is rarely being taught in the Thai
 One of the Thai scholar in a very prestigious Thai
  university even claimed that “Research without figures or
  statistics is not research”
                           Types of research
    Issue          Positivist or      Interpretive or        Ideological      Pragmatic or
                   Quantitative         Qualitative                           Mixed-Method

What counts as   External-realist     Internal-idealist   Either external-    Either external-
or constitutes                                            realist or          realist or
knowledge?                                                internal-idealist   internal-idealist

Where is                              Subjective-         Subjective-         Objective or
knowledge                             interactive         interactive         subjective

How is           · More deductively   · More              · Either            · Either
knowledge                             inductively         inductively or      inductively or
                 · In a more
attained?                             · In a more         deductively         deductively
                 way                  contextualized      · Either in a       · Either in a
                                      way                 decontextualized    decontextualized
                                                          or contextualized   or contextualized
                                                          way                 way
                                                          · Collaboratively
                            Types of research
     Issue           Positivist or       Interpretive or        Ideological      Pragmatic or
                     Quantitative          Qualitative                           Mixed-Method

How dose one       · Standardized        · Language from     · Language from     · Language that
describe or        language              participants        participants        fits the method
write about it ?   · Impersonal stance   · Personal stance   · Personal stance   · Use conventions
                                                                                 within the
How dose one       · Experimental        · Qualitative       For example:
study it ?         studies               approaches such     · Feminist          · Mixed method
                   · Nonexperimental     as biographies,     perspectives        studies that
                   studies such as       phenomenology,                          triangulate,
                                                             · Cultural          expand, or lead to
                   surveys,              grounded theory,    perspectives
                   correlations,         ethnography, case                       instrument
                                                             · Critical theory   development
                   comparisons           studies
                                                             · Postmodem

What study         Jungnickel (1990)     Creswell and        Dickens (1993)      Creswell(1997)
illustrates the                          Brown (1992)
methodology?                                                                               69
 We need to concentrate more on
      qualitative research

Grounded theory
Case study

Dimensions for Comparing Five Research Traditions in Qualitative
Research (Creswell, 1998)

                                      Dimension - Focus
  Biography              Exploring the life of an individual
  Phenomenology          Understanding the essence of experiences
                          about a phenomenon
  Grounded Theory        Developing a theory grounded in data from
                          the field
  Ethnography            Describing and interpreting a cultural and
                          social group
  Case Study             Developing on in-depth analysis of a single
                          case or multiple cases
               ั                 ่
         การวิจยเชิงคุณภาพในมิติตางๆ (ต่อ)
Dimensions for Comparing Five Research Traditions in Qualitative
Research (Creswell, 1998)
                                Dimension – Discipline origin
   Biography             Anthropology                 Psychology
                         Literature                   Sociology
                         History
   Phenomenology         Philosophy, sociology, Psychology
   Grounded Theory       Sociology
   Ethnography           Cultural anthropology Sociology
   Case Study            Political science, sociology, evaluation, urban
                          studies, other social sciences
               ั                 ่
         การวิจยเชิงคุณภาพในมิติตางๆ (ต่อ)
Dimensions for Comparing Five Research Traditions in Qualitative
Research (Creswell, 1998)

                                 Dimension – Data collection
   Biography             Primarily interviews and documents
   Phenomenology         Long interviews with up to 10 people
   Grounded Theory       Interviews with 20-30 individuals to “saturate”
                           categories and detail a theory
   Ethnography            Primarily observations and interviews with
                           additional artifacts during extended time in
                           the filed (e.g., 6 months to a year)
   Case Study             Multiple sources – documents, archival
                           records, interviews, observations, physical
               ั                 ่
         การวิจยเชิงคุณภาพในมิติตางๆ (ต่อ)
Dimensions for Comparing Five Research Traditions in Qualitative
Research (Creswell, 1998)
                                  Dimension – Data analysis
  Biography             Stories           Historical content
                        Epiphanies
  Phenomenology         Statements         Meaning themes
                        Meanings
                        General description of the experience
  Grounded Theory       Open coding  Selective coding
                        Axial coding  Conditional matrix
  Ethnography           Description        Interpretation
                        Analysis
  Case Study            Description        Themes
                        Assertions
               ั                 ่
         การวิจยเชิงคุณภาพในมิติตางๆ (ต่อ)
Dimensions for Comparing Five Research Traditions in Qualitative
Research (Creswell, 1998)

                                 Dimension – Narrative form
   Biography             Detailed picture of an individual’s life
   Phenomenology         Description of the “essence” of the experience
   Grounded Theory       Theory or theoretical model
   Ethnography           Description of the cultural behavior of a
                          group or an individual
   Case Study            In-depth study of a “case” or “cases”

Part 3: Discussion

Part 4: Q&A


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