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Describe the current “IT workforce” in Sri Lanka, the “job categories” in it and how it has been evolving over the last decade (year 2000 onwards). Clearly state your data sources.
CS5103 Information System Management Assignment 1 Type: Individual R. Ahilan | 09-9053 1) Describe the current “IT workforce” in Sri Lanka, the “job categories” in it and how it has been evolving over the last decade (year 2000 onwards). Clearly state your data sources. Answer Plan: Importance of IT in Sri Lanka Job categories in IT The initiation of IT work force in Sri Lanka The statistics of evolvement in IT workforce IT workforce forecasting Information Technology and its Importance to Sri Lanka Information Technology (IT) can be defined as study, analysis, design, development, implementation, support and maintenance of computer based information systems. It includes all the productions and applications of hardware and software. It is commonly believed that, more than any other factors, leadership in IT is essential for health and growth of Sri Lankan economy, but this leadership is being threatened by the shortage in the qualified IT workforce. Job categories of IT Workforce The IT industry utilizes a very broad range of skills. That is, IT hardware manufacturing relies on mechanical, chemical and many other engineering disciplines with the services of electrical and electronic engineers. Although the occupations involved in IT would be quite large, only the followings are considered as the job categories of IT workforce: computer scientists, computer engineers, system analysts and programmers. 1 IT Workforce in Sri Lanka The IT workforce of Sri Lanka has started to evolve from late 1994, when the country participated in a German computer fair to explore new markets for its manufactured computer software. Even after 15 years of evolvement, there is a shortage of skilled labors in the industry. Achieving the breakeven point by equaling the IT workforce supply to the demand is still being a dream, because of the migration of IT professionals to better nations where they can have high pay rated and better living conditions. Current IT Workforce and how it has been evolved According to a survey implemented by Sri Lanka ICT Association (SLICTA) in 2007, the IT industry shows signs of maturity and also it highlights the need to keep increasing the supply of high quality IT professionals. Some of the findings of the survey include; 1. In the end of 2004 the IT workforce in Sri Lanka was 20,276 which is a growth 30% from 2003. 2. It grew by nearly 10,000 over the two years from 2004. 3. It is estimated that nearly 14,500 It workers are required in the period of 2007 – 2008. 4. When there was a need of 5755 graduates in 2007, only 2216 were added to the workforce. This ratio was 5724:5034 in 2006. There is another survey carried out by Asian Oceanian Computing Industry Organization, further forecasted the IT workforce in Sri Lanka towards 2012. In its findings it states that the IT workforce to be increased from 5000 in year 2004 to 25,000 in year 2012. This is due to the fact that software exports to be increased by US$ 1,000M in year 2012. The actions taken to satisfy the future demand Due to the fact that IT service sector was the largest component of GDP (54%) in 2003 (Source: Rising Demand, SLICTA, 2007), and continuously expanding, the 2 government of Sri Lanka is trying hard to reduce the gap on the demand and supply of IT workforce in the country by opening new institutions and faculties such as Sri Lanka Institute of Information Technology, IT faculty in University of Moratuwa, National Institute of Technology and the like, with welcoming the affiliated programs with the foreign IT institutions. Continues surveys are being carried out by the relevant bodies to fill the information gaps in IT workforces in Sri Lanka. Foreign investments on IT are being welcomed and encouraged. Furthermore, there is a necessity of attracting the work force to be in the country by building strategies by the related bodies. Below figure 1 depicts how the software workforce evolved during the last decade and expected to be evolving till 2012. Figure 1: Software Workforce From 2004 to 2012, source: Rising Demand, SLICTA, survey 2007 3 2) Take a reasonably large Sri Lankan organization that is older than 10 years as an example and explain how its IS activities have evolved into what it is today Answer Plan: About the organization Existing system and the need of IS Human Resource Management system Evolvement of HRM, hence the IS of the organization Informatics International Limited The company that has been selected for the analysis is Informatics International Limited (here after this will be referred as IIL). IIL is coming under the Informatics Group of Companies that has, following Strategic Business Units: • Software Development & Systems Integration • Joint Ventures for Off-Shore Software Development • IT Education The IIL, formed in 1983, by Dr Gamini Wickremesighe. It is one of the oldest and largest IT companies in Sri Lanka with an unblemished track record, offering innovative and quality solutions in nearly all vertical markets. The need of IS The need of Human Resource Management (HRM) system was raised in year 1999, when the number of employees of the organization reached 500. Till that time, employees’ in and out times were tracked in a book called employees attendance book and then staffs from the Human Resource (HR) department, had to enter them into the spreadsheets manually. After manipulating them, they had to submit a report to each manager about their subordinates’ in and out time with total worked time, leaves taken and the like in each week. And also, they had to remind the corresponding employees to submit their leave slips, if they haven’t done so, using the data entered. Some of the issues in the existing system include; 1) Manual data entry of employees’ in and out times - daily 4 2) Dedicated staffs for the data entry and monitoring of the signatures, of employees 3) No controls or tracks of where the employees are during the office hours ( inside or outside of the office premises) 4) Manual data manipulations and report generations - weekly Human Resource Management System In year 2000, the HRM system has been implemented with the integration of an Access Control System, in the organization. Access control is a system which enables an authority to control access to areas. After implementing the system, the in and out times of employees were tracked via this integrated system using employees’ access to the access control system via proximity cards. On the following day, previous days’ status with the staffs’ in and out times are notified to the corresponding managers via emails, automatically. The reminders to submit the leave slips (manual) also sent via this system when the submission of this slips, hasn’t been entered to the system within a week. The top management of the organization was satisfied with the solutions provided by the system and the top management requested the relevant team to continue the phase 2 as well to further improve the system’s functionality to provide better facilities to its HR department. Further improvement in Phase 2 It was decided to automate following functions of the HR department by improving the functionalities of the HRM: 1) Storage of Employee details – Name, DOB, qualifications, dependents, etc. 2) Automate leave applications- currently it is via manual form fillings (leave slips) 3) Tracking of leaves taken for each employees – number of leaves, types of leaves (casual or annual or medical) 4) Automate insurance and incentive claims – currently it is via manual forms submissions 5 In year 2002, phase 2 of the HRM system has been completed. With these improvements, using the intranet employees can apply for their leaves, managers can approve or reject the applications and claims can be made. This enhanced the efficiency in the process. The team didn’t stop here, moved to the third phase with further improvements in the system. Phase 3 In phase 3, the functionalities for task allocations (by managers), time sheet entries (how the task is being evolved, by subordinates), performance calculations of each employee and the overall performance calculations of each units/department, were implemented. After the implementation in 2005, a trial run went for 1 year in implementation department only. The tasks were allocated to the employees who were outside of the office (at home) or country, and tracked using this system. The drawback was that, employees had to connect via VPN to access the system, if they are outside of the office. Currently, the whole functions of the HR department have been automated via the HRM. Drastic improvements in efficiency and effectiveness are being observed, in the process. 6 3) Take a reasonably large Sri Lankan organization as an example and explain how an effective IS can help it do much better than it is doing today Answer Plan: About the organization Existing manual system Where the IS needed? Sri Lanka Post Sri Lanka Post is an organization which exists for more than 209 years and employs more than 17,000 employees. It is one of the oldest government departments in existence today in Sri Lanka. The organization offer variety of services from facilitating communications of people via letter mails, telegrams and the like, philatelic services, financial services such as money order services, and banking services. There are no waves of innovation in the organization from its birth. There were several attempts put to implement an Information System to automate at lease one of its functionalities, but nothing succeeded due to several reasons such as lack of internal IT work forces, internal politics, no enough fund allocations and the like. IS needed in Money Order Transaction From employee’s point of view, automation of two functions using the information systems will be discussed further. The first one is the automation or money order transactions. Mainly, two methods of money order transaction services are being provided by the organization. They are, Ordinary Money Order (OMO) and Telegram Money Order (TMO). Mostly OMO is being accessed by most of the customers because of it’s cheaper than the other methods and majority of these customers are from rural areas. The existing system has been illustrated in the below Figure 2. 7 $ $ Receipt Post Office in Area 1 Post Office in Area 2 Receipt Money Money Receipt Receipt, via post Customer who intended to Customer who sends the money receive the money Figure 2: Existing Manual System of Ordinary Money Order Customer who sends the money will be paying the money needed to be sent, and receive a receipt from the post office in Area 1, copy of this receipt will be sent to the person who will be receiving the money (second party), by the first party. Post office will send a copy of this receipt to the post office in Area 2. By submitting the received receipt, second party can receive the money from Area 2 post office. The issues in this manual process include; 1) Delay in receiving the money- will take time to receive the receipt via post to both the second party and the destination post office 2) Needed a huge process in reconciliation in both the sending and receiving post offices 3) Human resource wastage – currently 500 employees for doing reconciliation task only. 4) Monthly nearly 2.5 million rupees is being spent on this service for only for reconciliation 5) Unreliability – Not sure whether the money will reach the destination 8 6) The money can be received only in the sent post office ( only in Area 2, not in Area 3) Introduction of an IS via web, will help them to overcome all the above listed issues. The system will be used to connect all the post offices in the island. A staff in Area 1 for an example will receive the money and enter the details in the system and issue the receipt from the system. An email will be sent to the destination post office and to the target person (second party) soon after printing the receipt. The staff in Area 2 will notify the second party via phone. The details in the system will be used to verify and authorize the second party when issuing the money. IS needed in Electricity Bill Payment In the similar way another function of the organization can also be automated, that is electricity payment receives. In the current process, after the payment of the electricity bill, the post office received the payment will send a details to the regional electricity board and then the customer’s accounts will be updated. In this process, if a person wanted to get the electricity back after the power cut due to the late payment, will take 2 weeks minimum because of delay in communication between post office and regional electricity board. By implementing an IS, can enable interconnectivity of post offices and electricity board offices. This will lead to do the payments at any post offices and immediate reflection in the accounts at the customer’s electricity account. 9
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