SAE Formula Car EE Senior Design Project Proposal – Part II January 17, 2002 Dr. Leiffer Aaron Roepke Matt Lyles Steve Ruse Nathan Brown (Jr) Paul Hummel (Jr) 1.0 Introduction: The Formula SAE competition is a competition in which SAE student members conceive, design, fabricate, and compete with small formula-style race cars. Universities and Colleges from around the world create cars to compete in this competition. The cars compete in several different competitions, including straight-line acceleration, autocross racing, skid-pad performance, fuel economy, and endurance events. To produce the most desirable car possible, some amount of electronics needs to be used to optimize the entire system. Foremost, an engine control system is needed. This control system must be capable of running the engine in the most efficient way possible. Fuel injection and ignition techniques will be employed, allowing the engine to produce the maximum power while using a minimum amount of fuel. To accomplish this, many aspects of engine operation & driver input must be monitored, and calculations made to keep the engine operating in an optimal manner. Also desired is a data acquisition system for the car. The optimal system would give vital information such as engine RPM to the driver, while transmitting a much wider variety of data back to a pit crew. The data received by the pit crew will give a large amount of information on the performance of both the car and the driver. This data will be analyzed both in real time and after practice runs, and modifications will be made to the car and the driving style to help gain the maximum performance from the car & driver. Certain safety requirements prescribed by SAE dictate that other basic electrical work will be needed on the car as well. 2.0 Requirements: Needs: - Engines researched regarding fuel injection (FI) possibilities - Engines selected to purchase and get engine running with FI system whether it be factory installed or FI kit. - Data acquisition system used to collect sensor information. - Dashboard driving instruments selected and calibrated with respective sensors. - Consulting/assistance with electrical related work on the car. Requirements: - Engines to be researched: o Honda F1 o Honda F2 o Honda F3 o Honda F4 o Honda F4i (factory FI system) o Honda GSX (factory FI system) - Fuel Injection system to be a kit system if not factory installed. - Fuel Injection system/Engine to be running as soon as possible. - Data acquisition system is to transmit data real-time to a “pit computer.” - Pit computer should display information from sensors as well as log the data to a file. - Data transmission rate should be 5-10Hz. - Data acquisition system should collect the following data: o RPM o Speed o Engine temperature o Oil pressure o Fuel level o Acceleration (3 axis) o Steering angle o Gear position o Throttle position o Vibration levels (in specified areas) o Oxygen sensor in intake o Fuel flow rate o Exhaust composition - Dashboard should have the following displayed (format): o RPM (analog) o Speed (analog or digital) o Engine temperature (digital) o Fuel level (digital) o Oil pressure (digital) o Shift light (Boolean) o Acceleration (digital) - Dashboard instruments should be easy to see from different angles and light conditions. - Dashboard instruments should be easy to read even during vibrations caused by race driving conditions. - Consulting/assistance work may include, but is not limited to, wiring of brake lights, safety switches, paddle shifting, and active suspension. - The main electronics should be packaged in such a way that they can be mounted outside the driver compartment. - The electrical systems must be powered off a 12VDC 10A battery. - The electronics should be of minimal weight. Systems Block Diagram: Engine Sensors Various Vehicle Onboard Dashboard Sensors Microcontroller Instruments Radio Radio Receiver Transmitter Pit Computer 3.0 Technical Approach: Engine Controls: We have chosen to use the Honda F4i engine. The engine has a built-in fuel injection system. Software is readily available to interface with the ECM and to tune the engine for the restricted air intake. Honda engines are the standard among formula teams from last year’s competition. The engine will be tuned, by the EE group, for peak horsepower output on a dynamometer. Data Transmitter: We have chosen to use standard analog sensors to collect the required data, because of the ease of acquiring such sensors and their simple interface. Several data streams will be tapped from the F4i’s onboard computer system. These data streams are sent to our microcontroller. The PIC16F77 microcontroller has 8 analog inputs with analog to digital converters. The 8-bit precision will provide sufficient accuracy and precision for the required measurements. A second PIC16F77 will be used in tandem with the first in order to acquire the necessary number of analog signals. The microcontroller sends the data to its onboard serial module, which transmits at 9600 baud TTL logic to a TTL-to-RS232 converter and then to a 56.6K wireless modem via a standard serial port. The modem transmits the data at 900Mhz and 9600 baud to the wireless modem connected to the laptop. The transmission packet consists of a “data-type number” which specifies what sensor the data is coming from, and the data itself. The transmission size is two bytes (16 bits) per sensor. Our software system collects, displays, and will log all data in real time. Cost was a limiting factor, resulting in more manual programming and setup as compared to an off the shelf product. The connection speeds are more than sufficient to send and collect 10 points per second for each of the sensors. Dashboard: The dashboard system will consist of the standard gauges for the Honda motorcycle, as well as an additional LED panel to display other necessary information. This method of dashboard instrumentation was significantly more cost effective than the use of an LCD panel. Misc. Wiring: Other miscellaneous wiring on the car, i.e. brake lights, ignition system, safety fuel kill switch, etc will be preformed by the FormulaEE team. 4.0 Management Plan: The SAE formula team is made up of 22 members. The team is broken down into five groups: Electrical/Controls, Powertrain/Drivetrain, Steering/Suspension, Chassis/Body, and Brochure/Fundraising. Andy Dettmer is the overall project leader. The SAE formulaEE (Electrical/Controls) team is made up of 5 members. The three seniors engineering students on the team include: Aaron Roepke (project leader), Matt Lyles, and Steve Ruse. There are two junior engineering students on the team assisting with the work specifically related to programming, Nathan Brown (EE) and Paul Hummel (CSE). Each of the five groups reports to Andy Dettmer, the project manager, at least once a week. Much of the assignments and communication will be done through email and an online forum that has been setup for the formula team. The entire formula team has a meeting once a week to discuss progress. The team will be using the senior design space and equipment in Engineering 3. The team may also travel to UT Tyler to use their dynamometer. The responsibilities for the spring semester are broken down as follows: Engine: Steve Ruse Onboard Computer: Aaron Roepke Sensors: Matt Lyles Pit Computer program: Nathan Brown, Paul Hummel Dashboard: Matt Lyles, Steve Ruse, Aaron Roepke Documentation: EE Team Packaging System: EE Team 5.0 Statement of Work: There are two main sections of work to be done on the FormulaEE project for the spring semester: complete the main systems and wrap up the project. Completing the main systems consists of bringing the major sections of the project, the engine, onboard computer, sensors, and pit computer program from the preliminary prototype stage to full functionality. The engine must be started and tuned on a dynamometer. The onboard computer system must be able to handle 16 analog inputs instead of the current 8 sensors. This upgrade will include the use of a second PIC16F77. The engine and vehicle sensors that are not included on the engine must be purchased and formulas determined to relate the input stimulus to the 0-5VDC output. Some sensors must be custom made to fit the formula team’s particular applications. The sensors must be mounted on the car and tested. The pit computer program is functioning, but still needs data saving capabilities added to it. Some minor problems exist in the pit computer program that need to be worked through before the competition of the project. Some wrap-up type tasks need to be completed this semester also. The entire data acquisition system needs to be packaged in a suitable enclosure. Final tests need to be run the entire system after it is mounted in the car. Documentation needs to be written for the entire system, including users manuals and technical specifications. Finally, the car is taken to SAE competition in May. 6.0 Schedule: WBS Duration Complete Systems 6 Engine 6.1 Install new ECM 6.1.1 1 day Start engine 6.1.2 7 days Find dyno to use 6.1.3 14 days Tune Engine on dyno 6.1.4 21 days Onboard Computer 6.2 Develop 2 PIC system 6.2.1 7 days Program Master and Slave PICs 6.2.2 14 days Test onboard computer system 6.2.3 14 days Pit Computer 6.3 Finish GUI 6.3.1 35 days Save data to file 6.3.2 35 days Sensors 6.4 Determine linear equations 6.4.1 21 days Construct custom sensors 6.4.2 21 days Attach custom sensors to engine/car 6.4.3 14 days Wrap-up Project 7 Package Data Acquisistion System 7.1 14 days Final Field Tests 7.2 14 days Documentation 7.3 21 days Instruction Manuals 7.4 21 days Final Demonstration 8 1 day SAE Competition 9 1 day 7.0 Proposed Costs: Formula EE Budget Device Est. Price Actual Cost Dash Board Budget Standard Gauges $ 300.00 $ 150.00 LED panel Radio Device Transmitter/Receiver $ 150.00 $ 63.86 Data Acq Sensors Other sensors for DA $ 400.00 Microprocessors PIC(s) $ 100.00 Usage donated by Steve Ruse programming board $ 200.00 $100.00 Final circuit board $ 20.00 Packaging/Chasis $ 25.00 Total $ 1,195.00 $ 313.86 8.0 Deliverables: By the completion of the project in May, our team will deliver an engine that is functioning with a fuel injection system. The engine will be tuned to run with the air intake restrictor plate that is defined by the SAE rules. The data from the full complement of sensors of the data acquisition system will be relayed to the pit computer program that will display and save all data for later use. The dashboard will be completed with all required information displayed for the driver. Assistance and advice will be given to the mechanical engineering students in whatever car wiring is necessary.