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									                   Research & Economic
                       Development




                    R&D in Forest BioProducts
                    Jake Ward
                    University of Maine
                    Research and Economic Development
                    November 16, 2008
16 November 2008            Office of Research and Economic Development   1
                         R&D and the Innovation
                              Continuum
               Basic Research                   Development                                 Production
                                               Demonstration                                                      +$$



                             Applied Research                            Commercialization



                   -$$    Technologies                                                 Businesses

                    Univ R&D                                                             Commercial R&D

                                                                                                    Traditional
                                          Valley of Death                                           Current

                                                                                                     Future



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                           “Stack the Deck”
              Look at available programs
              Develop a strategy to Link and Leverage
              Examples
                    PineTree Zones
                    Community Development Block Grant programs
                    R&D Tax Credit Programs
                    Maine Technology Institute
                       Cluster Enhancement Awards
                       Seed Grants and Development Awards
                    Continuing Ed, other ed and Training
                    Cooperative Extension Programs
                    EDA, Community Economic Development Strategy
                    K-12, learning results, laptops
                    Chambers, local businesses


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                          Maine R&D Strategy
             University based R&D
                    Maine Economic Improvement Fund, Fed Grants
             Non-profit Labs
                    Maine Biomedical Coalition, Marine Technology Fund, Bioproducts
             Clusters
                    Trade Associations, Industry Groups
             Private Sector Companies
                    Maine Technology Institute grants, MMEP, SBDC
             Advanced Technology Development Centers
                    Seven regional tech-business incubation centers
             Start-up companies
                    MTI Seed grants, SBDC, Coop Ext., etc.
             Inventors
                    Maine Patent Program
             Students
                    Entrepreneurship Programs

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                      Innovation Path Leads to
                      Economic Impact
                             Federal/State
                              Sponsored
                               Research

                                                   Tech
                                                 Transfer
                    University
                   Faculty and
                    Students
                                                                                   RD/TT
                                                                                  Facilities
                                                                                                      Incubators


                           Industrial        Seed Funds
                           Research

                                                                                                Economic
                                                                                               Development




                                                                                                             $$
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                         Overview of Projects
           Traditional Paper, Forest, Ag, Wood Products
            R&D
           Interdisciplinary R&D
                   Pulp and Paper Process Development Center
                   Advanced Engineered Wood Composites Center
           Newer Initiatives –
                   WUR - Wood Utilization Research
                       Dr.   Stephen Shaler
                   IFPR - Integrated Forest Products Refinery
                       Dr.   Adriaan Van Heninigan, Dr. Joe Genco
                   WISE – Wood-fiber Initiative in Science and
                    Engineering
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   The New England Wood
Utilization Research Program
  at the University of Maine



Orono, ME
March 2, 2004

Stephen Shaler, Program Director
       Program Objectives
Applied research in Wood Utilization to
improve efficiency in conversion of wood
to industrial products, improved
conservation of forest resources, training
of scientists and engineers,
communication of results to improve
economic activity in the forest products
sector - especially in rural communities.
Annual funding from USDA, part of ten
state program.
 Interdisciplinary Approach to
       Solving Problems
Interdisciplinary strengths across
campus including researchers from the
Advanced Engineered Wood Composites
(AEWC) Center) and the Departments of
Biology, Chemistry, Chemical
Engineering, Civil & Environmental
Engineering, Electrical Engineering,
Forest Management, Mechanical
Engineering, Microbiology & Molecular
Biology, Soil & Environmental Sciences
         Program Emphasis
Wood Composites {extrusion, thick
composites, laminates, hybrids}
Oxygen Delignification
Fundamentals of Biodegradation &
Bioremediation
Seed projects in areas including Marketing,
VOC Monitoring, Harvesting Systems, and
Drying
   WUR Scientific Highlights
Patents - 5 issued in past 3 years, 6
 pending
Publications - 155 Journal and
 Proceedings articles in last 4 years by
 12 faculty associated with current WUR
 program
Students - 12 graduate students and 15
 undergraduate students working on
 projects.
Integrated Forest Products Refinery
     (Opportunities and Challenges)

       Adriaan van Heiningen
        University of Maine


    OPPORTUNITIES FOR BIO-PRODUCT
        DEVELOPMENT IN MAINE
          University of Maine
            March 2nd,2004
                           Biomass (Cellulose)
        Abundance of Cellulose
               Most abundant organic chemical on earth
               Annual production of 90 billion metric tons/year
        Carbon Synthesis
               Energy basis
                  Carbon synthesis by plants
                  Equivalent to ~10 times the world consumption

        Carbon Neutral
               Forest material is carbon neutral
        Biomass Potential
               Reduce Greenhouse gas emissions
               Production of liquid fuels, electricity and new biomaterials



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            North American Forest Products Industry
        Global Competitors
               Low wood costs,
               Low Labor costs,
               Latest technology, large paper machines
                      Economy of Scale
        Price of Paper
          Prices for paper & pulp decrease by about 1% per
           year.
          NA Paper Industry has been cutting costs.
        Reduced Level of R&D in the United States
        Maine Forest Products Industry
                    Not well positioned in global economy
                    Older mills
                    Modest pulp production
                    Slower machines

16 November 2008                    Office of Research and Economic Development   14
                   North American Forest Products Industry
                                  (Conclusion)
        Revenue
               N.A. forest products industry needs to increase
                revenue
        FPI Needs New Products
               Forest products industry needs new products
                besides lumber, pulp and paper
        Possible Products
               Bioenergy
               Composite materials
               Biopolymers
               Biochemicals



16 November 2008                Office of Research and Economic Development   15
                   J. Bozell, DOE-NREL, 2003
        Technological Barrier
              Greatest barrier to using carbohydrate in the
               production of bioproducts is not economical or
               energetic, but technological!
        Deficient Processes Technology
              Example
              How do you produce the equivalent of
               polyethylene from wood?
                    What   is the chemical route?
                    What   are the properties of the products?
                    What   equipment would be used?
                    What   would it cost?

16 November 2008                    Office of Research and Economic Development   16
                   Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)
                              Guiding Principles (I)
   Produce Wood Products First
          Wood is a natural high performance composite material, and should be
           used first in structural and high-value consumer products for optimal
           economic benefit.
   Manufacture Pulp & Paper Products from Wood residuals
   Extraction of Chemicals from Wood
          Existing Industry. Tall Oil, Fatty Acids and Terpenes (Southern Kraft
           Mills)
          Extract Chemical Products from Wood First and Use Residue in Pulp and
           Paper Production
   Convert Waste from Pulp Mills as Feed to IFPR
   Use Kraft Mills Existing Structure as much as possible.
          Use existing structure of Kraft mills as beginning of the IFPR;
                      Alkaline pulping process (soda-AQ or kraft) with its entire infrastructure and
                       capital equipment!

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   Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)
              Guiding Principles (II)
     Hemicelluloses
              Low Heating Value
                 The heating value of hemicelluloses is only half of
                  that of lignin.
              High Alkali Consumption
        Extract Hemicelluloses Prior to Pulp
             Production
              Avoid burning the Hemicelluloses.
        Hemicelluloses are valuable when sold with
         pulp ($0.50/kg)
              Re-adsorb the extracted hemicelluloses on pulp
16 November 2008               Office of Research and Economic Development   18
            Integrated Forest Products Refinery (IFPR)
                      Guiding Principles (III)
      Resins and Chemicals from Hemicelluloses
             Convert remaining hemicelluloses into sugar
              based chemicals or resins.
      Gasify lignin to produce syngas
             Produce methanol, methane and/or another liquid
              fuel on pulp.
             Alternative to gasification and secondary
              combustion.
      Convert Low Molecular Weight Materials
           (Extractives) into Useful Products
             Pine Species
                Tall Oils and Fatty Acids
                Terpenes
16 November 2008             Office of Research and Economic Development   19
                      Forest Products Refinery
                   Today (Kraft
                      Mill)
              Purchased                           Paper
              Energy                              Products
                                                                                 Forest Products
                                                                                    Refinery
                                                 Bioenergy                              •Paper
                                                                                         Products
                                                                                        •Electricity
                                  Purchased                                             •Chemical
                                  Energy                                                 s
   Adapted from D. Cicero, Colloquium on                                                •Liquid
                                                                                          Bioenergy
   Black Liquor Combustion and Gasification                                              Fuels
   Park City, Utah, May 13-16, 2003
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               Selective Pre-extraction of Hemicelluloses
                and their Integration in Pulp Production

           Extraction of Hemicelluloses
                   Removal of hemicelluloses as polymers Using Dilute
                    Caustic
           Compatibility with Kraft Processes
                   Use only techniques and chemicals which are
                    compatible with the Kraft process or soda AQ


           Hardwood and Softwood Processing
                   Need different approaches because the
                    hemicelluloses are chemically different


16 November 2008                  Office of Research and Economic Development   21
                   Hemicellulose Conversion
        Monomeric Sugars
          Conversion of hemicellulose stream to
           monomeric sugars
        Polyesters
          Conversion of monomeric sugars to new
           branched polyesters
        Conversion of sugars to levulinic acid,
         formic acid and furfural.
          Platform Chemicals. Levulinic acid is a so
           called platform chemical
        Fermentation of sugars to alcohol



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                   Opportunities For IFPR
        Synergy: Full integration of the lumber, pulp and paper, wood
            chemicals and wood composite production

        New Products at Modest Capital: Use existing pulping equipment
            and infrastructure for production of new, high value-added products
            besides traditional solid wood and paper products!

        More with Less: Potential increase in pulp yield and production
            rate, with lower chemicals consumption

        Ecoproducts: Production of wood composite products and
            chemicals entirely made of forest based materials

        Ecofriendly: Electricity and chemicals from a carbon-neutral fuel

        Independence: Partial replacement of fossil fuel needed for public
            power generation by domestic renewable resource.

16 November 2008                 Office of Research and Economic Development      24
Woodfiber Initiative in Science and Engineering
                                     WISE Partners
                                 (USDA & 10 Universities)
                    USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory (Ted Wegner)

                    Auburn University (Harry Cullinan)

                    Georgia Institute of Technology

                    North Carolina State University

                    State University of New York-Syracuse

                    University of Maine

                    Miami University (Ohio)

                    University of Minnesota

                    University of Washington

                    University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point

                    Western Michigan University

16 November 2008                           Office of Research and Economic Development   26
                        Why Was Wise Formed
           National Research Council Report on Forestry Research
               Capacity (2002)
                    Knowledge Gaps. Specifically WISE will address building
                     national research capacity to fill the wood and woodfiber
                     science knowledge gap

           Maintain Leadership in Forest - Based Materials
                    To address the fact that Americas position as a world leader in
                     Forest Products Industry has eroded

                    Diminished capacity in research and technology transfer
                         - Globalization of trade
                         - International competition




16 November 2008                        Office of Research and Economic Development    27
                     Funding and Function of WISE
             FPL Budget
                   Initial $1 Million Target.
                      Congress is currently being lobbied
                      2005 Budget
                   $15 Million Target by 2008-2009

             50/50 Split
                   50% FPL
                   50% would be distributed among the member
                    universities,
                   Competitive projects

             Collaboration With FPL
                   FPL Investigator
                   University Investigator
16 November 2008                Office of Research and Economic Development   28
                         Gaps WISE Aims to Fill via
                      Competitive Collaborative Research
          Biorefinery. New and improved
                   methods to separate wood and
                   woodfiber into component chemicals
                   and to produce forest-based products.

          Fiber Processing. Mechanical,
                   biological, chemical and thermal
                   treatment of woodfiber to improve
                   suitability for use increase yield, and
                   decrease processing costs
16 November 2008                Office of Research and Economic Development   29
                        Gaps WISE Aims to Fill via
                    Competitive Collaborative Research (II)
           Recycling
                   Methods to increase use of recoverable post-
                    consumer materials, improve recycle yield, and
                    improve performance of recycled fiber.

           Fiber Engineering
                   Use of and mechanical, biological, chemical and
                    thermal modification of woodfiber for new
                    materials and products and to increase the
                    functionality of existing products.

           Fundamental Wood Fiber Science

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