Docstoc

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REPORT AND AN ESSAY

Document Sample
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REPORT AND AN ESSAY Powered By Docstoc
					  WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REPORT AND AN ESSAY?

               A REPORT                                  AN ESSAY

Structure/Access to information/            Structure /Access to Information/
Audience
                                            Is designed to be read as a whole.
Usually written for specialist audience     Written for specialist audience i.e.
                                            in your department but wider
Is designed to allow quick access to        audience than the lecturer setting
information through the use of headings,    the work
subheadings, numbering and indentation.
Some readers may only read the abstract     No standard structure, apart from
and then possibly the conclusion.           an introduction, a main body and
                                            conclusion. The structure of the
Standard report format, though there        main body may vary according to
are different types of report: technical,   topic and purpose.
scientific, field, lab, Environmental
Impact Report, as well as different         Headings and subheadings are often
formats in Engineering and                  used in S & T essays (check with
Communication Systems. However, they        lecturer), but not numbering
usually have a standard Introduction,
Method, Results and Discussion format:      Does not contain an abstract or
IMRaD, even though different headings       summary.
may be used.
                                            Argumentation and analysis
Some reports require a conclusion. They     Presents your argument through
usually contain an abstract or, where       analysis, which is supported by
specified, an executive summary             evidence from other scientists.
                                            Argumentation is particularly
Data                                        important and developed to greater
Based on data (primary) which you are       length to provide the structure of
analysing and presenting from your own      the essay. It acts as a cohesive
experiments/field work; sometimes also      device to connect the different
data from other scientists for further      points made in the essay.
analysis.

Usually contains data presented in          Impartial and objective in its
tables, and/or figures which are            approach to analysis and evidence.
analysed & discussed                        Avoids opinion and unsubstantiated
                                            claims.
Citation & References
Other scientists’ findings are usually      Paragraph structure is important in
presented in the Introduction as            signalling topics i.e. fully developed
background/background theory and in         paragraphs beginning with a topic
the Discussion section when comparing       sentence and is structuring your
your data with that of others. There may    essay.
also be citation in the method.
Paraphrase is used to report other          Data & citation
scientists’ work. Quotation is rare.        In Science and Technology essays
                                              often contain figures and tables,
Except with short reports such as lab         unlike Arts and some Social Science
reports, there is usually a references list   essays
at the end.
                                              Other scientists’ data can be
                                              analysed and discussed throughout
Language and Style                            the body of the essay, to develop
Formal, impersonal style required. Third      and support your own argument
person singular. ’I’ and ‘you’ are avoided
(except Psychology, see APA)                  Paraphrase rather than quotation is
                                              used to report other scientists’
Concise expression while clearly              findings in the body of the essay.
expressing ideas.                             Quotation is sometimes used
                                              (sparingly) in subjects such as
                                              Psychology and Geography.
Connecting ideas
You’re telling a technical/scientific         A references list is required at the
narrative (story), whilst using impersonal    end
style.
                                              Language and style
Subheadings numbering and indentation         Formal, impersonal style is
help to provide the structure and             required. Avoid colloquial language
cohesion. Brief signposting may be            and personal style, for example the
helpful in introductions to longer reports    first person singular ’I’. and second
                                              person ‘you’ (except Psychology,
                                              see APA)

                                              Style is concise, while self-
                                              explanatory

                                              Listing and bulleting may not be
                                              allowed, used sparingly

                                              Connecting ideas
                                              It’s important to: link ideas within
                                              and between paragraphs; use topic
                                              sentences; paragraph effectively
                                              e.g. 150 words paragraph,
                                              depending on topic; ensure there’s
                                              a clear line of argument

                                              Signposting is more important,
                                              particularly if headings are not
                                              allowed.

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:819
posted:2/24/2010
language:English
pages:2
Description: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A REPORT AND AN ESSAY