GUIA DE ESTUDIO PARA EL EXAMEN DE LENGUA EXTRANJERA by uzz16657

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									        GUIA DE ESTUDIO PARA EL EXAMEN DE LENGUA EXTRANJERA.

   REQUISITO PARCIAL PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DEL TITULO PROFESIONAL
       EN EL SISTEMA NACIONAL DE INSTITUTOS TECNOLÓGICOS.


a) Objetivo del examen:
   Con el propósito de aspirar a mejores opciones dentro del ámbito laboral y académico (en caso
   de continuar con estudios de posgrado) de nuestros egresados se requiere:
   Que el alumno demuestre la comprensión de artículos técnico-científicos en el cual estén
   incluidos términos técnicos del área de estudio del sustentante, dar respuesta a un conjunto de
   reactivos de opción múltiple y elaborar un resumen en español con los aspectos más relevantes
   del tema en el artículo.

b) Estructura básica y condiciones generales de aplicación.
   OBLIGACIONES DEL ALUMNO:
    El alumno deberá presentarse puntualmente el día, la hora y en el lugar establecido
      previamente para presentar el examen por lo menos 10 minutos antes del inicio del mismo.
    Deberá traer consigo su credencial de elector y/o su credencial del I.T.D. a fin de acreditar
      que se trata realmente de la persona que solicitó el examen. De no cumplir con este
      requisito, se anulará su derecho a presentar examen.
    Así también deberá traer consigo un lapicero de tinta azul o negra y un lápiz, goma y
      sacapuntas.
    Queda estrictamente prohibido el uso de celulares, beepers, etc. una vez iniciado el examen.
    El sustentante procederá a iniciar la resolución del examen hasta que el maestro
      correspondiente se lo indique.
    Las únicas hojas que serán aceptadas para resolver el examen serán aquellas que recibe el
      sustentante de parte del maestro.
    Queda estrictamente prohibido salir del aula de aplicación del examen una vez iniciada la
      evaluación.

   El examen se efectuará en tres secciones:
       1) Dar lectura a un artículo técnico-científico en el idioma ingles, cuya extensión deberá
           estar comprendida entre 800 y 1200 palabras, en el cual estén incluidos términos
           técnicos diferentes y comunes al área del sustentante.
       2) Dar respuesta a un conjunto de reactivos de opción múltiple, redactados en el idioma
           ingles, que permitan al jurado evaluar el grado de comprensión del artículo por parte del
           sustentante y cuya calificación representará el 70% del total del examen.
       3) Elaboración de un resumen en español con una extensión mínima de una cuartilla sobre
           la información mas importante del tema contenido en el artículo, el cual tendrá un valor
           del 30% del total del examen.
   En ningún caso se permitirá que durante el desarrollo del examen se haga uso de material de
   consulta.
   El tiempo otorgado será determinado con anterioridad para cada una de las secciones, con base
   en la complejidad de las mismas.
   La calificación mínima aprobatoria será de 70 en una escala de 0 a 100.
   El fallo del jurado será inapelable.
c) Listado de aprendizajes requeridos.
   Estructura gramatical.
   Vocabulario
   Comprensión de lectura

   GUÍA DE ESTUDIO PARA PRESENTAR EL EXAMEN GLOBAL DE INGLÉS

   TEMAS
   1. Verbo “to be”.
   2. Pronombres personales.
   3. Adjetivos posesivos.
   4. Auxiliares “do” y “does”.
   5. Artículo definido “the” e indefinido “a” y “an”.
   6. Adjetivos demostrativos (this, that, these, those; one, ones)
   7. Comparativos de igualdad, superioridad y superlativos de superioridad.
   8. Pronombres objetivos.
   9. El uso de “say” y “tell”.
   10. Uso de preposiciones (in, on, at, in front of, beneath, under,…)
   11. El condicional “would”.
   12. La forma posesiva.
   13. Pronombres posesivos.
   14. El presente contÍnuo.
   15. Determinadores (all, nearly, most, many, a lot of, some, not many, a few, few, no one)
   16. Adverbios de frecuencia.
   17. El tiempo pasado (verbos regulare e irregulars).
   18. El uso de “there is”, “there are”, “some”, “any”, “one”, “ones”.
   19. El uso de “how much” y “how many”.
   20. Sustantivos contables e incontables.
   21. El tiempo presente perfecto. “already”, “yet”, any more, any longer.
   22. El uso de “can”, “could” y “should”
   23. Respuestas cortas con “so”, “too”, “either” y “neither”.
   24. El tiempo futuro simple con “will”
   25. Pronombres indefinidos (every one, no one, some one, everything, nothing…)
   26. El tiempo futuro usando el presente continuo y “be going to”
   27. El tiempo pasado usando “used to”
   28. Adverbios de cantidad (too many, not enough, more, fewer, too much, less).
   29. Preguntas indirectas.
   30. Pronombres reflexivos.
   31. El uso de “wish”.
   32. El uso de “have”, “must”, “ought to”, “should” y “had better”.
   33. Verbos compuestos (clean up, put away, hang up, turn off …).
   34. Oraciones condicionales con la cláusula “if”.
   35. La voz pasiva.
   36. El tiempo presente perfecto contínuo.
   37. El uso de participios como adjetivos (interesting, interested, boring, bored,…).
   38. Modales y adverbios (may, might, must, could, maybe, perhaps, probably)
   39. Modales en pasado (should+have+pasado participio; could+have+pasado participio;
   would+have+pasado participio).
   40. Pasado contínuo
   41. Pasado perfecto.
42. El uso de “would rather” y “would prefer”.
43. El uso de adjetivos en las oraciones
44. Haciendo alusión al tiempo en pasado (uso de in, for, from...to, since, during y ago).
45. Futuro contínuo.
46. Futuro perfecto.

Verbos Irregulares:

                                                   Past                    Meaning          in
    Present                 Past
                                                   Participle              Spanish
    Be                      Was/were               Been                    Ser, estar
    Beat                    Beat                   Beaten                  Golpear, batir
                                                                           Llegar a ser,
    Become                  Became                 Become
                                                                           convertirse
    Begin                   Began                  Begun                   Comenzar
    Bend                    Bent                   Bent                    Doblar
    Bet                     Bet                    Bet                     Apostar
    Bind                    Bound                  Bound                   Atar, unir, ligar
    Bite                    Bit                    Bitten                  Morder
    Bleed                   Bled                   Bled                    Sangrar
    Blow                    Blew                   Blown                   Soplar
    Break                   Broke                  Broken                  Romper
    Bring                   Brought                Brought                 Traer
                                                                           Transmitir,
    Broadcast               Broadcast              Broadcast
                                                                           emitir
    Build                   Built                  Built                   Construir
                                                                           Reventar,
    Burst                   Burst                  Burst
                                                                           explorar
    Buy                     Bought                 Bought                  Comprar
    Catch                   Caught                 Caught                  Agarrar, atrapar
    Choose                  Chose                  Chosen                  Elegir
                                                                           Aferrarse,
    Clin                    Clung                  Clung
                                                                           agarrarse
    Come                    Came                   Come                    Venir
    Cost                    Cots                   Cost                    Costar
                                                                           Arrastrase,
    Creep                   Crept                  Crept
                                                                           deslizarse
    Cut                     Cut                    Cut                     Cortar
    Dig                     Dug                    Dug                     Cava, excavar.
    Do                      Did                    Done                    Hacer
    Draw                    Drew                   Drawn                   Dibujar
    Drink                   Drank                  Drunk                   Beber
                                                                           Conducir,
    Drive                   Drove                  Driven
                                                                           manejar
    Eat                     Ate                    Eaten                   Comer
                                                                           Caerse, dejarse
    Fall                    Fell                   Fallen
                                                                           caer.
    Feel                    Felt                   Felt                    Sentir
                                 Alimentar, dar de
Feed      Fed       Fed
                                 comer
Fight     Fought    Fought       Pelear
Find      Found     Found        Encontrar
Fit       Fit       Fitted       Caber, quedar
Fly       Flew      Flown        Volar
Forget    Forgot    Forgotten    Olvidar
                                 Obtener,
Get       Got       Got/Gotten
                                 conseguir
Give      Gave      Given        Dar
Go        Went      Gone         Ir
                                 Moler, rechinar,
Grind     Ground    Ground
                                 los dientes.
Grow      Grew      Grown        Cultivar, crecer
Hang      Hung      Hung         Colgar
Have      Had       Had          Tener, haber
Hear      Heard     Hera         Oír
Hide      Hid       Hidden       Esconder, ocultar
                                 Sostener,
Hold      Held      Held
                                 aguantar
Hurt      Hurt      Hurt         Lastimar, herir
Hit       Hit       Hit          Golpear
                                 Guarda, seguir ,
Keep      Kept      Kept
                                 mantener
Know      Knew      Known        Saber, conocer
Lay       Laid      Laid         Colocar, poner.
Lead      Led       Led          Guiar, indicar
Leave     Left      Left         Salir, dejar
Lend      Lent      Lent         Prestar
Let       Let       Let          Dejar, permitir
                                 Echarse,
Lie       Lay       Lain
                                 recostarse.
Lose      Lost      Lost         Perder
Make      Made      Made         Hacer, fabricar
                                 Significar, querer
Mean      Meant     Meant
                                 decir
                                 Encontrar,
Meet      Met       Met
                                 conocer
                                 Equivocarse,
Mistake   Mistook   Mistaken
                                 confundir
Pay       Paid      Paid         Pagar
Put       Put       Put          Poner
                                 Renunciar, dejar
Quit      Quit      Quit
                                 de
Read      Read      Read         Leer
Ride      Rode      Ridden       Cabalgar, montar
Ring      Rang      Rung         Sonar, tocar
Rise      Rose      Risen        Subir, levantarse
Run      Ran       Run       Correr
Say      Said      Said      Decir
Seek     Sought    Sought    Buscar
See      Saw       Seen      Ver
Sell     Sold      Sold      Vender
Send     Sent      Sent      Enviar
Set      Set       Set       Poner, programar
Shake    Shook     Shaken    Sacudir, agitar
Shine    Shone     Shone     Brillar
Shoot    Shot      Shot      Disparar
Shrink   Shrank    Shrunk    Encogerse
Show     Showed    Shown     Mostrar
Shut     Shut      Shut      Cerrar
Sit      Sat       Sat       Sentarse
Sing     Sang      Sung      Cantar
Sink     Sank      Sunk      Hundirse
Sleep    Slept     Slept     Dormir
Speak    Spoke     Spoken    Hablar
                             Apresurarse,
Speed    Sped      Sped
                             acelerar
Spend    Spent     Spent     Gastar, pasar
Spin     Spun      Spun      Dar vueltas, girar
Spit     Spit      Spit      Escupir
                             Extender,
Spread   Spread    Spread
                             propagar
Spring   Sprang    Sprung    Brotar, saltar
Stand    Stood     Stood     Pararse
Steal    Stole     Stolen    Robar
                             Pegar,        unir,
Stick    Stuck     Stuck
                             clavar
                             Picar, escocer,
Sting    Stung     Stung
                             arder
Stink    Stank     Stunk     Apestar, heder
Strike   Struck    Struck    Golpear
                             Jurar,       decir
Swear    Swore     Sworn
                             groserías
Sweat    Sweat     Sweat     Sudar
Sweep    Swept     Swept     Barrer
Swim     Swam      Swum      Nadar
                             Balancearse,
Swing    Swung     Swung
                             columpiarse
Shut     Shut      Shut      Cerrar
Take     Took      Taken     Tomar, llevar
                             Rasgar,      hacer
Tear     Tore      Torn
                             pedazos
Teach    Taught    Taught    Enseñar
Tell     Told      Told      Decir, contar
Think    Thought   Thought   Pensar, creer
Throw        Threw        Thrown           Lanzar, tirar
Understand   Understood   Understood       Entender
Wake         Woke         Woken            Despertarse
                                           Usar(ropa),
Wear         Wore         Worn
                                           vestir
Weep         Wept         Wept             Llorar, sollozar
Win          Won          Won              Ganar
Write        Wrote        Written          Escribir
                                           Envolver,
Wind         Wound        Wound
                                           enrollar
Swell        Swelled      Swollen          Hincharse
Thrive       Throve       Throve           Prosperar, crecer
                          Trod         /
Tread        Trod                          Pisar, aplastar
                          Trodden
ENGLISH – SPANISH ELECTROMECHANICAL ENGINEERING VOCABULARY



  3-way switches                Iinterruptores de 3 vías
  AC polyphase motor            Motor polifásico ca
  Adapter                       Adaptador
  Aerodynamics                  Aerodinámica
  age pressure                  Presión manométrica, presión relativa
  Allots                        Aleaciones
  Alternators                   Alternadores
  Amperes                       Amperaje
  Angosto, estrecho             Narrow
  Axis                          Aje
  Bar                           Barra
  Barro, arcilla                Mud
  Belt drive                    Polea
  Belt stretch                  Estiramiento de la correa
  Belt wrap                     Arrollamiento de la correa
  Bevel gear                    Engranaje cónico
  Biomass Biomasa,              biomásica
  Biotechnology                 Biotecnología
  Bipolar junction transistor   Transistor de unión bipolar
  Block and Tackle              Aparejo, polipasto, garrucha, polea
                                compuesta
  Boiler                        Calderas
  Boundaries                    Límites, linde, linderos
  Breadboard                    Circuito experimental
  Bricks                        Ladrillos
  Bridges                       Puentes
  Buffer                        Compensador, regulador
  Build a circuit               Armar un circuito
  Bulb                          Bulbo, ampolla, bola
  Buoyancy                      Flotación, principio de flotación
  Cableways                     Sistema de cables
  Calipers                      Calipers
  Calorie counter               Contador de calorías quemadas
  Calorimetrics                 Calorimetría
  Canned cycle                  Ciclo enlatado
  Capacitive                    Capacitivo
  Capacitor                     Capacitor/capacitores
Capturing board                 Tarjeta de captura
Cel                             Pila
Chain drive                     Transmisión por correa
Chain saw                       Sierra de cadena
Chlorinated hydrocarbon         Hidrocarburo clorinatado
Circuit board                   Tablero de circuitos
Circuit breakers                Cortacircuitos
Circular saw machines           (Sierras) circulares
CNC                             Control Numérico Computarizado
CNC Lathe                       Torno CNC
CNC Mill                        Máquina CNC
Coil                            Bobina
Coils of wire                   Bobina de alambre/hilo
Components                      Componentes
Computer graphic design         Diseño gráfico por computadora
Computer informatic             Tecnología informática
Computer network                Red informática
Computer numerical control      Control numérico computacional
Computer technology             Tecnología informática
Computer-based training (CBT)   Instrucción asistida por computadora
Computer-generated animations   Animaciones generadas por computadora
Computer-integrated             Manufactura integrada por computadora
manufacturing (CIM)

Conceptual/Applied Physics      Física conceptual y aplicada
Conduction                      Conducción, trasmision
Conductivity                    Conductivilidad
Conductors                      Conductores
Configuration                   Configuración
Constant rate descent           Descenso a velocidad constante
Construction beams              Vigas de construcción
Consumable supplies             Materiales fungibles
Contactor                       Interruptor contactor
Content                         Contenido, volumen
Cooling system                  Sistema de enfriamiento
Cooling water                   Agua de enfriamiento
Copper                          Cobre
Cover plate                     Cubierta protectora
Crank wheel                     Volante de manivela
Crowbar                            Palanca curva, diablo
Cube                               Cubo
Current                            Corriente
Custom production                  Fabricación a mano
Customer service technicians       Técnicos de servicio al cliente
Customer Support                   Servicio de Asistencia al Cliente,
                                   Asistencia alCliente
Cycle                              Ciclo
Cycles of water                    Ciclos del agua, ciclo hidrológico
Dangerous                          Peligroso
Deflection                         Flexión
Density                            Densidad
Depth perception                   Efecto de profundidad
Desktop Publishing                 Autoedición (DTP)
Dessert preparation                Repostería
Differentials                      Diferenciales
Digital logic                      Lógica digital
Digital Logic Fundamentals         Fundamentos de lógica digital
Digital multimeter                 Multímetro digital
Digital Signal Processors (DSPs)   Procesadores digitales de señales (DSP)
Digital Video Editing              Edición de vídeo digital
Direct current (dc)                Corriente continua (cc)
Disk-aimer                         Orientador de antena
Dissamble                          Desmontar, desarmar
Distance                           Distancia
Dolly                              "Dolly" (grúa)
Drafting table                     Mesa de dibujo
Drag                               Resistencia aerodinámica
Dragsters                          Automóviles
Drill Press                        Taladradora de columna
Drilling cycle                     Ciclo de taladrado
Drive axle                         Eje motor
Drive belt                         Correa de transmisión
Drive circuits                     Circuitos excitadores
Drive gear                         Engranaje impulsor
Drive motor                        Motor de impulsión, motor de arrastre
Drive shaft                        Árbol motor, eje impulsor
Drive train                        Transmisión
Drive wheel                        Rueda motriz, rueda de transmisión
Driven gear                 Engranaje impulsado
Drives                      Transmisiones
Driving gear                Engranaje impulsor
Dry                         Seco
Dry powder graphite         Grafito en polvo
Dual pushbutton switches    Interruptores de botón pulsador dobles
Dual trace oscilloscope     Osciloscopio de doble traza
Dust                        Polvo
Dynamics                    Dinámica
Edger                       Canteadora
Electric motor              Motor eléctrico
Electric relay              Relé eléctrico
Electrical                  Eléctrica
Electrical circuit          Circuito eléctrico
Electrical power supply     Fuente de energía eléctrica
Electrical Wiring           Cableado eléctrico
Electricity                 Elemental
Electromagnet               Electroimán
Electromechanical           Electromecánica
Electromotive force (EMF)   Fuerza electromotriz (fem)
Electron bean               Haz de electrones
Electronic Music            Música electrónica
Electronics technician      Técnico en electrónica
Electrostatic               Electrostático
Elongation                  Alargamiento
Encoder disk                Disco codificador
End cover plate             Cubierta protectora de fondo
Endothermic reaction        Reacción endotérmica
Energy resources            Recursos energéticos
Engineer                    Ingeniero
Engineering                 Ingenieria
Engines                     Máquinas
English system              Sistema absoluto inglés
Entrained air               Aire de arrastre
Entry-level jobs            Primeros empleos, Empleos para recién
                            egresados
Environmental issue         Aspecto, problema medioambiental
Equation                    Fórmula, regla, ecuación
Ergonomics                  Ergonomía
Exothermic reaction              Reacción exotérmica
Fashion design                   Diseño de vestuario
Fault insertion switches         Interruptores de insersión de fallas
Feed roller                      Rodillo alimentador
Fiber Optics                     Fibra óptica
Field lines                      Líneas de fuerza
Field-effect transistor          Transistor de efecto de campo
Filings                          Limaduras
Filtration                       Filtración
Filtres                          Filtros
Flash point                      Punto de inflamación
Flexible manufacturing systems   Sistemas flexibles de manufactura
                                 (FMS)
Flexing                          Corbadura
Flight instrumentation           Instrumentos de vuelo
Flight simulation                Simulación de vuelo
Flip top                         Cubierta movible
Float switch                     Interruptor de flotador
Flow chart                       Diagrama de flujos
Flowmeter                        Flujómetro
Fluid energy                     Energía hidráulica
Fluid head                       Trípode con rótula fluida
Fluid power                      Fuerza hidráulica
Force                            Fuerza
Force of magnetism               Fuerza magnética
Forniture                        Muebles
Forward motion                   Movimiento rectilíneo, Avance rectilíneo
Fractions                        Fracciones, quebrados
Framing                          Encuadre
Friction                         Rozamiento, Fricción, Roce
Friction drive                   Rueda de fricción
Friction-belt drives             Transmisión por polea-correa
Fuel system                      Sistema de combustible
Fuels                            Combustibles
Fulcrum Fulcro,                  Punto de apoyo
Funding organizations            Organismos de financiamiento
Furniture                        Mobiliario
Fuses                            Fusibles
Fuzzy logia                      Lógica borrosa
Gallons                  Galones
Gear                     Engranaje
Gear pumps               Bombas de engranajes
Gear train               Tren de engranajes
Generalist               Aficionado
Generators               Generadores
Glue logic               Lógica de interconexión
Grabber tool             Herramienta de arrastre
Gradebook system         Sistema de calificación
Gravity feeder           Alimentador por gravedad
Hard                     Duro
Heat energy              Energía calórica
Heating system           Sistema de calefacción
Heavy                    Pesado (a)
Heavy fluid              Fluido pesado
Hex key                  Llave hexagonal
Higher education         Educación universitaria
Hoist                    Montacargas
Hotplate                 Placa calentadora
HVAC                     Calefacción,      ventilación   y   aire
                         acondicionado
Hydraulic                Hidráulica
Hydraulic motor          Motor hidráulico
Hydraulic system         Sistema hidráulico
Hydrocarbon              Hidrocarburo
Hydro-energy             Hidráulica
Hydropower               Hidroeléctrico
Idler gear               Engranaje loco
Idler pulley             Polea loca, rodillo tensor
Impact force             Fuerza de choque
Inch (es)                Pulgadas
Inductive                Inductivo
Industrial Controls      Controles industriales
Industrial Engineering   Ingeniería industrial
Information technology   Tecnología de la información
Injection molding        Moldeo por inyección
Input distance           Distancia inicial
Input force              Fuerza aplicada
Installation             Instalación
Instrument scan                    Verificación de instrumentos
Insulators                         Aisladores
Intensity                          Intencidad
Internal combustion engine         Motor de combustión interna
Inversely proportional             Inversamente proporcional
Iron                               Hierro
Iron filings                       Limaduras de hierro
Isolation                          Aislamiento
Jet engine                         Motor a reacción
Jet flight simulator               Simulador de avión a reacción
Joints                             Juntas, nudos, uniones, articulaciones
Just-in-Time (JIT) manufacturing   Manufactura “a tiempo”
Key cards                          Llaves tarjetas
Kilns                              Secadoras
Lamp                               Bombilla, Bombillo, Ampolleta
Lead                               Plomo
Life                               Vida útil
Lifting capacity                   Capacidad de elevación
Lights                             Luces
Limit switch                       Interruptor limitador
Line shaft                         Eje maestro /eje de transmisión
Linear slide                       Deslizadera lineal
Loadstone                          Magnetita
Lock condition                     Condición cerrada
Logic gates                        Circuitos lógicos de mando de puertas
Loose gear                         Rueda o engranaje loco
Machine                            Mecanizado
Machines                           Máquinas
Magnet                             Imán
Magnetic starter                   Dispositivo de arranque magnético
Magnetic strength                  Fuerza magnética
Magnetism                          Magnetismo
Magnetite                          Magnetita
Magnetization                      Imantación
Magnitude                          Magnitud
Main                               Principal,importante
Main power indicator               Indicador principal de energía (eléct.)
Manometer                          Manómetro
Mass                               Masa
Mass flow                       Flujo de masa
Material-handling               Manipulación de materiales
Mechanical advantage            Ventaja mecánica
Mechanisms                      Mecanismos
Memory control signals          Señales del control de la memoria
Meter-in                        Medidor de entrada
Meter-out                       Medidor de salida
Meters                          Medidores
Methods                         Métodos, sistemas
Micrometer                      Micrómetro
Milliameter                     Miliamperímetro
Milliamps                       Miliamperios (mA)
Mixing panel                    Panel de mezcla
Model airplane                  Avión a escala
Model racetrack                 Pista de carreras a escala
Moisture                        Humedad
Mortar                          Mezcla, mortero
Motion                          Movimiento
Motors                          Motores
Mountings                       Montaje
Multiconductor ribbon cable     Cable plano de múltiples conductores
Multimeter function generator   Multímetro y generador de funciones
Nail gun                        Pistola de clavos
Network                         Red
Network communications          Comunicaciones en red
Networked computer              Computadora en red
Networking                      Operaciones en red
Newton's Spring scale           Balanza de resorte calibrada en newtons
Nonrenewable energy             Energía no renovable
Nut                             Tuerca
Ohm                             Ohmio, Ohm
Ohmmeter                        Óhmetro
Ohm's Law                       Ley de Ohm
Ohns                            Ohmios
On-board                        Instalado, incorporado
Open-tube manometer             Manómetro de tubo abierto
Output distance                 Distancia resultante
Output force                    Fuerza resistente
Panels                          Entrepaño
Parallel circuit        Circuito en paralelo
Particleboard           Tablero de partículas
Parts                   Piezas
Pascal's law            Principio de Pascal
Pinion                  Piñón
Piston                  Pistón, émbolo
Pitch                   Paso
Planning                Planificación
PLC                     Controlador lógico programable
Plotting                Trazado
Pneumatic system        Sistema neumático
Pointer                 Aguja indicadora; puntero del mouse
Pole (s)                Polo (s)
Poles                   Polos magnéticos
Potentiometer           Potenciómetro
Pounds                  Libras
Pour point              Punto de fluidez
Power                   Potecia (mec.);energia (elec)
Power                   Poner en movimiento (transportes)
Power Electronics       Electrónica de corrientes fuertes (o de
                        potencia)
Power source            Fuente de poder, fuente de energía
Power thyristor         Tiristor de potencia
Power transmission      Transmisión de energía
Pressure                Presión, tensión potencial
Pressure drop           Caída de presión
Pressure gage           Manómetro, piezómetro
Prime mover             fuente (de energía) primaria
Printed Circuit Board   Placa de circuitos impresos
Process data            Elaborar datos
Prototype vehicle       Vehículo prototipo
Pulley                  Polea, polea simple
Pump Head               Cabezal de bomba
Rack                    Cremallera
Rack-and-pinion gear    Engranaje de piñón - cremallera
RC Time constant        Constante de tiempo de circuito RC
Real-number             En números reales
Recycling pump          Bomba de reciclaje
Renewable energy        Energía renovable
Rods                                 Varilla
Scale                                Escala
Scaling                              Dibujo a escala
See-saw                              Balancín
Self-monitoring devices              Tablero electrónico
Series circuit                       Circuito en serie
Series-parallel circuit              Circuito mixto / combinado
Set screw                            Tornillo de presión
Setting frequency                    Regulación de frecuencia
Shaft                                Árbol, eje
Shaft Collar                         Collar de eje
Shafts                               Pozos de ventilación, respiraderos
Shear                                Esfuerzo cortante
Sheet (s)                            Lámina (s), hoja (s)
Shortening                           Acortamiento
Shutter glass                        Lente obturadora
Silicon controlled rectifier (SCR)   Rectificador controlado de silicio
Sine wave                            Onda sinusoidal
Slides                               Platinas
Slideways                            Guías de deslizamiento
Slip (avi)                           Resbalamiento
Solenoid-operated                    Operado por solenoide
Solid-state                          de estado sólido
Sophisticated                        Avanzado
Specifications                       Especificaciones técnicas
Speed                                Velocidad
Spreadsheets                         Planillas de cálculo
Spring                               Resorte, Muelle
Spring scale                         Balanza de resorte
Spur gear                            Engranaje recto
Squematic                            Esquema, diagrama esquemático
Stability                            Estabilidad
Stall (avi)                          Pérdida de sustentación
Stall light indicator                Indicador de luz de detención
Stand-alone product                  Producto de uso personal
Standards                            Normas
Starters                             Dispositivos de arranque
Stationary contact                   Contacto fijo
Statistical Process Control          Control estadístico del proceso
Steel bean                     Viga de acero
Steering                       Dirección
Stepper robot                  Robot paso a paso
Stereo optic                   Estereoscópico
Stimulating graphics           Gráficos atractivos
Stone carvings                 Tallado en piedra
Straight line                  Línea recta
Strain                         Tensión
Straw                          Pajilla
Stress                         Esfuerzo
Stress Analysis                Análisis de esfuerzos
Stroke                         Carrera, recorrido
Subscripts                     Subíndices
Surface tension                Tensión superficial
Surfactant                     Surfactante
Swichboards                    Tableros de contrlo
Switch                         Interruptor, suiche
Switches                       Interruptores, conmutadores
Synchro- Servo                 Servo sincronizado
TDS (total dissolved solids)   TSD (total de sólidos disueltos).
Teeter-totter                  Balancín
Tensor roller                  Rodillo tensor
Tepe                           Cinta de medir
Test lead                      Cable de prueba
Test points                    Puntos de prueba
Test strip                     Regleta de prueba
Theme park ride                Parque de diversiones
Thick                          Grueso
Thin                           Delgado (a)
Thread                         Filete, rosca, hilo
Three-dimensional              Tridimensional
Thumb screw                    Tornillo de mano, de apriete manual
Timber drying kiln             Secadero de madera
Time-delay relay               Relé de retardo de tiempo
Timing belt                    Correa dentada
Toggle operator                Palanca
Toothed belt                   Tira dentada
Toothed wheel                  Rueda dentada
Total Quality Management       Gestión de calidad total
Tracer robot              Robot trazador
Trainer                   Equipo de experimentación
Transducers               Transductores
Transformer               Transformador
Transformers              Transformadores
Transient                 Transitorio
Transmission mechanism    Mecanismo de transmisión
Transportation            Transportes
Traslational motion       Movimiento de traslación
Turn the power on/off     Enciende / apaga la fuente de poder
Turning                   Torneado
Twisted pair              Par torcido
Twisting                  Giro, torción
Two dimensions            Bidimensional
Two post connector        Conector de 2 patas
Two-finger gripper        Garra de dos dedos
Under load                Sometido a carga
Vacuum                    Vacío
Vacuum forming            Modelo al vacío
Vane pumps                Bombas a paletas
Velocity                  Velocidad
Ventilation               Ventilación
Vessel                    Recipiente, cubeta
Video production          Producción de vídeos
Videography               Videografía
Virtual instrumentation   Instrumentos virtuales
Volt                      Voltio, Volt
Voltage                   Voltaje, Tensión
Voltage drop              Caída de voltaje
Voltmeter                 Voltímetro, Voltmetro
Volts                     Voltios
Walls                     Paredes, muros
Wastewater                Aguas servidas o residuales
Waterproof                Impermeable
Waterproofing             Impermeabilización, impermeable
Watt                      Vatio, Watt
Wattage                   Vataje
Waveform                  Forma de onda
Weather satellite         Satélites meteorológicos
Weight               Peso
Welded               Soldada
Wells                Pozos, cavidades
Winch                Torno
Wire                 Alambre
Wireframe            Bastidor
Wood-burning stove   Cocina a leña
Work envelope        Envolvente de trabajo
Worksheet            Pauta
Worm gear            Tornillo sin fin
Wrench Allen         Llave Allen
ELECTRICAL TERMS GLOSSARY (ENGLISH-ENGLISH)



AC Signal:

the time variant portion of a voltage or current.

Alternate Sweep:

a vertical mode of operation for a dual-trace oscilloscope. The signal from the
second channel is displayed after the signal from the first channel. Each trace
has a complete trace, and the display continues to alternate. This mode is used
for SEC/DIV settings of less than 1 ms/div (faster than 1 kHz).

Alternating Current (ac):

an electric current whose instantaneous value and direction change periodically.
The term usually refers to sinusoidally shaped current or voltage waves.

Amplitude:

height of a waveform above ground (1/2 peak-peak value)

Attenuation:

the decrease in signal amplitude during its transmission from one point to
another.

Bandwidth:

the oscilloscope frequency range within which performance of a particular
characteristic falls within specified limits, commonly defined as the difference
between the upper and lower frequency at which the response is .707 (-3dB) of
the response at the reference frequency.

Blanking:

the process of making the trace, or parts of a trace, invisible.

Bypass:

a capacitor placed from a dc signal to ground will remove any ac component of
the signal by creating an ac short circuit to ground.

Calibration:

the process of comparing an instrument or device against a standard to determine
instrument accuracy or to make a correction.
Capacitance:

the property of a system of conductors to and dielectrics which enables the
system to store electricity when a voltage is applied between the conductors,
expressed as a ratio of the electrical charge stored and the voltage across the
conductors. The basic unit is the Farad .

Capacitor:

a device consisting of two conducting materials separated by an insulating
material (dielectric), which can store an electrical charge when a potential
difference exists between the two conductors.

Cathode-ray-tube:

an electron-beam tube in which the beam can be focused to a small cross-section
on a luminescent screen and varied in both position and intensity to produce a
visible pattern.

Chop:

a vertical mode of operation for dual-trace oscilloscopes in which the display
is switched between the two channels at some fixed rate. This mode should be
used for slow sweep rates.

Common:

the potential level serving as ground for the entire circuit.

Comparator:

A component which satisfies, for input Vin and reference voltage Vr the
equations:
if Vin > Vr then Vout = Vcc.
if Vin < Vr then Vout = -Vcc.

Compensation:

the controlling elements that compensate, or, offset the undesirable
characteristics of the process being controlled in a system.

Coupling:

the association of two or more circuits or systems in such a way that power or
information may be transferred from one to the other.

Crosstalk:

"leakage" of signal from one source into another.
Current:

the rate of change of charge (electrons) or flow of charge/second (dQ/dt)
through a circuit.

Detent:

a stop or other device (such as a pin or lever) on a ratchet wheel. Switch
action is typified by a gradual increase in force to a position at which there
is an immediate and marked reduction in force.

Diode:

the diode is the simplest and most fundamental non-linear circuit element. It is
a two terminal device which only allows current to flow in one direction.

Direct Current (dc):

an electric current that flows in only one direction with essentially constant
value.

Display:

the visual representation of a signal on a CRT screen.

Distortion:

an undesired change in waveform.

Dual Channel (Dual-trace) Oscilloscope:

An oscilloscope that has two independent input connectors and vertical sections
and can display them simultaneously.

Dual-sweep (Dual-timebase) Oscilloscope:

an oscilloscope that can display a signal with two independent SEC/DIV settings.

Duty Cycle:

The ratio of the lengths of the positive to negative halves of a waveform
expressed in percentages.

Farad:

unit of measure of capacitance. Named after Farad.

Feedback:
Voltage from the output of a circuit is channeled (or "fed") back into the input
of the circuit.

Focus:

the oscilloscope control that converges the CRT electron beams to produce a
sharp display.

Free-running Trace:

a trace that is displayed without being triggered and either with or without an
applied signal.

Frequency:

The inverse of time (1/seconds). How often an event occurs within a second.

Graticule:

the CRT grid lines that facilitate the location and measurement of oscilloscope
traces.

Ground:

1. a conducting connection that by which an electric circuit or equipment is
connected to the earth to establish and maintain a reference potential level.
2. the voltage reference point in a circuit.

Hertz:

unit of frequency, one cycle per second.

Hysteresis:

An output voltage Vcc does not change to -Vcc until the input increases above B*Vcc,
B being a constant value. Conversely, -Vcc does not change to Vcc until the
input decreases below -B*Vcc.

Impedance:

the total apparent opposition a circuit offers to the flow of alternating
current in an electrical circuit.

Inductance:

The voltage across an inductor is directly proportional to the rate of change of
the current through it divided by the rate of change of time (difference current/difference
time = di/dt). The proportionality constant which makes this true is L, the
inductance of the inductor component. It is denoted by L and its units are the
Henry (H). Therefore, the voltage v across an inductor is given by v = L*(di/dt).
Inductor:

circuit element which is a conductor wrapped into a coil to create a magnetic
field.

LED:

Light Emitting Diode, emits light when current is passed through it.

Megahertz (MHz):

a frequency of one-million Hertz, or 106 cycles per second.

Microphone (condenser):

an electromechanical transducer that converts sound pressure into an electrical
signal. Condenser mics require power to charge a capacitor used to sense changes
in sound pressure levels (SPL).

Noise:

an unwanted voltage or current in an electrical circuit.

Oscilloscope:

an instrument for making visible the instantaneous values of one or more rapidly
varying electrical quantities as a function of time or of another electrical or
mechanical quantity.

Period:

duration between repetitions of a waveform cycle. (1/frequency).

Potentiometer:

a three terminal device with a wiper that is positioned along a resistive
element; effectively making a voltage divider.

Probe:

an oscilloscope input device, usually having a pointed metal tip for making
electrical contact with a circuit element and a flexible cable for transmitting
the signal to the oscilloscope.

Rise Time:

the time taken for the leading edge of a pulse to rise from 10% to 90% of its
final value.
Resistance:

A measurement of the impedence of a substance to charge movement.


Schmitt Trigger:

a circuit devised of an op-amp configured as a comparator and given a positive
feedback. The Schmitt trigger employs hysteresis in order to create a switching
voltage which is less susceptible to noise than a straight switch.

Scope:

short for oscilloscope.

Screen:

the surface of the CRT upon which the visible pattern is produced; the display
area.

Sensitivity:

the ratio of the output value to the input value.

Short Circuit:

include a wire or other component into a circuit which effectively nullifies a
component of that circuit, or leaves the voltage across the component unchanged
in its AC or DC signal.

Signal:

a visual, audible, electrical or other indication used to convey information.

Single Sweep:

the ability of an oscilloscope to display just one window of time, thus
preventing unwanted multiple displays. Useful for trace photography.

Slope:

the ratio of change in the vertical quantity (Y) to the change in the horizontal
quantity (X).

Spot:

the illuminated area that appears where the electron beam strikes the screen of
a CRT.

Sweep:
time-dependent information created by the electron beam moving across a CRT
screen.

Time Base:

oscilloscope circuitry that controls the time dependence for the sweep. Time
dependence is set by the SEC/DIV control.

Trace:

the visual representation of an individual signal on a CRT.

Transducer:

a device that provides a usable output in response to a specific physical
quantity, property, or condition which is measured.

Transient:

a phenomenon caused by a sudden change in conditions that persist for relatively
short time after the change.

Trigger:

the signal used to initiate a sweep on an oscilloscope and determine the
beginning point of the trace.

Trigger Holdoff:

a front-panel control that inhibits the trigger circuit from looking for a
trigger for some specified time after the end of the trace.

Trigger Level:

the instantaneous level that a trigger source signal must reach before a sweep
is initiated by the trigger circuit.

URL:

universal resource locator. This is the address of something on the web.
Examples include: http://ece.wpi.edu/~frontier, ftp://ftp.wpi.edu, mailto:natalie@wpi.edu.

Volt:

the unit of electric potential difference that and electromotive force equal to
the difference of potential between two points on a conductor carrying a
constant one-ampere current when the power dissipated between these two points
is equal to one watt.
Voltage:

the difference in electric potential, expressed in volts, between two points.

Watt:

the SI unit of power, it stands for 1 Joule/sec.

Waveform:

graphic representation of the variation of a quantity (such as volts) as a
function of some variable, usually time.

X-Y:

a graphic representation of the relationship of the X signal, which controls the
horizontal position of the beam in time, and the Y signal, which controls the
vertical position of the beam in time.

Z-axis:

refers to the signal in an oscilloscope that controls electron-beam brightness
as the trace is formed.
SAMPLE_READING

READING COMPREHENSION

ELECTRIC CURRENT IS A FLOW OF ENERGY? Wrong.
Electric current is actually a flowing motion of charged particles. The words "Electric Current"
mean the same as "charge flow." Electric current is a very slow flow of charges. On the other
hand, electric energy is different. It is made of waves in electromagnetic fields and it moves
VERY rapidly. Electric energy moves at a different speed than electric current, so obviously
they are two different things flowing in wires at the same time. Unless we realize that two
different things are flowing, we won't understand how circuits work. Indeed, we will have little
grasp of basic electrical science.
In an electric circuit, the path of the electric charges is circular, while the path of the energy is
not. A battery can send electric energy to a light bulb, and the bulb changes electrical energy
into light. The energy does NOT flow back to the battery again. At the same time, the electric
current is different; it is a circular flow, and the electric charges flow through the light bulb
filament and all of them return to the battery.
Electric energy can even flow in a direction OPPOSITE to that of the electric current. In a
single wire, electric energy can even move continuously forward while the direction of the
electric current is alternating back and forth at high frequency.
Here's one way to clarify the muddled concepts: if electric current is like wind, then electrical
energy is like some sound waves, and electrons are like the molecules of the air. For example,
sound can travel through a pipe if the pipe is full of air molecules, and electrical energy can
flow along a wire because the wire is full of movable charges. Sound moves much faster than
wind, correct? And electrical energy moves much faster than electric current for much the same
reason. Air in a pipe can flow fast or slow, while sound waves always move at the same very
high speed. Charges in a wire can flow fast or slow, while electrical energy always flows along
the wire at the same incredibly high speed. Whenever sound is flowing through a pipe, the air
molecules in that pipe are vibrating back and forth. When waves of AC electrical energy are
flowing along a wire, the electrons in that wire are vibrating back and forth 60 times per second.
Suppose that we were all taught that sound and wind are the same thing? This would prevent us
from understanding wind or sound. K-6 textbooks teach us this. They say that electric currents
are a flow of energy, as if wind were really sound. It completely prevents us from understanding
both electric current and energy flow. Be careful, since my description of the above pipes are
just an analogy, and sound waves aren't *exactly* like electrical energy. For example, sound
can flow inside an air-filled tube, while electrical energy always flows in the space outside of
the wires, and does not travel along within the metal wires. However, electrical energy is
coupled with compression waves in the electrons of the wire. Electron-waves travel inside the
wires, yet the energy they carry is in the invisible fields surrounding the wires.
Is it important for us to realize that wind is not sound? Obviously. School books would cause
harm if they taught us that wind is sound. And if we want to understand circuits, we need a clear
view of electric charge flow, and of electric energy flow. We need to be totally certain that they
are two different things, and our textbooks teach us the exact opposite!
WRITE A COMPOSITION IN SPANISH (HALF A PAGE) ABOUT THE READING
ABOVE USING TECHNICAL WORDS TO DESCRIBE THE MESSAGE CLEARLY.
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SAMPLE TEST            (preguntas de opción múltiple, deberá estar relacionado con-
                        El texto asignado para lectura y comprensión en el examen)


Electricity quiz

Practice Test

       1.       What is static electricity?
                a.     electricity used for powering radios and televisions
                b.     a buildup of balanced electric charges
                c.     a buildup of excess electric charge
                d.     electricity produced by like electric charges attracting

       2.       The negatively charged particles in an atom are called __________.
                a.    protons
                b.    neutrons
                c.    negatrons
                d.    electrons

       3.       The law of conservation of charge states that __________.
                a.     charge is not created or destroyed or transferred from object to object

                b.     electric charge is not created or destroyed
                c.     charge can be created and destroyed but can not be transferred
                d.     the mass of all substances present before a chemical change
                        equals the mass of all the substances remaining after the change

       4.       What exerts the force that causes other electric charges to move?
                a.    conductors
                b.    insulators
                c.    electrical poles
                d.    the electric field

       5.       The purpose of fuses and circuit breakers is to _________.
                a.    decrease the resistance in a series circuit
                b.    allow circuits to be overloaded
                c.    prevent circuits from overheating
                d.    prevent breaks in the circuit

       6.       The process of transferring charge by touching is called __________.
                a.     charging by contact
                b.     electron exchange
                c.     charge conveyance
                d.     covalent charging
7.    In which type of circuit are there two or more branches for current to
      move through?
      a.     uniform
      b.     parallel
      c.     series
      d.     open

8.    Which of the following actions increases the resistance of a wire?
      a.    making it thicker
      b.    making it longer
      c.    making it shorter
      d.    decreasing the temperature

9.    Why are metals good conductors of electricity?
      a.    Outer-level electrons are weakly held.
      b.    The outer energy levels of metals are nearly filled.
      c.    Metals do not share the electrons in their outer energy levels.
      d.    Outer-level electrons are tightly held.

10.   __________ is the push that causes charges to move.
      a.    Voltage difference
      b.    Resistance
      c.    Induction
      d.    Static

11.   __________ is a large static discharge through the air between two objects.

      a.     Lightning
      b.     A fuse
      c.     Voltage
      d.     Grounding

12.   Electric charges flow from __________.
      a.      low-voltage areas to high-voltage areas
      b.      high-voltage areas to low-voltage areas
      c.      low-resistance areas to high-resistance areas
      d.      insulators to conductors

13.   In which type of circuit does current have only one loop to flow through?
      a.     series
      b.     uniform
      c.     parallel
      d.     open

14.   The rate at which electrical energy is converted to another form of
      energy is called __________.
      a.     energy transformation
      b.     transmission
      c.     electrical power
      d.     hydroelectricity

15.   What is the standard voltage difference of electrical energy entering homes
       in the United States?
      a.      12 V
      b.      220 V
      c.      1200 V
      d.      120 V

16.   Electrical power is expressed in __________.
      a.      volts
      b.      amperes
      c.      watts
      d.      ohms

17.   __________ is the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons.

      a.     Resistance
      b.     Transistance
      c.     Conduction
      d.     Induction

18.   According to Ohm's law, as the resistance in a circuit __________, the
       current __________.
      a.     increases, remains constant
      b.     decreases, decreases
      c.     increases, doubles
      d.     increases, decreases

19.   Electric current in a circuit is measured in _________.
      a.      ohms
      b.      watts
      c.      amperes
      d.      volts

20.   What is the current in a circuit if the voltage difference is 15 V and
       resistance is 15 W?
      a.      225 A
      b.      0.0 A
      c.      1.0 A
      d.      30 A
d) Bibliografía básica y complementaria
   Introduction To Electrical Engineering by Clayton Paul, Syed A Nasar, and Louis Unnewehr
   (Hardcover - Jan 1, 1992)

   Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering, Third Edition by Colin Bayliss and Brian
   Hardy (Hardcover - Jan 22, 2007

   Electrical Engineering: Principles & Applications (3rd Edition) by Allan R. Hambley
   (Hardcover - April 8, 2004)

   Fundamentals of Electrical Engineering (Oxford Series in Electrical and Computer Engineering)
   by Leonard S. Bobrow (Hardcover - Mar 7, 1996)

   Fundamental Concepts in Electrical And Computer Engineering by Peter M. Meenen and Reza
   Adhami (Paperback - Nov 30, 2005)

   Schaum's Outline of Electrical Power Systems by Syed A Nasar (Paperback - Nov 1, 1989)

   Nota: En caso de no tener acceso a los textos antes mencionados, se recomienda la lectura de los
   libros de texto en ingles de las materias que se cursan en la carrera.

								
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