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Stoichy-what?! (Now you’re just making stuff up!) The word stoichiometry comes from two Greek words: stoicheion (meaning "element") and metron (meaning "measure"). Stoichiometry deals with calculations about the masses (sometimes volumes) of reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction. It is a very mathematical part of chemistry, so be prepared to use your calculator! What You Should Expect The most common stoichiometric problem will give you with a certain amount of a reactant then ask how much of a product can be formed. Here is a generic chemical equation: 2 A + 2B 3C A typically-worded problem looks like this: Given 20.0 grams of A and sufficient B, how many grams of C can be produced?” (Let’s solve it together!) You will need to use naming, mole ratios, molar masses, balancing and interpreting chemical equations, and converting between mass, volume, or “representative particles” and moles. If you struggled with those in concepts last unit, welcome to the club (this stuff is not easy). Go back and review what you need to, because if you can't do that stuff, sadly you can't do stoichiometry. The Steps Involved in Solving Full-Blown Stoichiometry Problems 1. Make sure your chemical equation is correctly balanced. 2. Use the correct conversion factor to convert the “given” to moles (for grams use molar mass, for volume use 22.4L, and for atoms, molecules or formula units, use 6.02 x 10 23) 3. Set up a “mole bridge” (the mole ratios from the balanced equation) to convert from moles of the “given” to moles of the “unknown.” 4. Use the correct conversion factor to convert the moles of the “unknown” to the unit you need (for grams use molar mass, for volume use 22.4L, and for atoms, molecules or formula units, use 6.02 x 1023). The Mole Bridge – Still Your Best Tool (Next to the Periodic Table) NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 1 Guided Notes: 1. How would you explain “stoichiometry” in your own words? 2. How is stoichiometry related to balanced equations? 3. What is a “mole ratio?” (Include an example) 4. What does your book mean by a “mole-to-mole” problem? Include an example. 5. Using the sample problem on page 352 as your guide, solve this problem (show set-up and work): How many moles of HCl are required to react with 5.8 moles of Zinc? Balanced equation: Set-up and solve: 6. How does the concept of Stoichiometry support the conservation of matter? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 2 Guided Notes: 1. What are the major categories of Stoichiometry problems? (Hint: There are three!). a. b. c. 2. What is the general formula/set-up of ANY stoichiometry problem? 3. What is the general formula/set-up of a Mass-Mass stoichiometry problem? 4. What is the general formula/set-up of a Mass-Volume stoichiometry problem? 5. Explain the similarities between Mass-Mass, Mass-Volume, and Volume-Volume problems? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 3 Guided Notes: 1. How would you define a “limiting reactant?” 2. What happens when a limiting reactant is completely consumed and why? 3. How can you calculate which reactant is limiting? 4. How do you calculate your score on a quiz or test? Give an example. 5. What is “percent yield” and how do you calculate it? (Give an example) NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 4 First the hamburger analogy! (Yum!) My recipe for a bacon double cheeseburger is: 1 hamburger bun 2 hamburger patties 2 slices of cheese 4 strips of bacon Based on this recipe: 1. If I have five bacon double cheeseburgers: a. How many hamburger buns do I have? b. How many hamburger patties do I have? c. How many slices of cheese do I have? d. How many strips of bacon do I have? 2. How many bacon double cheeseburgers can you make if you start with: a. 1 bun, 2 patties, 2 slices of cheese, 4 strips of bacon b. 2 bun, 4 patties, 4 slices of cheese, 8 strips of bacon c. 1 dozen bun, 2 dozen patties, 2 dozen slices of cheese, 4 dozen strips of bacon d. 1 mole bun, 2 mole patties, 2 mole slices of cheese, 4 mole strips of bacon e. 10 bun, 20 patties, 2 slices of cheese, 40 strips of bacon 3. If you had fixings for 100 bacon double cheeseburgers, but when you were cooking you ruined 10 of them. What percentage of the bacon double cheeseburgers do you actually make? Now, the chemistry problem. NOTE: The math and the concepts are identical to the above example. The only difference is the “recipe.” Here are two examples of chemical recipes: + - Na + Cl -> NaCl 1 mole of H2SO4 + 2 mole NaOH produce 1 mole Na2SO4 + 2 mole H2O Based on the recipes above: 1. If I have 1 mole of NaCl a. How many moles of sodium do I have? b. How many moles of Chloride do I have? 2. If I want to make 5 moles of Na2SO4: a. How many moles of H2SO4 do I need? b. How many moles of NaOH do I need? 3. How much Na2SO4 can I make if I have: a. 1 mole of H2SO4 and 2 mole of NaOH b. 10 mole of H2SO4 and 20 mole of NaOH c. 0.1 mole of H2SO4 and 0.2 mole of NaOH d. 1 mole of H2SO4 and 20 mole of NaOH e. 0.42 mole of H2SO4 and 0.65 mole of NaOH f. 5 grams of H2SO4 and 5 grams of NaOH NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 5 Skill Builder 1: Mole Ratios The coefficient (number in front of the element or compound) in a balanced chemical equation tells us what mole ratios we will have. Ex. 2Ca + O2 → 2CaO We know from the above equation that 2 moles of Ca will react with 1 mole of O2. 2 moles of Ca will produce 2 moles of CaO. 1 mole of O2 will produce 2 moles of CaO So if I have .5 moles of Ca then how many moles of CaO will I produce? .5moles Ca 2 moles CaO = .5 moles CaO 2 moles Ca If I have 3 moles of O2 then how many moles of CaO will I produce? 3 moles O2 2 moles CaO = 6 moles CaO 1 moles O2 1. The combustion of acetylene gas is represented by this equation. 2C2H2(g) + 5O2(g) → 4CO2(g) + 2H2O(g) a. 2 moles of C2H2 will react with _____ moles of O2 b. 5 moles of O2 will produce _____ moles of CO2 c. 2 moles of C2H2 will produce _____ moles of H2O d. 2 moles of C2H2 will produce _____ moles of CO2 e. If I have 7 moles of O2 how many moles of H2O will I produce? f. If I have 6.5 moles of C2H2 how many moles of CO2 will I produce? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 6 2. Rusting of iron is represented by the equation 4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3. a. If I have 9 moles of Fe how many moles of Fe2O3 will I produce? b. If I produce 5 moles of Fe2O3 how many moles of O2 did I start with? c. If I have 13 moles of Fe how many moles of O2 will I react with? 3. Acetylene gas is produced by adding water to calcium carbide. CaC2(s) + 2H2O(l) → C2H2(g) + Ca(OH)2(aq) a. If I have 2.7 moles of CaC2 how many moles of Ca(OH)2 will I produce? b. If I produce 5.2 moles of Ca(OH)2 how many moles of CaC2 did I start with? c. If I have 6.3 moles of H2O how many moles of CaC2 will I react with? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 7 Skill Builder 2: Simple “Mole Ratio” Stoichiometry Worksheet Show work on this page (Same as 11-1) 1. Lead will react with hydrochloric acid 6. How many moles of hydrogen will be to produce lead chloride and hydrogen. produced if 0.44 mol of CaH2 reacts How many moles of hydrochloric acid are according to the following equation? needed to completely react with 0.36 mol CaH2 + 2H2O → Ca(OH)2 + 2H2 of lead? 7. How many moles of oxygen will be needed 2. How many moles of HNO3 will be to react with 0.38 mol of C3H8 according to produced when 0.51 of N2O5 reacts the following equation? according to the following equation? C3H8 + 5O2 → 3CO2 + 4H2O? N2O5 + H2O → 2HNO3 8. Nitrogen can react with hydrogen to 3. Carbon will react with zinc oxide to produce ammonia. How many moles produce zinc and carbon dioxide. of nitrogen will be needed to produce How many moles of carbon dioxide 0.48 mol of NH3? will be produced if 0.38 mol of ZnO is completely reacted? 9. Iron will react with oxygen to produce Fe2O3. How many moles of Fe2O3 will be produced if 0.18 mol of Fe reacts? 4. How many moles of NaBr will be produced when 0.69 mol of bromine reacts according to the following equation? Br2 + 2NaI → 2NaBr + I2? 10. How many moles of water will be produced if 2.35 mol of oxygen reacts according to the following equation? 2C6H6 + 15O2 → 12CO2 + 6H2O? 5. Phosphorus will react with bromine to produce phosphorus tribromide. How many moles of phosphorus tribromide will be produced if 0.78 mol of bromine is reacted? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 8 Skill Builder 3: Getting More Comfortable with “Stoich” Determine the mass of lithium hydroxide produced when 0.38g lithium nitride reacts with water according to the following equation: Li3N + 3H2O NH3 + 3LiOH Step 1: Make sure you have a balanced equation! Step 2: Identify the two “things” (elements or compounds) you are comparing, and circle them (in this example you are comparing lithium nitride and lithium hydroxide). Step 3: List your “given” and “unknown” amounts. G: 0.38 g Li3N U: mass (g) LiOH Step 4: Identify your Mole Ratio (1 mole Li3N : 3 mol LiOH). This ratio is your “Mole Bridge.” Step 5: Set up your T-chart including ALL units and formulas! 0.38 g Li3N 1 mole Li3N 3 mole LiOH 23.95 g LiOH = 0.78 g LiOH 34.83 g Li3N 1 mole Li3N 1 mole LiOH Now Try Some Practice Problems! In the following problems, calculate how much of the indicated product is made. Show all your work. 1) LiOH + HBr LiBr + H2O If you start with ten grams of lithium hydroxide, how many grams of lithium bromide will be produced? 2) C2H4 + 3 O2 2 CO2 + 2 H2O If you start with 45 grams of ethylene (C2H4), how many grams of carbon dioxide will be produced? 3) Mg + 2 NaF MgF2 + 2 Na If you start with 5.5 grams of lithium chloride, how many grams of calcium chloride will be produced? 4) 2 HCl + Na2SO4 2 NaCl + H2SO4 If you start with 20 grams of hydrochloric acid, how many grams of sulfuric acid will be produced? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 9 Skill Builder 4: Stoichiometry Worksheet SHOW WORK to get credit For the next 4 reactions, balance the equation for the reaction and give the mole to mole ratios. 1. PCl3 + H2O → H3PO3 +HCl 2. PbO → Pb + O2 3. Al + HCl → AlCl3 + H2 4. CaC2 + H2O → C2H2 + Ca(OH)2 5. How many moles of the product would be produced if you had 0.15 mol of Mg? 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO 6. How many moles of the product would be produced if you had 0.15 mol of O2? 2Mg + O2 → 2MgO 7. How many moles of the product would be produced if you had 0.15 mol of Fe? 4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 8. How many moles of the product would be produced if you had 0.15 mol of O2? 4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3 NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 10 9. How many grams of product would be produced if you had 0.50 mol of NH3? NH3 + HCl → NH4Cl 10. How many grams of each product would be produced if you had 0.50 mol of S? CH4 + 4S → CS2 + 2H2S 11. How many grams of each product would be produced if you had 0.50 mol of PCl 3? PCl3 + 3H2O →H3PO3 +3HCl 12. How many grams of each product would be produced if you had 12.5 g of H2? TiBr4 + H2 → Ti + HBr 13. How many grams of each product would be produced if you had 12.5 g of SiH4? SiH4 + NH3 → Si3N4 + H2 NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 11 Skill Builder 5: More Stoichiometry Worksheet Use a separate sheet of paper. (Same as 11-2) 1) Determine the mass of lithium hydroxide 7) Determine the mass of sodium nitrate produced when 0.38g of lithium nitride produced when 0.73g of nickel (II) nitrate reacts with water according to the reacts with sodium hydroxide according equation: to the following equation: Ni(NO3) 2 + 2NaOH Ni(OH) 2 + 2 NaNO3 2) What mass of sodium chloride is produced 8) Determine the mass of calcium hydroxide when chlorine reacts with 0.29 grams of produced when calcium carbide reacts sodium iodide? with 0.64 g of water according to the following equation: CaC2 + 2 H2O Ca(OH) 2 + C2H2 3) Determine the mass of carbon dioxide produced when 0.85g of butane reacts with oxygen according to the following equation: 2C4H10 + 13O2 8CO2 + 10H2O 9) How many grams of ozone (O3) must decompose to produce 0.87 g of oxygen? 4) Determine the mass of antimony produced 10) Find the mass of sugar (C6H12O6) required when 0.46g of antimony (III) oxide reacts to produce 1.82 L of carbon dioxide gas at with carbon according to the following STP from the following equation: equation: Sb2O3+ 3C 2Sb + 3 CO C6H12O6 2 C6H6O + 2CO2 5) What mass of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) 11) How many liters of oxygen are needed for must decompose to produce 0.77g of H2O? the complete combustion of 425 g of sulfur, assuming that the reaction occurs at STP? S + O2 SO2 6) What mass of carbon dioxide must react with oxygen to produce 0.69g of carbon 12) Find the mass of benzene (C6H6) needed to dioxide? produce 2.66 L of carbon dioxide gas at STP from the following reaction: 2 C6H6 + 15O2 6H2O + 12CO2 NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 12 Skill Builder 5: More Stoichiometry Worksheet Use a separate sheet of paper. (Same as 11-2) 13) Find the mass of sodium needed to produce 20) What volumes of H2S gas and oxygen are 5.68 L of hydrogen gas at STP from the needed to produce 14.2 L of SO2 gas? following reaction: 2H2S + 3 O2 2SO2 + 2 H2O 2Na + 2H2O 2NaOH + H2 14) How many liters of oxygen gas are needed 21) What volumes of sulfur dioxide and for the complete combustion of 277 g of dihydrogen sulfide gases are needed to carbon monoxide at STP? produce 11.4 L of water vapor? 2CO + O2 2CO2 SO2 + 2H2S 3S + 2H2O 15) How many liters of oxygen gas are needed for the burning of 134 g of magnesium at 22) Glucose (C6H12O6) undergoes complete STP? (This is a synthesis reaction) combustion. What volume of carbon 2Mg + O2 2MgO dioxide is produced when 3.7 L of oxygen are consumed? C6H12O6 + 6O2 6H2O + 6CO2 16) Find the mass (g) of aluminum needed to produce 4.72 L of oxygen gas at STP. 23) The compound TNT (trinitrotoluene) 2Al + 3 H2SO4 Al2 (SO4) 3 + 3H2 decomposes explosively into carbon, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and nitrogen. What volumes of hydrogen and nitrogen are produced if 5.8 L of CO is produced? 2C7H5(NO2) 3 2C + 12CO + 5H2 + 3N2 17) How many liters of hydrogen are produced if 225 g of iron reacts with hydrochloric acid (at STP)? 24) Nitroglycerin decomposes explosively into Fe + 2HCl FeCl2 + H2 carbon dioxide, water, nitrogen, and oxygen. What volumes of oxygen and nitrogen are produced if 4.3 L of CO2 is produced? 18) Find the mass of S8 needed to produce 4C3H5(NO3) 3 12CO2 + 10H2O+ O2 + 6N2 2.47 L of sulfur dioxide gas (at STP). S8 + 8O2 8SO2 25) Acetylene (C2H2) burns in oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water. What 19) Propane (C3H8) completely burns in volume of carbon dioxide is produced oxygen. What volume of carbon dioxide is when 1.6 L of oxygen are consumed? produced when 2.8L of oxygen are used? 2C2H2 + 5O2 + 2H2O+ 4CO2 C3H8 + 5O2 4H2O + 3 CO2 NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 13 Skill Builder 6: Limiting Reactant Problems Using your knowledge of stoichiometry and limiting reagents, answer the following questions: 1) Write the balanced equation for the reaction of lead (II) nitrate with sodium iodide to form sodium nitrate and lead (II) iodide: 2) If I start with 25.0 grams of lead (II) nitrate and 15.0 grams of sodium iodide, how many grams of sodium nitrate can be formed? Show all work with units. 3) What is the limiting reactant in the reaction described in problem 2? 4) How much of the excess (non-limiting) reactant will be left over from the reaction in problem #2? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 14 Skill Builder 7: Percent, Actual, and Theoretical Yield 1) LiOH + KCl LiCl + KOH a) I began this reaction with 20 grams of lithium hydroxide. What is my theoretical yield of lithium chloride? b) I actually produced 6 grams of lithium chloride. What is my percent yield? 2) C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O a) If I start with 5 grams of C3H8, what is my theoretical yield of water? b) I got a percent yield of 75% How many grams of water did I make? 3) Be + 2 HCl BeCl2 + H2 My theoretical yield of beryllium chloride was 10.7 grams. If my actual yield was 4.5 grams, what was my percent yield? 4) 2 NaCl + CaO CaCl2 + Na2O What is my theoretical yield of sodium oxide if I start with 20 grams of calcium oxide? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 15 5) FeBr2 + 2 KCl FeCl2 + 2 KBr a) What is my theoretical yield of iron (II) chloride if I start with 34 grams of iron (II) bromide? b) What is my percent yield of iron (II) chloride if my actual yield is 4 grams? 6) TiS + H2O H2S + TiO What is my percent yield of titanium (II) oxide if I start with 20 grams of titanium (II) sulfide and my actual yield of titanium (II) oxide is 22 grams? 7) U + 3 Br2 UBr6 What is my actual yield of uranium hexabromide if I start with 100 grams of uranium and get a percent yield of 83% ? 8) H2SO4 H2O + SO3 If I start with 89 grams of sulfuric acid and produce 7.1 grams of water, what is my percent yield? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 16 Skill Builder 8: More Percent Yield Calculations 1) Balance this equation and state which of the six types of reaction is taking place: ____ Mg + ____ HNO3 ____ Mg(NO3)2 + ____ H2 Type of reaction: __________________________ 2) If I start this reaction with 40 grams of magnesium and an excess of nitric acid, how many grams of hydrogen gas will I produce? 3) If 1.7 grams of hydrogen is actually produced, what was my percent yield of hydrogen? 4) Balance the equation and (finals review!) state what type of reaction is taking place: ____ NaHCO3 ____ NaOH + ____ CO2 Type of reaction: __________________________ 5) If 25 grams of carbon dioxide gas is produced in this reaction, how many grams of sodium hydroxide should be produced? 6) If 50 grams of sodium hydroxide are actually produced, what was my percent yield? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 17 Skill Builder 9: Even More Percent Yield Calculations 1) Write the equation for the reaction of iron (III) phosphate with sodium sulfate to make iron (III) sulfate and sodium phosphate. 2) If I perform this reaction with 25 grams of iron (III) phosphate and an excess of sodium sulfate, how many grams of iron (III) sulfate can I make? 3) If 18.5 grams of iron (III) sulfate are actually made when I do this reaction, what is my percent yield? 4) Is the answer from problem #3 reasonable? Explain. 5) If I do this reaction with 15 grams of sodium sulfate and get a 65.0% yield, how many grams of sodium phosphate will I make? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 18 Skill Builder 10: Mixed Stoichiometry Review Problems 1. Hydrogen is produced when methane CH4 reacts with water. Using 80.0 g of methane and 16.3 g of water, how many grams of H 2 can be produced at STP? What is the limiting reactant? CH 4 H 2O CO 2 H 2 2. Methyl alcohol CH3OH is made by reacting carbon monoxide with H 2 . Starting with 2.5 g of H 2 and 30.0 g of CO , how much methyl alcohol could be produced at STP? Which is the limiting reactant? 3. In a reaction of 15.3 g of NaCl with 60.8 g of Pb NO3 2 , how many grams of lead (II) chloride will be produced? What is the limiting reactant? 4. Diborane B2H6 is widely used in the synthesis of organic compounds. Diborane itself is made by the reaction 2NaBH 4 I 2 B2 H 6 2NaI H 2 . If 6.3 g of NaBH 4 are reacted with excess I 2 , how many grams of diborane could theoretically be isolated? If 1.9 g of diborane is actually produced, what is the precent yield of the reaction? 5. Ammonia gas can be produced by reacting CaO with NH 4Cl . Water and calcium chloride are produced in addition to ammonia. If 23.0 g of CaO and 50.0 g of NH 4Cl are mixed, what is the maximum possible volume of NH3 that can be produced at STP. If 16.1 L of NH3 are actually produced, what is the percent yield of NH3 ? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 19 Skill Builder 11: Another Mixed Review Sheet Balancing Equations and Simple Stoichiometry Balance the following equations: 1) ___ N2 + ___ F2 ___ NF3 2) ___ C6H10 + ___ O2 ___ CO2 + ___ H2O 3) ___ HBr + ___ KHCO3 ___ H2O + ___ KBr + ___ CO2 4) ___ GaBr3 + ___ Na2SO3 ___ Ga2(SO3)3 + ___ NaBr 5) ___ SnO + ___ NF3 ___ SnF2 + ___ N2O3 Using the equation from problem 2 above, answer the following questions: 6) If I do this reaction with 35 grams of C6H10 and 45 grams of oxygen, how many grams of carbon dioxide will be formed? 7) What is the limiting reagent for problem 6? ___________ 8) How much of the excess reagent is left over after the reaction from problem 6 is finished? 9) If 35 grams of carbon dioxide are actually formed from the reaction in problem 6, what is the percent yield of this reaction? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 20 Chapter Test Study Guide You are expected to understand and be able to use everything in this packet whether or not we specifically review it in class on the day before an exam! It is your responsibility to review all these core concepts. 1. Make sure you study all targets and vocabulary words. Any are fair game for the test. 2. Know how to determine which digits are significant when making measurements and when problem solving. 3. Understand the term “Stoichiometry” and know how and why we use it in Chemistry. 4. Understand how to pull the mole ratios out of a balanced chemical equations. 5. Solve stoichiometry problems involving mass, moles, volumes of gases, numbers of particles. (In other words – know your mole bridge!) 6. Define and be able to identify your limiting reactant in a chemical reaction. 7. Calculate the percent yield of a chemical reaction. Practice for the Test! For each of the following questions, write the balanced chemical equation, show all your work, and circle your final answer, providing the appropriate sig figs, units, and substance: Turn in on a separate sheet of paper – showing all work with units – for 10 homework points. 1) ___ NaNO3 + ___ PbO ___ Pb(NO3)2 + ___ Na2O If 5.0 grams of NaNO3 is added to an excess amount of PbO, how many moles of Na2O can be produced? 2) ___ AgI + ___ Fe2(CO3)3 ___ FeI3 + ___ Ag2CO3 Assuming 5.2 moles of silver iodide is added to an excess amount of iron (III) carbonate, how many formula units of iron (III) iodide can be produced? 3) ___ C2H4O2 + ___ O2 ___ CO2 + ___ H2O Assuming the following reaction occurs at STP, if 1.87 moles of oxygen gas is used in a combustion reaction, how many liters of carbon dioxide can be produced? 4) ___ ZnSO4 + ___ Li2CO3 ___ ZnCO3 + ___ Li2SO4 If 3.20 grams of zinc sulfate is added to an excess amount of lithium carbonate, how many grams of lithium sulfate can be produced? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 21 5) ___ V2O5 + ___ CaS ___ CaO + ___ V2S5 When 4.5 x 1026 formula units of vanadium (V) oxide reacts with excess calcium sulfide, how many moles of calcium oxide are produced? 6) ___ S8 + ___ O2 ___ SO2 Assuming the above reaction occurs at STP, how many moles of sulfur dioxide are produced if you begin with 2.33 liters of oxygen gas and plenty of sulfur? 7) ______ Fe + ______ AgNO3 _____ Fe(NO3) 2 + _____Ag If 40.0 grams of iron metal is allowed to react with excess silver nitrate, how many moles of silver metal are produced? 8) _______ NaOH(aq) + _______ H2SO4(aq) ______ Na2SO4(aq) + _______ H2O(l) Determine the limiting reactant, using the balanced equation given below, if 32.0 grams, in solution, of sodium hydroxide reacts with a 41.3 grams equivalent of sulfuric acid. For each of the following questions, balance the chemical equations, determine the theoretical yield of the designated product, and determine the % yield. 9) _______ Ag + _______Cl2 ________ AgCl 52.5 grams of silver react with 11.25 L of Cl2 at STP. How many grams of silver chloride will be produced? If 35.2 g of AgCl are actually produced, what is the % yield? 10) _______ Al + _______ Br2 ________ AlBr3 A mixture of 12.2 grams of aluminum and 22.2 grams of bromine was heated until the reaction was complete. How many grams of potassium bromide could be formed? If 20.0 g of AlBr 3 are actually produced, what is the % yield? NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 22 Misc. Notes: NCHS Chemistry: Unit 4, Chapters 10 and 11_2007 23