The Dynamics

					Cell Extraction

Title:                      Cell Extraction

Lesson Purpose:             To identify and describe the roles of each tactical operator and the
                            correct way to perform a cell extraction.

Training Objectives:        At the end of this block of instruction, the participant will be able to
                            achieve the following objectives in accordance with information
                            received during the instructional period:

                            1.      Analyze the six (6) positions of a cell extraction team and
                                    each of their assignments.

                            2.      Compare and contrast the following terms as they relate to a
                                    cell extraction:

                                    a.        Compliant
                                    b.        Non-compliant

                            3.      Relate the necessary steps in preparation, staging and the
                                    entry drill when conducting a cell extraction.

                            4.      Explain the proper procedures of a cell extraction.

                            5.      Determine the proper procedures of the debriefing after a
                                    cell extraction.

Hours:                      Four (4)

Instructional Method:       Conference/Lecture

Materials Needed:           Pen/Pencil
                            Lesson Plan

References:                 Alicie, S. “Cell Extraction.” Correctional Training Network.
                            Woodbridge, VA: Prince William-Manassas Regional Adult
                            Detention Center, 2000.

                            Alvarez, P. “Cell Extractions.” Correctional Officer Training
                            Academy Curriculum. Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Department of
                            Corrections, 2003.

                            Brown, Scott. Interview by author, 18 July 2007. North Carolina
                            Justice Academy, Salemburg, NC.

                            Coconino County, Coconino County Detention Facility Policy and
                            Procedure. Flagstaff, AZ: Coconino County Sheriff‟s Office, 2001.

                            Forrest, Lt. James. Sarasota County CERT Commander. Interview
                            by author, 10 July 2007. North Carolina Justice Academy,
                            Salemburg, NC.



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                            Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office. Forsyth County Detention Center:
                            Policy and Procedures. Winston-Salem, NC: Forsyth County
                            Sheriff‟s Office, 2001.

                            Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office. Forsyth County Detention Center:
                            Special Response Manual. Winston-Salem, NC: Forsyth County
                            Sheriff‟s Office, 2001.

                            Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office. Forsyth County Detention Center:
                            Standard Operation Procedure and Procedure Number
                            32000.00“Use of Force.” Winston-Salem, NC: Forsyth County
                            Sheriff‟s Office, 2001.

                            Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office. Forsyth County Detention Center:
                            Standard Operation Procedure and Procedure Number
                            50300.031“Cell Extraction.” Winston-Salem, NC: Forsyth County
                            Sheriff‟s Office, 2001.

                            Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office. Forsyth County Detention Center:
                            Standard Operation Procedure and Procedure Number 50300.040
                            “Special Response Team.” Winston-Salem, NC: Forsyth County
                            Sheriff‟s Office, 2003.

                            Krul, M. “Disturbance Control.” Jail Emergency Team. Mount
                            Clemens, MI: Macomb County Sheriff‟s Office, 2004.

                            Little, Kirk. “Cell Extraction/Insertion.” Special Management Unit.
                            2003.

                            Nebraska Department of Correctional Services. Forced Cell Moves
                            Training Handbook. Lincoln, NE: Department of Correctional
                            Services, 2002.

                            Parsons, Marty W. “CERT Orientation.” Winston-Salem, NC:
                            Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office, 2003.

Prepared By:                Mark Priest
                            Instructor/Coordinator
                            North Carolina Justice Academy

                            Mark J. Strickland
                            Manager, Instructional Support Services
                            North Carolina Justice Academy

Date Prepared:              July 2007




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Title: Cell Extraction

I.     Introduction

       A.       Opening Statement

                Over the past several years, many detention facilities have found themselves in
                situations where they need to utilize a well planned procedure for forcibly extracting
                an uncooperative inmate from his/her living quarters. The “I‟ll hit „em high and you
                hit „em low” technique was all that many officers had in their arsenal of how to
                remove an inmate from his/her cell. These types of techniques often led to
                unnecessary injury and confusion on part of the officers as well as the inmates. Now,
                many correction and detention facilities nationwide utilize some fashion of a “Special
                Response Team” (SRT) concept to deal with emergencies within their facility. A
                SRT unit is comprised of highly trained officers that are prepared to respond to
                incidents, where the safety and security of the facility, staff or inmate is threatened.
                The most common incident is the removal of a non-compliant inmate from the cell
                area. This block of instruction will discuss and explain the basics regarding this type
                of incident response. However, it will require many more hours of training beyond
                this introductory block of instruction to become proficient and ready to deploy these
                tactics.

       B.       Training Objectives

       C.       Reasons

                By identifying each cell extraction team member‟s responsibility during a cell
                extraction, we can contain and control a potential violent situation. Through proper
                preparation, planning and attention to detail a cell extraction team can effectively
                complete a cell extraction without any harm or danger to themselves or to the
                individual. “Entering a call to extract an inmate is dangerous. The risk of injury is
                high for the officers and the inmate. The principles and tactics that will be discussed
                today have been proven to be effective. These techniques will provide the safest
                approach to enter a cell and gain control of a non-compliant inmate.”1

II.    Body

       A.       Definitions

                The purpose of the cell extraction unit is to maintain order and discipline within the
                walls of the facility. The cell extraction team concept has been adapted from the
                SWAT division on the streets. Cell extraction members rely on the same type of
                tactical training that a SWAT team member relies on while on the streets. A Special
                Response Team is one of the last lines of defense in a facility. The cell extraction
                team within this unit is a vital and valuable asset to any detention facility.

                1.       Common terms2

                         a)     “Cell Extraction – A cell extraction is a planned and staged use of
                                force deployment to remove an inmate from a specific area.”3



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                     b)      Body Armor – Protective garments that are used during emergency
                             situations to minimize or prevent injury of the person wearing the
                             garment. Appropriate body armor may include: chest protector, shin
                             guards, elbow and knee protection, Kevlar sleeves, a riot helmet, etc.

                     c)      O.C. Aerosol (Oleoresin Capsicum) - An organic pepper-based, less-
                             than-lethal aerosol weapon designed to incapacitate a hostile or
                             otherwise violent inmate.

                     d)      Capture Shield – A capture shield is a protective shield that is
                             molded in a concave design, used to pin or “capture” an individual
                             on the floor or wall.

                     e)      Mechanical Restraints - Handcuffs, leg chains, leather restraining
                             devices, etc., which assist staff in controlling violent inmates and which
                             are used to prevent inmates from inflicting self-injury, or causing injury
                             to staff or other inmates.

                     f)      Food Pass – Food pass is a slot in the cell door through which items
                             are passed.

              2.     Cell extraction team positions and assignments defined when using a five
                     person entry team4

                     a)      Team leader

                             The team leader is responsible for the plan of action, organization,
                             making of assignments and overall direction of the operation. The
                             team leader should have good communication skills, common sense
                             and a proven record of sound decision making. The team leader
                             should be able to instruct the team during a stressful condition, as
                             well ensure an efficient and safe operation during any situation.

                             The team leader will also be the person ultimately responsible to
                             answer to any liability and legal investigations that arise from the
                             extraction, regardless of the outcome of the extraction.

                     b)      Team member #1

                             Team member #1 is the first member of the team to enter the cell
                             during a cell extraction.

                             (1)     This member is also called the point member.

                             (2)     This member may also be called the shield man. The
                                     shield man is directed to use brute force when making
                                     contact.

                             (3)     This member is the first member to have controlled physical
                                     contact with the inmate. This officer may be protected with a
                                     capture shield.


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                            (4)    This member should be equipped with maximum protection.
                                   This member is responsible for controlling the inmate‟s body
                                   with the shield or using his own body to control the inmate,
                                   when a shield is not used.

                            (5)    When the shield is not in use, this member will control the
                                   inmate‟s head during controlled takedown and handcuffing
                                   procedures.

                     c)     Team member #2

                            (1)    Team member #2 is the second member of the team to enter
                                   the cell during a cell extraction. This member should be
                                   equipped with a minimum of one pair of mechanical wrist
                                   restraints and dressed in body armor.

                            (2)    This member is responsible for the control and restraint of
                                   the inmate‟s upper left appendage. If the inmate is facing
                                   the team on contact it will be the right arm. (Since most
                                   individuals are right hand dominant, in most cases this will
                                   be the strong hand.) If the inmate is facing away from the
                                   team then it would be the left arm.

                            (3)    This member will be the primary member to apply
                                   mechanical restraints to the wrists, assisted by team member
                                   #3. This member will also be responsible for control of the
                                   upper torso.

                     d)     Team member #3

                            (1)    This member will enter the cell directly behind team member
                                   #2. This member should be dressed in body armor and if
                                   team member #1 is only equipped with one pair of wrist
                                   restraints then this member should also be equipped with one
                                   pair of mechanical wrist restraints as a back-up.

                            (2)    This member is responsible for the control and restraint of
                                   the inmate‟s upper right appendage. If the inmate is facing
                                   the team on contact this will be the left arm.

                            (3)    This member should also assist team member #2 in the
                                   applications of mechanical wrist restraints and the control of
                                   the upper torso.

                     e)     Team member #4

                            (1)    This member will enter the cell directly behind team member
                                   #3. This member should be equipped with a minimum of one
                                   pair of mechanical leg restraints and dressed in body armor.




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                              (2)      This member is responsible for control and restraint of the
                                       inmate‟s lower left appendage. Dependent on inmate‟s
                                       position, this would generally be the right leg.

                              (3)      This member is responsible for applying the mechanical leg
                                       restraints and control of lower extremities.

                      f)      Team member #5

                              This member will enter the cell directly behind team member #4.
                              This member will be dressed in body armor. If team member #4 is
                              only equipped with one pair of leg restraints, then this member
                              should also be equipped with a pair of leg restraints as a back-up.

                      g)      “Video” operator

                              The video operator is responsible for video taping the entire incident.
                              The video operator may also carry extra equipment and supplies for
                              the operation. The video operator‟s responsibilities include, but are
                              not limited to the following:

                              (1)      Recording his/her name, badge number, date, time and exact
                                       location of the incident.

                              (2)      Recording each team member as he/she states their name,
                                       badge number and assigned position.

                              (3)      Record the briefing of the team members.

                              (4)      Pre-planning his entire movements in order to determine the
                                       best positions to record the incident in its entirety.

                              (5)      Focusing the camcorder on the inmate for visual
                                       identification and recording his/her actions, threats or use of
                                       weapons.

                              (6)      Recording all events in chronological order, from the cell
                                       extraction activation to de-activation, including relocating
                                       the inmate to another housing area. “No actions of the cell
                                       extraction team or the inmate should go unrecorded.”5

                              (7)      Once cell extraction deployment begins, it is recommended
                                       that the video should not be stopped until insertion is
                                       complete and the deployment has fully ended. This will
                                       show continuous filming and alleviate doubt that events may
                                       have occurred off camera.6

       B.     Four Phases of a Cell Extraction7

              The cell extraction is broken down into four phases: the negotiation, the control, the
              extraction and movement, and the insertion.


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              1.     Negotiation

                     a)        The shift supervisor or officer in charge (OIC) of the facility
                               should be conducting the negotiations with the inmate.

                     b)        In some situations, the supervisor can de-escalate the inmate‟s
                               anger or position of non-compliance.

                     c)        The supervisor needs to talk to the inmate first, explaining to
                               the inmate what he needs to do to avoid a use of force.

                     d)        The supervisor needs to show force after trying to reason with
                               the inmate. The supervisor should then give the inmate one
                               more chance to comply.

                     e)        This last chance should be recorded via the video camera.

                     f)        If the inmate does not comply, the cell extraction is carried
                               out.

              2.     Control

                     a)        The control phase is the most dangerous phase of the extraction.

                     b)        During the control phase, the team members enter the cell and
                               attempt to take control of the situation at hand.

                     c)        This phase requires teamwork, proper techniques and good
                               communication to be successful.

                     d)        If the extraction team can do the things mentioned above they
                               will be successful!

              3.     Extraction and movement

                     a)        Once the inmate has been secured through the control phase, it's
                               time to extract and move him or her.

                     b)        When securing the inmate with restraints, each team member will
                               count off like this: number 5 secure, number 4 secure, number 3
                               secure and number 2 secure. At this time, the inmate can be directed
                               to walk out of his cell or carried out by the team.

                     c)        If the inmate will not walk voluntarily, he can be forced to comply
                               by using the “bent wrist come along” technique or dependent upon
                               the distance to be traveled, the team may carry the inmate to the next
                               location using the proper “four person carry” technique.

                     d)        With the handcuffs applied to the inmate‟s wrists, the “bent wrist
                               come along” may be utilized to make the inmate walk backward also
                               as an alternate means of transport.


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                      e)      During this phase of the extraction, it is important that the team
                              leader do all the talking. The only communication that is allowed
                              between team members is if there is a problem securing the inmate.

              4.      Insertion

                      a)      When the extraction team reaches the inmate‟s new cell, the team
                              becomes the insertion team.

                      b)      This is a very dangerous phase of the extraction. The two-team
                              members that previously applied the “bent wrist come along” will
                              have to turn the inmate and themselves sideways to get inside the
                              cell door. If the inmate is being carried, it may be necessary to stand
                              him/her up and have the inmate walk into the new cell.

                      c)      Once inside the cell, the inmate is made to lay face down on the bed
                              or floor.

                      d)      If it is determined that the inmate may fight the officers upon release
                              from restraints, special considerations will need to be taken to
                              prevent any injuries.

                      e)      The team leader will direct the inmate to stay in the position until the
                              team has exited the cell. The leg irons are removed first and the
                              inmate is made to place the heels of his feet crossed and against his
                              rear end. The handcuffs are then removed with the inmate made to
                              keep them in the small of his back.

                      f)      If the inmate refuses to be still, restraints should not be removed.
                              The inmate should be allowed a "cooling down" period before any of
                              the restraints are removed.

                      g)      When the inmate has been placed in his/her new cell, the medical
                              department will be called immediately. Someone from the medical
                              department must check the inmate for any possible injuries that
                              occurred during the extraction and insertion. This should occur prior
                              to the restraints being removed. A follow-up medical check should
                              be done verbally by medical staff after the insertion has been
                              concluded and the inmate is secure in the new cell.

                      h)      Medical treatment should be provided as soon as possible and
                              prudent, prior to removing the inmate‟s restraints, if necessary.

                      i)      However, medical treatment can be offered as soon as the restrains
                              have been placed on the inmate or it can wait until just before the
                              restraints are removed. Every cell extraction is going to be different.

       C.     Compliant and Non-Compliant Inmates8

              It is crucial to remember that an inmate can go from being complaint to non-
              complaint in a moment‟s notice.


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              1.     Compliant

                     A compliant inmate complies or submits with direct orders given by the cell
                     extraction team leader.

                     a)      The team leader will then instruct the inmate to assume a submissive
                             position. There are four ways in order to gain a submissive position.
                             They are:

                             (1)      Have the inmate back up to the food pass and place both
                                      hands through the food pass.

                             (2)      Have the inmate walk to and face the rear of the cell. Have
                                      inmate place arms out to side, thumbs down and palms
                                      facing the officer. Have inmate spread feet and point toes
                                      outward. Have inmate lean forward slightly at waist and
                                      then place hands in the small of the back thumbs facing up.

                             (3)      Have the inmate walk to and face the rear of the cell, kneel,
                                      cross feet, have inmate lean forward slightly at waist and
                                      then place hands in the small of the back thumbs facing up.

                             (4)      Have the inmate walk to and face the back of the cell, lie
                                      face down, cross feet, bend knees and place hands in the
                                      center of the inmate‟s back.

                     b)      The team leader will then order team member #1 and team member
                             #2 to enter the cell and place handcuffs on the inmate.

                     c)      Team member #3 and team member #4 will remain outside the cell
                             in the ready position should the inmate‟s behavior change.

              2.     Non-compliant9

                     A non-compliant inmate can be described as an inmate who is verbally
                     combative or physically displaying combative behavior and will not comply
                     with directives given by command staff.

                     Remember that we react to those actions of the inmate. The inmate controls
                     the ultimate outcome of the situation when the force option model is used
                     appropriately. It is vital to be able to articulate that the inmate gave no other
                     choice but to mandate the team‟s response. This can easily be done through
                     the ASK, ORDER, and ADVISE method of communication to the inmate(s)
                     involved in the incident.

                     a)      ASK: In this phase of verbal commands, you are at the lowest level
                             of verbal communication with the inmate in regards to force. The
                             team commander “asks” the inmate to follow the directions being
                             given and become compliant with said requests.

                     b)      ORDER: In this phase of verbal commands, the team leader is now
                             giving a lawful order to the inmate under the auspice of legal

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                            authority granted by the state of North Carolina through statute.
                            Failure to follow this authority is itself an escalation of force, on the
                            inmate‟s behalf, according to the force option model. This is now a
                            second attempt to gain compliance by the inmate. An example of a
                            formal order would be: “Inmate Smith, this is Sgt. White of the
                            Sampson County Detention Facility. I am giving you a lawful order
                            to face the wall and place your hands out the feeding flap to be
                            handcuffed.”

                     c)     ADVISE: This is the final phase of verbal communication in an
                            effort to gain compliance by an inmate. During this phase, the team
                            leader is advising the inmate that if he refuses to comply with the
                            orders that have already been given and become compliant, then
                            physical force can and will be used against him/her to forcefully gain
                            such compliance. This final step actually empowers the inmate with
                            the ability to dictate the final outcome of the incident. An example of
                            this final advisement would be: “Inmate Smith, if you continue to
                            refuse the lawful orders that have been given to you, physical force
                            can and will be used against you to obtain compliance.”

                     d)     The team leader will order the team members into the ready
                            position.

                            Note: Before applying any type of chemical agents before entering
                            the cell, you should check your facility‟s policy and procedure on
                            deploying chemical agents. This could affect the mission of the team
                            by exposing them to pepper spray.

                     e)     The cell door is then opened; the inmate is driven to the back of the
                            cell by the team.

                     f)     Team members then assume their assigned positions and control the
                            inmate.

                     g)     Once the team members gain control of the inmate, the team leader
                            will announce “Take Down.” The team members will then place the
                            inmate on the cell floor in the prone position.

                     h)     Assigned team members will place mechanical restraints on the
                            inmate‟s wrists and ankles.

                     i)     Once the inmate is secured the team leader will instruct the team to
                            move the inmate.

              3.     Amount of force10

                     a)     Detention officers are authorized to utilize as much force as is
                            reasonably necessary to perform their duties and to protect
                            themselves and inmates from harm.

                     b)     The amount of force which is reasonable depends upon the
                            circumstances of a particular incident. The controlling factors are:

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                             (1)     The degree of force threatened or used by the inmate
                                     including whether he/she possesses a weapon, such as a
                                     knife or any object of harm which could be used to cause
                                     physical injury to the team members.

                             (2)     The totality of the circumstances of the perception of
                                     death or great bodily harm.

                             (3)     The alternatives available to control the situation without
                                     the use of force.

                             (4)     The basic rule when applying force is to use only the
                                     minimum force necessary to effectively control the
                                     situation.

                             (5)     Excessive use of force may incite violence and resentment
                                     toward all staff members which could cause another
                                     disturbance to escalate.

       D.    Preparation, Staging and Entry11

              1.     Preparation

                     a)      Once it has been determined that the Cell Extraction Team will be
                             utilized, the team should be assembled for a briefing and to preplan
                             the extraction.

                             (1)     The cell extraction team leader will assemble the team
                                     before the incident to inform them of the situation. The team
                                     leader will conduct an operational briefing.

                             (2)     The briefing will include a threat assessment, course of
                                     action and the housing location of the inmate. During this
                                     time the members will equip themselves with protective
                                     armor.

                             (3)     The team leader will instruct the team as to where the inmate
                                     should be moved (this should be pre-arranged prior to the
                                     briefing).

                             (4)     The briefing should include the reason the extraction is
                                     necessary, name of the inmate, institutional history of
                                     inmate, height and weight.

                     b)      The team should check all equipment before beginning the
                             extraction. There should be a checklist to include:

                             (1)     Riot helmet – Chin strap fastened and secured. Face shield
                                     operational.



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                               (2)     Uniform – Nothing should be in any pocket and pant legs
                                       should be bloused.

                               (3)     Vest – All Velcro fasteners must be fastened and secured.

                               (4)     Kevlar sleeves – Kevlar arm guards should be fully extended
                                       up the arms.

                               (5)     Gloves – Black “slash-proof” gloves that are properly fitted
                                       to include a great amount of dexterity.

                               (6)     Forearm and elbow pads – These pads must be placed over
                                       the arm guards.

                               (7)     Shin guards – This includes making sure the straps are out
                                       and all Velcro straps are secured.

                     c)        The team leader will note if chemical agents have already been
                               deployed.

                     d)        The team leader inspects the team and ensures that everyone is
                               ready.

                     e)        The team leader should then assign position numbers to each team
                               member and instruct them as to their duties.

              2.     Staging

                     a)        The team will assemble in formation into his/her assigned position.
                               Members will stand at “Attention.”

                     b)        The team leader will announce to the team “Count Off.”

                     c)        The team leader will announce “Ready” and the team members will
                               then respond to the team leader with “Ready” or some other
                               predetermined word to let the team leader know that all the team
                               members are ready to move. (At this time, all safety equipment
                               should be in place to include face shields being down and in place.)

                     d)        The team leader will announce “Move,” leading the team to the
                               location of the inmate.

                     e)        The team leader will then verbally communicate with the inmate.
                               The team leader will ASK the inmate to submit to mechanical
                               restraints, ORDER the inmate to submit to mechanical restraints,
                               and ADVISE the inmate that non-compliance will result in the use of
                               physical force and/or chemical agents.

                     f)        During this time if the inmate complies with mechanical restraint, the
                               team leader will assign two (2) members of the team to apply
                               handcuffs on the wrists of the inmate. If the inmate refuses to


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                              comply, the team will enter the cell and remove the inmate with the
                              use of extraction techniques.

              3.     Proper procedures in a cell extraction12

                     Once the command to move is given and the team is set in motion, no
                     interruption of the movement should take place.

                     a)       When it becomes necessary to enter the cell with force, the team
                              leader will announce “Ready Position.”

                     b)       If the team is performing a side entry, the team members will step
                              back with their foot closest to the wall. If the team is performing a
                              front entry, the team members will step back with their right foot.

                     c)       Team members will then place their hand on the shoulder of the team
                              member in front of them.

                     d)       When the cell door is opened, the team leader will announce “Move,
                              Move, Move.” The team will then enter the cell and subdue the
                              inmate.

                     e)       Once the team enters the cell as a complete unit, the initial goal is to
                              have strong physical contact with the inmate.

                     f)       After the initial impact, the team members are to assume their
                              assigned positions and control the inmate. Mechanical restraints are
                              applied to the inmate.

                     g)       Once the team members have secured the inmate in mechanical
                              restraints, the team leader is notified.

                     h)       During the cell extraction, the team leader will be the only member
                              to speak. 13

                              (1)     The team leader will ask team member #2 if the upper torso
                                      is secured. In return, team member #2 will announce that “2
                                      and 3 Secure.”

                              (2)     The team leader will then ask team member #4 if the lower
                                      extremities are secured. In return, team member #4 will
                                      announce that “4 and 5 Secure.”

                              (3)     During the cell extraction if a weapon has been observed, it
                                      should be announced “Weapon.”

                              (4)     Once the inmate has been secured, the team leader will give
                                      all the team members further instruction on the placement of
                                      the inmate.

       E.     The Removal of Mechanical Restraints and Exiting of the Cell14


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              1.      The team leader will instruct the team members to place the inmate in the
                      prone position, with the inmate facing the rear of the cell.

              2.      Team member #5 will cross the inmate‟s feet, placing one of the feet into the
                      bend of the opposite legs. Team member #5 will use his/her body weight to
                      control the inmate‟s lower body.

              3.      Team member #4 will be behind team member #5 adding support and weight
                      to prevent the inmate from kicking out of the secure position.

              4.      Team member #5 will remove the mechanical restraints from the ankles of
                      the inmate. Team member #4 will be in position behind team member #5.
                      Team member #4 will gain control of team member #5‟s duty belt and apply
                      his/her body weight, if needed.

              5.      Team member #3 will gain control of the inmate‟s wrists, securing the elbow
                      as well. Team member #2 will remove the mechanical restraints from the
                      inmate‟s wrists.

              6.      Team member #5 assumes control of the inmate‟s upper torso from team
                      members #2 and #3. Team member #3 gets in line behind team member #4
                      and team member #2 gets in line behind team member #3.

              7.      Team members #5 and #4 simultaneously apply a downward pressure as they
                      rise to their feet and the team exits the cell as a unit in line. Each member
                      holds and leads the member in front of them out of the cell. Eye contact will
                      remain on the inmate at all times while exiting.

              The cell extraction techniques that have been described in the above instruction are a
              model for the proper techniques and order. No two cell extractions are alike. Violent
              resistance is often encountered. In many cases, the cell extraction team has no other
              choice but to use physical force to control and subdue a combative inmate.

       F.     Debrief After a Cell Extraction15

              1.      Once the cell extraction has been completed, the Cell Extraction Team will
                      assemble in a neutral location to be debriefed. The team leader asks each team
                      member if any injuries occurred during the cell extraction. The team leader
                      checks all equipment to ensure that no damage has occurred.

              2.      During the debriefing, the team leader critiques the cell extraction and may
                      suggest better ways to handle future extractions. In addition to critiquing the
                      cell extraction, the team leader asks each team member if there were any
                      problems during the cell extraction and if they would like to comment on
                      anything regarding the extraction.

              3.      The team leader reviews all documentation that the video member recorded
                      during the cell extraction (i.e., notes, video, etc.) to verify the time of the move
                      as well as the sequence of events during the cell extraction. The team leader
                      requires that each team member prepare an Incident Report/Use of Force Report
                      detailing what force was used and how it was applied.


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              4.      Once all documentation has been prepared, the team leader forwards all
                      documents to the Shift Administrator and the Team Commander for proper
                      filing. Agency policy will dictate proper filing.

III.   Conclusion

       A.     Summary

              During this block of instruction, we have discussed the dynamics of a cell extraction
              team. We have defined the seven positions and the assignments of each cell
              extraction team member in a five-person entry design. We have defined compliant
              and non-compliant as they relate to a cell extraction. We also discussed the necessary
              steps in preparation, staging and entry drills, and discussed in detail the proper
              procedures to a cell extraction. Finally, we have reviewed the importance of a
              debriefing after a cell extraction.

       B.     Questions from the Class

       C.     Closing Statement

              It is important to remember that this block of instruction is merely an introduction
              and overview into these tactics. Many more hours of training and practice are
              required to gain proficiency in these tactics and in team dynamics. Trying to use
              these tactics immediately after this four-hour block could result in injury to both staff
              and inmates and result in great legal liability. The dynamics of a cell extraction are a
              complex and structured operation. It is one of the most hazardous duties to encounter
              as a cell extraction team member. With proper training and practice, we can ensure
              that each cell extraction is executed with precision and consistency. The main goal in
              a cell extraction is the safety and security of the inmates and staff who are at times
              placed in very challenging circumstances. Always remember to remain calm and
              observant during stressful situations.




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                                                NOTES


       1
            Kirk Little, “Cell Extraction/Insertion,” Special Management Unit (2003), 4.
       2
          Marty W. Parsons, “CERT Orientation” (Winston-Salem, NC: Forsyth County Sheriff‟s
Office, 2003), PowerPoint slide numbers 15-18.
       3
         P. Alvarez, “Cell Extractions,” Correctional Officer Training Academy Curriculum
(Phoenix, AZ: Arizona Department of Corrections, 2003), 6.
       4
        Scott Brown, interview by author, 18 July 2007, North Carolina Justice Academy,
Salemburg, NC.
       5
        Coconino County, Coconino County Detention Facility Policy and Procedure (Flagstaff,
AZ: Coconino County Sheriff‟s Office, 2001), 4.
       6
        Lt. James Forrest, interview by author, 10 July 2007, North Carolina Justice Academy,
Salemburg, NC.
       7
           Little, 7-9.
       8
           Parsons, PowerPoint slide number 34, 38.
       9
           Parsons, PowerPoint slide numbers 38-40.
       10
         M. Krul, “Disturbance Control,” Jail Emergency Team (Mount Clemens, MI: Macomb
County Sheriff‟s Office, 2004), 14.
       11
         S. Alicie, “Cell Extraction,” Correctional Training Network (Woodbridge, VA: Prince
William-Manassas Regional Adult Detention Center, 2000), 1.
       12
            Ibid., 2.
       13
         Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office, Forsyth County Detention Center: Standard Operation
Procedure and Procedure Number 50300.040 “Special Response Team.” (Winston-Salem, NC:
Forsyth County Sheriff‟s Office, 2003), 3.
       14
          Nebraska Department of Correctional Services, Forced Cell Moves Training Handbook.
(Lincoln, NE: Department of Correctional Services, 2002), 9-14.
       15
            Parsons, PowerPoint slide numbers 69-73.




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