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					                   United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
                  UNESCO/Belgium Funds-in-Trust Project: HIV/AIDS and education in
                                     the Southern African Region

                                Mission Report
Fact finding mission to Zambia, 25 February to 01 March 2002

Executing staff member:       Arne Willems
Financing Mission:            517-RAF-10
Date of Report:               19 March 2002
Submitted to:                 Director UNESCO Harare
Distributed to:               Focal Point HIV/AIDS; ED/HAR; IIEP; MOE Zambia,
                              VVOB Zambia

Aim of the mission

Within the framework of the HIV/AIDS and Education Project in the Southern African
Region this mission aims to:

   clarify the background, objectives and implementation strategies of the
    UNESCO/Belgium FIT project on HIV/AIDS and education.
   assess the status of HIV/AIDS and education in Zambia and identify areas where the
    project can assist the ongoing HIV/AIDS and education programme.
   assess the status of HIV/AIDS and life skills education in Teacher Training
   explore collaborative modalities with key stakeholders, in particular in the area of
    teacher education.

People met during this mission:

   Niels Bentsen, DANIDA, Education Advisor, Teacher Education Department (TED),
   Simon Chiputa, Coordinator TED, MOE
   Gracewell Mwale, Director Zambia National Commission for UNESCO
   Felicitas Chinanda, Programme Officer Education, Zambia National Commission for
   Alfred Sikazwe, Chief Inspector of Schools, MOE
   George Sililo, Director CDC, MOE
   Bernard Brochez, VVOB, Technical Advisor, Distance Education Teacher Training
    Programme, NISTCOL
   Peter Merckx, VVOB, Senior Education Advisor, SPRINT
   Luc Moens, VVOB Representative

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                        9
   Robie Siamwiza, Consultant, the Future Group
   Jennifer Chiwela, Director People‟s Action Forum
   Turid Hallstrom, NORAD, Education Officer
   Mukelabai Songiso, Principal Inspector of School, MOE
   Harriet Miyato, UNICEF
   Grace Chibowa, DFID
   Michelo Hakasenke, senior Inspector TED, MOE

It was not possible to meet with Irene Malambo, coordinator of the BESSIP HIV/AIDS
component and Barbara Chilangwa, Permanent Secretary MOE.

Materials collected:

       Life skills Education, grade 5 pupil‟s book, MOE Zambia
       Life skills for out-of-school Youth in Zambia, facilitators guide, UNICEF Zambia
       Life Skills Education, Primary Teachers‟ Diploma by Distance Education, module 6.
        MOE Zambia, NISTCOL
       Happy, healthy and Safe Manual, UNICEF Zambia.
       Treasure the Gift, sexual health learning activities for religious youth groups., Zambia
       SPARK, a guide for teachers in Zambia‟s community schools.
       HIV/AIDS prevention and the MOE, Review Report, December 2000.
       HIV/AIDS Strategic Plan, third draft, March 2001, MOE
       BESSIP, Annual work Plan and Budget 2002, MOE December 2001
       UNICEF Project Plan of Action: HIV/AIDS and Life Skills, 2002
       SPRINT, School Programme of Inservice for the Term, A Manual for Inservice
        Provision., MOE
       ZATEC, Zambia Teacher Education Course, Information Brochure, March 2001
       A Strategic Plan for Teacher Education in Zambia 2000-2015, MOE July 1999.
       The Basic School Curriculum Framework, MOE-CDC, December 2000
       Teachers‟ Curriculum Manual, MOE-CDC, April 2001
       Exploring the Implications of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic for Educational Planning in
        selected African countries: The Demographic Question.
       Ministry of Education HIV/AIDS Education Action Plan, MOE 2000
       Impact Analysis of HIV/AIDS on educational Supply in Zambia, Draft Paper.
       A cost study of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education in Zambia, Draft Paper
       Estimating the Importance of HIV/AIDS for the Education System of Zambia: A Tool for
        Educational Planners, Draft Paper
       HIV/AIDS: the Challenge to Education. DFID Africa Education Conference, Report,
       HIV/AIDS Prevention Care and Support: Guidelines, MOE, Draft, MOE 2001
       Educating our Future. National Policy on Education. MOE 1996.
       BESSIP Log-frame, PIP and Programme Costs, MOE 1998

Summary of findings

    1. Current HIV/AIDS programmes, developed by the MOE are situated in the
       framework of the Basic Education Sub-Sector Investment Programme

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                           9
       (BESSIP). This Investment Programme should be considered as a major
       overhaul of the basic education sector. It has been prioritized by the MOE and
       receives wide support by several donors. There are several funding mechanisms,
       but the bulk of the funds are brought together in one basket. BESSIP has enough
       funds to run its programmes and additional support, eg from UNESCO, should be
       intellectual and technical rather than financial.

   2. BESSIP comprises of 10 components, of which HIV/AIDS is now a full fledged
      component. The major objective of this component is to contribute to increased
      enrolment of the basic education and improve learning achievements of pupils
      through creating stronger systematic institutions and individual capacity that
      limits the spread of AIDS. Specific objectives of the HIV/AIDS Education
      Component are:

      To develop strategies for mitigating the impact of HIV/AIDS for MOE staff,
       pupils and teachers to enable MOE to plan ahead.
      To strengthen MOE capacity to manage HI/AIDS interventions to foster the
       reduction of HIV/AIDS infections.
      To provide support and care to infected MOE staff, teachers and pupils to enhance
      To continue and support integration of HIV/AIDS education in curricula to
       empower the youth to make decisions for behaviour change.
      To raise awareness of the issue and obtain consensus and support for appropriate
       actions necessary to limit the spread of infections.
      To implement the District Management Information System (DEMIS) fro
       monitoring and evaluation of activities.

   3. The HIV/AIDS Education component was only added to BESSIP in a later stage.
      Therefore it does not have an equal share of the funds and human resources. This
      situation however is improving and two more people will be added to the
      component: one person will focus on material development, while the other
      person will coordinate the different provincial activities.

   4. A strategic planning process was initiated and a plan on HIV/AIDS and
      education has been developed with the help of HEARD of the University of Natal.
      The strategic plan needs further fine-tuning, but the urgency of the matter makes
      it necessary to start the implementation of the strategic plan. A consultant is
      being funded by DFID on a call-in basis to give support to the HIV/AIDS
      component of BESSIP.

   5. Despite the sensitization and advocacy of the education sector, a fair amount of
      “laissez faire” attitude is still being witnessed among educationists. There is also
      still a lack of knowledge on the facts of HIV/AIDS. An awareness campaign on
      the impact of HIV/AIDS on the education sector has started.

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                      9
   6. The MOE has appointed HIV/AIDS Focal Point Persons (FPP) at all levels of
      the education sector: the schools, districts and Provinces. The FPP has been
      appointed, though it was observed that it would be better that volunteers would
      come to the front. It will be necessary to develop clear guidelines on the duties
      and tasks of the FPP. Some suggestions for guidelines for FFP are already

   7. HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Education is, unlike in Zimbabwe, not a specific
      subject of the school curriculum. HALSE is considered as a cross-cutting topic
      that should be integrated in the curricula of both schools and colleges. It seems
      however that not all stakeholders are in favour of an integrated approach. In order
      to be able to assess both the „subject approach‟ and the „integrated approach‟, it
      would be relevant to monitor Teacher Training Support Programmes in both
      Zambia and Zimbabwe.

   8. Recently, the MOE has introduced fundamental shifts in both the nature and form
      of teacher education in Zambia. The major aim of the re-organisation is to
      remove the differences between primary and secondary teacher education and to
      facilitate closer integration of pre and in-service training. Ultimately, the teacher
      education reform should ensure that tuition becomes more relevant, child-centered
      and of better quality. Currently there are quite a number of different pre-and in-
      service Teacher Education Programmes (TEP) who differ considerably in target
      group, duration and aims. Since HIV/AIDS and Life Skills does not appear as a
      specific subject, each of these TEPs require specific and tailor-made HIV/AIDS

   9. All institutions delivering Pre-service Teacher Training are now called Colleges
      of Education (CE). All the CE are involved in the education of teachers for grade
      1-9 and some of the education for grades 10-12. The programme for the
      preparation of teachers for grades 1-7 (in the future to be extended to grades 8-9)
      is known as ZATEC. This programme is drastically breaking with the academic
      teaching approaches that prevailed for a long time in Zambia. The subjects, as
      they appear in the primary school curriculum are regrouped in six so called study
      areas. Again, HIV/AIDS and Life Skills is considered as a cross-cutting issue, to
      be dealt with in all six study areas.

   10. The pre-service training programme is child-centered in its approach and hence
       pays attention to Life Skills in all study areas. Yet, it is generally accepted that
       HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Education does not feature prominently in the Pre-
       service Teacher Training Programme in Zambia. UNESCO is more than
       welcome to provide technical support to the further development of the Teacher
       Training Programmes on HIV/AIDS and LIFE Skills Education.

   11. Two major obstacles can be anticipated when the HIV/AIDS and Life Skills
       component will be strengthened in the pre-service training programme:
       congestion and coordination. The ZATEC is a two year programme, whereby

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                           9
      one year is spent in college, the second year in practice. For each of the 6 study
      areas, training modules have been developed, covering the subjects that fall under
      the study area. All modules are already crowded and additional HIV/AIDS
      related issues may congest the already strained curriculum.

   12. Given the fact that HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Education is being considered as a
       cross-cutting subject that needs to be accommodated in all the study areas of the
       pre-service training programme, the important question of coordination arises :
       what aspects of HIV/AIDS and LSE are introduced in which study areas, how do
       you ensure a comprehensive TE package and how do you monitor the quality of
       the programme delivery.

   13. NORAD currently supports an HIV/AIDS initiative at Livingstone Teacher
       Training College. A Norwegian college, with the help of NORAD would assist in
       the development of a comprehensive college-based HIV/AIDS and Life Skills
       Programme. A needs assessment has just recently been completed and the
       findings of that research will be shared with UNESCO.

   14. In-service Teacher Training (INSET) for both primary and secondary teachers
       is undertaken in the National In-service Teachers‟ College (NISTCOL), in
       UNZA, in the Zambia Institute of Special Education (ZAMISE) and in the
       Teacher Resource Centres. All these providers of teacher education will be
       subject to major re-organization in the next few years. There are quite a number
       of different in-service programmes taking place: Primary Diploma, Primary
       Reading Programme, Multigrade Teaching, GEMS (Gender, English, Maths,
       Science) module, etc.. All the teacher training programmes are being
       coordinated by the Teacher Education Department (TED). The „vehicle‟ used to
       provide INSET is called SPRINT, the School Programme of In-service of the
       Term. SPRINT is a school-based system, that delivers in-service through a
       cascade model, involving of Heads of schools, Zonal Resource Centers, District
       Resources Centers, etc. While SPRINT has been firmly institutionalized, no
       evaluation has been done on the quality and effectiveness of the training, as
       information is passed on from one level to another. It should also be noted that
       the cascade model does not always follow the different levels rigorously: the
       multi-grade training programme for example, „jumps‟ from national level directly
       to school level.

   15. All in-service programmes have to some extent an HIV/AIDS and Life Skills
       component. The Primary Diploma for example, which is provided through
       distance learning has a specific module on Life Skills, while the Primary Reading
       Programme has introduced HIV/AIDS related texts. UNICEF, which assisted the
       MOE in the development of both grade 5 pupils‟ book and a teachers‟ manual on
       Life Skills Education plans to train teachers on HALS through the SPRINT
       model. Additional to this in-service programme, both pupils and out-of-school
       youth will be targeted, making use of the facilities of the Zonal, District and
       Provincial Resource Centers.

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                        9
   16. The promptness by which the Ministry addresses HIV/AIDS and Life Skills
       Education, is maybe illustrated by the fact that the MOE has invited tenders to
       submit proposals to train 22,000 teachers in participatory teaching methods.
       Though the matter is still being discussed, the idea should be recommended. It
       shows that certain NGO‟s and non-formal education institutes are better equipped
       for LSE than the formal education. It is imperative that such initiatives need close
       monitoring and evaluation, both to capitalize on good practices and to avoid
       conflicts as they are discussed in paragraph 18. It should be noted that the in-
       service training of 22,000 teachers would likely not be possible if certain
       mechanisms such as SPRINT had not been put in place.

   17. It is not clear to what extend the teacher education programmes also reach the
       teachers of Community Schools. It seems however that a lack of financial means
       excludes this group. In a response, ZATEC tries to send their newly developed
       teaching modules to all the community schools free-of-charge. In view of the
       important role played by the Community Schools, the access to teacher training
       programmes in general and to HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Education programmes
       in particular should be facilitated. UNICEF is planning assistance to NGOs that
       support the community schools. More funds are needed.

   18. Many of the discussions I held were focused on Teacher Capacity and Teacher
       Training in the area of HIV/AIDS and Life Skills. A number of problems were
       reiterated: social and cultural pressure on teachers, not enough didactic materials,
       lecturers and monitors are not well trained, lack of motivation mainly because of
       poor salaries, etc.. Comprehensive reports on these matters exist. A recurrent
       problem is to identify individuals, groups, NGO‟s, etc. who have the required
       skills to teach Life Skills Education. Good facilitators for Life Skills Education,
       in the context of HIV/AIDS, are hard to find. Most of the people currently active
       in this area seem to have a religious background. There is a genuine concern that
       not all the options of the ABC-boat (abstinence, be faithful, condomize) are
       equally promoted. At the same time, some Faith Based Organizations are well
       aware of the scope of the H/A problem (and sexuality amongst youth in general)
       and are pragmatic vis-à-vis condom use.

   19. The wider community and Faith Based Organizations have a big impact on the
       individual‟s attitude and behaviour. HIV/AIDS educational programmes are still
       not sufficiently culturally sensitive. It was observed that UNESCO‟s
       contributions to the debate on the cultural aspects of HIV/AIDS have remained
       highly academic with little practical application.

   20. The presence of Faith Based Organizations as well as the increasing involvement
       of parents in the schools, raises the important question of the teachers‟ capacity to
       facilitate community participation. A Teacher Training Package on HIV/AIDS
       and Life Skills Education goes well beyond facts and teaching skills. Through
       our discussions we touched upon 5 intertwined skills that teachers should acquire:

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                        9
      facts about HIV/AIDS and the skills to transfer that knowledge,
      participatory teaching skills that inculcate life skills into pupils,
      coping skills in order to face the problems that HIV/AIDS enforces upon teachers in their
       working environment,
      communication skills to ensure the participation and consent of the wider community,
      personal behaviour skills in order to be able to assess ones own risks vis-à-vis

   21. Some HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Education materials have been developed in

      Life skills Education, grade 5 pupil‟s book, MOE Zambia
      Life skills for out-of-school Youth in Zambia, facilitators guide, UNICEF Zambia
      Life Skills Education, Primary Teachers‟ Diploma by Distance Education, module 6.
       MOE Zambia, NISTCOL
      Happy, healthy and Safe Manual, UNICEF Zambia.

   22. In view of the fact that HIV/AIDS and LSE has to be integrated in all subjects or
       study areas of schools and colleges, it becomes rather complex to prepare material
       for each and every grade at school and study year at college. It was generally
       observed that a lot of good material already exists in and outside the country. A
       compilation of materials accompanied by training on how to use material may be
       an alternative to the production of new material.

   23. The reproduction of existing HIV/AIDS and Life Skills Education material has
       proven to be an extremely slow process due to internal ministry administration.
       The delays in the reproduction of material are frustrating many people at the
       MOE. The slowness in these matters illustrate to an extend the lack of awareness
       and/or commitment of some people to tackle HIV/AIDS forcefully and as a matter
       of priority. Advocacy at all levels remains an important task.

   24. Two more general but also critical areas of HIV/AIDS and Education were
       discussed: learning achievements or the assurance that both teachers and pupils
       have actually acquired life skills and the need for an education policy audit in
       the light of an HIV/AIDS pandemic. Zambia is monitoring educational quality in
       the area of HIV/AIDS through SACMEQ. I was however unable to find more
       information on this issue. As regards the policy audit, there was a need felt to
       review the existing education policy in order to attend the following issues:

              Provision of education/education grants for orphans or affected students.
              AIDS related sick leave and absenteeism.
              Stigmatization and discrimination.
              Provision of counseling services at school.

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                            9

   25. The fact finding mission was successful and the assistance of the Zambia National
       Commission for UNESCO in setting up appointments and providing transport was
       highly appreciated.

   26. The two components of BESSIP that received particular attention during this
       mission, namely Teacher Development, Deployment and Compensation and
       HIV/AIDS Education are vibrant components with several initiatives.

   27. Although all Teacher Education Programmes include aspects of HIV/AIDS and
       Life Skills, there is a demand for more comprehensive and effective teacher
       training packages. Important areas, for which UNESCO‟s input is welcomed are:

      „Subject approach‟ versus „integrated approach‟
      Facts on HIV/AIDS and Life Skills and the teaching skills.
      Coping skills and teachers‟ own HIV/AIDS related behaviour
      Community involvement
      The availability of didactic material

   28. Within the framework of the UNESCO/BELGIAN FIT Project: „HIV/AIDS and
       Education in the Southern African Region‟ there is potential to assist in the
       further development and integration of Teacher Training Packages on HIV/AIDS
       and Life Skills in the existing Teacher Education Programmes.

   29. Initially technical support could for example be provided to the ZATEC
       programme, in a number of selected colleges. This support could be in the form
       of a Technical Advisor, attached to the MOE but mainly operating from the
       selected colleges. He or she would assist in the development, monitoring and
       evaluation (in close collaboration with the relevant divisions and components of
       the MOE, UNESCO Harare and other stakeholders such as UNICEF, NGO‟s,
       etc.) of an intensified programme on HIV/AIDS and Life Skills.

   30. The financing of the technical support can be done in different ways:
    through the BESSIP basket funding;
    through other funding mechanism as they are designed for BESSIP;
    through sub-programmes such as the UNICEF Plan of Action.

   31. It was indicated during several interviews that BESSIP has the financial capacity
       to cater for the actual implementation of an intensified teacher education
       programme on HIV/AIDS and Life skills.

   32. A meeting between Irene Malambo, coordinator of the HIV/AIDS Education
       component of BESSIP, Alfred Sikazwe, Chief Inspector of Schools and the
       UNESCO project coordinator will have to be organized, both to discuss the
       findings of the mission and to discuss further collaboration.

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                        9
   33. The UNESCO/BELGIAN FIT Project: „HIV/AIDS and Education in the Southern
       African Region‟ welcomes all inputs (hard copy and electronic versions) to enter
       in our HIV/AIDS and Education Database.

   34. The UNESCO/BELGIAN FIT Project: „HIV/AIDS and Education in the Southern
       African Region‟ welcomes all requests for assistance regarding HIV/AIDS and
       education and is committed to respond as positively as possible, of course within
       the limits of our budget and our expertise.

UH/ED/AW/March 2002                                                                    9