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					  JAMES COOK UNIVERSITY
  SCHOOL OF TROPICAL BIOLOGY




      TERRESTRIAL
FIELD SAFETY HANDBOOK




                   1
                    EMERGENCY CONTACT INFORMATION

EMERGENCY ......................................................................................................... 000

Qld Emergency Services Rescue Unit (Emergency Calls Only) .... (07) 4725 1066

Royal Flying Doctor Service (24 Hour Medical Enquiries) ................ (07) 4743 2802

Royal Flying Doctor Service (Emergency Patient Transfers) ........... (07) 4725 5827

Poisons Information Centre (Australia Wide) ............................................... 13 1126




                  OTHER USEFUL CONTACT INFORMATION

Qld Emergency Services Rescue Unit (General Enquiries) .............. (07) 47757711

Biological Sciences Safety Officer, Sue Reilly................................. (07) 47814181

JCU Gatehouse (24 hours) ............................................................... (07) 4781 5555

RACQ Road Service (24 hour roadside service for JCU vehicles) ........ 1800 648 058

RACQ Recorded road Conditions (24 hours) ................................... (07) 4775 3600

Tropical Cyclone Warnings .................................................................. 1300 659 212

Weather Information (Recorded Information, Townsville region) ....................... 1196

Bureau of Meteorology homepage ..................................... http://www.bom.gov.au

CB Radio Emergency Channels:- 27mHz ................................................Channel 9
                              UHF ................................................... Channel 5
                              Trucks ...............................................Channel 40




                                                     2
                                     INTRODUCTION
The environments available for teaching and research work in Northern Queensland are
diverse and magnificent. However, they can present many types of hazards, especially to
the unwary. It is essential that all field workers (staff, students, volunteers, etc) are properly
prepared for their trip, and comply with University requirements.

Safety of the field party should be the primary concern of all persons participating in field
trips. In particular it is the group leader’s responsibility to ensure that all proper procedures
are followed in the planning and execution of a field trip, and in dealing with any incidents
that threaten health and safety on the trip.

This guide will assist group leaders and all field workers to follow procedures, and I urge you
to read it and comply with it. It refers readers to additional material that you may need to
consult. Additional queries relating to health and safety should be directed to the Biological
Sciences Safety Officer, (Mrs Sue Reilly, extension 4181) or to the JCU Workplace Health
and Safety Officer, Mr Leigh Winsor (extension 5418).




                                                              Professor R G Pearson
                                                              Head of School
                                                              School of Tropical Biology




                                            3
                                                  CONTENTS
GENERAL INFORMATION
   Definition of terms ........................................................................................... 5
   Statement of Responsibilities .......................................................................... 5
   Supervision – Who is in Charge? .................................................................... 6
   Student Accident Insurance - Are you covered?.............................................. 8
   Volunteers ....................................................................................................... 8
   Administrative Arrangements .......................................................................... 8


HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL
   Field Work Activities ...................................................................................... 11
   Fauna and Flora ............................................................................................ 12
   Camp site and Camp Requisites ................................................................... 16
   Swimming and Bathing.................................................................................. 16
   Health............................................................................................................ 17
   Transport....................................................................................................... 17
   Limits on Driving and Work Time .................................................................. 19
   Bush Etiquette ............................................................................................... 19
   Climate and Weather .................................................................................... 20
   Navigation ..................................................................................................... 22
   Traverses on Foot ......................................................................................... 22
   Firearms ........................................................................................................ 23
   Other Hazards ............................................................................................... 24


APPENDICES
   Appendix 1 Field Trip Operational Details form ............................................. 25
   Appendix 2 Hazard Identification and Risk Control form................................ 31
   Appendix 3 Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form ........................... 34
   Appendix 4 First Aid Kit Contents – Small Sized Workplace ......................... 35
   Appendix 5 First Aid/Major Trauma Kit Contents – Remote Locations .......... 37
   Appendix 6 First Aid Treatment for Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke .......... 38
   Appendix 7 Basic First Aid for Bites and Stings ............................................. 40
   Appendix 8 What to Do When Lost ............................................................... 44
   Appendix 9 Checklist of Vehicle Spare Parts – Remote Area Field Trip ........ 45
   Appendix 10 List of Relevant Forms and Contacts ........................................ 47
   Appendix 11 Bibliography and Useful Sources of Information ....................... 48
   Appendix 12 Field Work – Essential Induction Elements ............................... 49

                                                        4
                                                    GENERAL INFORMATION



DEFINITION OF TERMS
Field activities and field work are defined as any work, studies or research approved by
the Head of School or nominated deputy on behalf of James Cook University (JCU) and
conducted by staff, postgraduate and undergraduate students at various field sites which
may be on-campus, or at off-campus urban, rural (terrestrial), freshwater or marine
locations.

Remote field work is defined as any work carried out at any non-permanently staffed
University site and which entails:
        working at a non-urban site off-campus where it takes more than half an hour to
            get medical aid to an injured or ill person.
        off-road in areas where very little traffic is likely or where topographic features
            would make it difficult to summon or receive help.

Off-road is any location other than a major or minor formed road.

The Officer-in-charge (OIC) is that person authorised by the Head of School to lead the
field work. The OIC has the authority to cancel, postpone or modify the planned schedule at
any time during the field trip.

Authorised officers are those persons nominated by the Head of School and listed on the
Field Trip Operational Details form (Appendix 1).

A qualified first aider is a person holding a current Senior First Aid Certificate.

Participants are all persons undertaking all or any part of the field activities, and includes
JCU employees, whether being paid or not, students and volunteers.




STATEMENT OF RESPONSIBILITIES
The Head of School must give final approval of all field activities.

The School Safety Officer must assess the Field Trip Operational Details.

The Officer-in-charge is responsible for the health and safety of all attending persons for the
duration of the field activity.

Authorised officers shall initiate search and rescue procedures in the event that the field
party fails to return by the agreed time which is indicated on the Field Trip Operational
Details form. They shall undertake the actions agreed to should the field party fail to make a
scheduled contact. (See Communications Section.)

All persons participating in field activities have an obligation - a duty of care - to work safely
in the field, taking care to protect their own health and safety and that of fellow workers and
students.

All participants should:
                                             5
             understand the JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety.
             understand the relevant statutory requirements within the Workplace Health
              and Safety Act and all associated regulations and codes of practice.
             understand and meet all legal requirements and safety guidelines associated with
              any licensing requirements (e.g. motor vehicles, firearms).
             understand and comply with the conditions imposed in permits issued by the
              relevant authorities (e.g. Dept. of Environment, Dept. of Natural Resources).
             obtain permission to traverse and access private and public lands and respect the
              wishes of landholders.

All field activity participants shall be given a safety induction (Appendix 12) to the field trip by
the Officer-in-charge, and shall be made fully aware of the possible hazards, and hazard
control measures associated with the activities and location. Field workers should familiarize
themselves with this handbook, the reference literature cited, and, in the case of
undergraduate field trips, the information provided at lectures and in the course field trip
manual.
Persons who deliberately expose themselves or others to risk by non-compliance with the
JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety or the agreed School rules are to be counselled
and if necessary excluded from field work.


SUPERVISION - WHO IS IN CHARGE?
The Officer-in-charge has full authority to influence or direct the actions of students,
employees and volunteers involved in any field activities. Any participants disregarding
directives from the Officer-in-charge may be requested to return to the University hence
terminating his/her field activity.

   Field activities involving postgraduate and honours students
All postgraduate field activities must be logged and approved by the student’s supervisor and
the Head of School.

                                 NEVER WORK ALONE !
            The minimum working party should be two (2), preferably three (3)
            persons. This is so that if an accident occurs, one person is available
            to attend the victim while another person is available to notify
            emergency services. (See JCU Policy for Field Work Health and
            Safety, Section 7.1 for more information including dealing with
            exceptional circumstances.)


   Field activities involving undergraduate students
All undergraduate students participating in field activities must:
       be accompanied by at least one member of staff, except in the case of on-campus
        field work which has an appropriately low risk assessment. See JCU Policy for Field
        Work Health and Safety, Section 7.1(d) for recommended staff-to-student ratios.
       always adhere stringently to any directives or instructions given by the Officer-in-
        charge or other staff members acting for the Officer-in-charge.
       carefully adhere to all University safety policies, guidelines and procedures.
       be provided with a safety induction to the trip and must acknowledge the induction by
        completing the Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form.

   Keeping the field party intact
                                             6
The Officer-in-charge is responsible for ensuring that no participant is left behind in the field
at any time. Undergraduate field trips usually involve a large group travelling in a number of
vehicles. Once at the field station, this may split up into smaller groups travelling in different
directions, with the groups rotating through a range of activities and staff. To avoid the
possibility of a participant becoming separated from the field party, the Officer-in-charge
must ensure appropriate procedures are in place.
These should at least include:
        During the trip to and from the field station:
       a roll-call before the trip departs, so that an accurate list of all participants exists.
        This must include staff and volunteers.
       drivers being responsible for knowing how many passengers they have, then carrying
        out head counts before resuming the trip after stops along the way.
     passengers not swapping vehicles along the way without telling the respective
      drivers.
And while based at the field station:
   lists of names of participants in each group.
  head counts before groups go out to study sites, and before leaving the sites to return to
   camp.
Particular circumstances may necessitate further measures such as sign-out/sign-in sheets.

   Free time and individual activities
On some undergraduate field trips, students are granted free time for sight seeing and
individual activities. This should be subject to the following conditions:
   no participant is to leave the field station or study site unaccompanied.
   the proposed activity must be discussed with the Officer-in-charge.
   written information including the names of the personnel going, time of departure,
    expected time of return, destination and intended route must be left in a designated
    place e.g. on a notice board.
   if not following a defined road or track, the procedures laid out for “Traverses on Foot”
    should be applied.




                                            7
                   Student Accident Insurance – Are you covered?

Yes. All members of the Student Union are covered for University related accidents by an
insurance policy subscribed to by the Union. For more information (including exclusions),
obtain a copy of the “Student Accident Insurance Scheme” available from Welfare Services,
Student Union, James Cook University.


         NOTE: YOU ARE NOT COVERED FOR ILLNESS

         You need to ensure you have your own medical and ambulance cover
         and carry adequate supplies of medication, including treatments for
         known allergies, spare puffers etc.

Participants should be reasonably fit and have no existing uncontrolled medical condition
which might give rise to a life-threatening situation in the field. The Officer-in-charge should
be made aware of any medical condition which may require special consideration in
planning.



                                         Volunteers

Volunteers must receive the same level of safety induction as other participants, and accept
the same obligations in respect to safety and behavior standards.



                             Administrative Arrangements

   Field Trip Operational Details Form and Risk Assessment
A Field Trip Operational Details form (Appendix 1) and a Hazard Identification and Risk
Control form (Appendix 2) must be completed and submitted to the School Safety Officer
prior to departure on all field trips, allowing plenty of time for the trip to be properly
assessed and approved.

         ALLOW TIME – AT LEAST 5 WORKING DAYS – TO HAVE YOUR
         FIELD TRIP OPERATIONAL DETAILS AND RISK ASSESSMENT
         EVALUATED AND APPROVED. ELEVENTH HOUR SUBMISSIONS
         MAY BE REJECTED.
         NO PERMISSION MEANS NO FIELD TRIP


   Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form
An Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction form (Appendix 3) must be completed by each
person participating in the field trip. One copy should be lodged with the School Safety
Officer, another should be carried on the trip by the Officer-in-charge.

   First Aid
The presence of a person with a current qualification in Senior First Aid is mandatory for
remote field work. An appropriate number of suitable first aid kits must be carried on all field
trips. A normal first aid kit (Appendix 4) may have to be augmented (Appendix 5) depending

                                           8
on the location and type of field activities. For further information see the JCU Policy for Field
Work Health and Safety, section 7.5.


                          FIRST AID – REMOTE FIELD WORK
         Remote field work parties must include a qualified first aider. This
         applies to research, postgraduate and undergraduate field work.


   Communications
Whenever carrying out remote field work, the field party must be equipped with a 2 way
communications system suitable for contacting emergency services, should this be required,
and for maintaining contact with the authorised officer.

Satellite telephones meet these requirements and are available for hire from several sources
in Townsville. Details can be obtained from the School Safety Officer.

All participants must be instructed in the use of the communication equipment to be used on
that trip.

Daily call-in schedules, and action to be taken if a call is not received, must be arranged
before departure and detailed on the Field Trip Operational Details form.

If you are unable to contact your authorised officer, call the JCU gatehouse on 07 4781 5555
and ask them to pass on the message.

The Officer-in-charge must consider whether communication between participants whilst in
the field is required e.g. if the party splits into smaller groups once on site.

   EPIRB’s (Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons)
The University has a number of EPIRB’s for the use of field parties as backup for normal
communications, and especially for those who have no other form of communication
available to them. These are to be activated only in cases of serious injury or other
potentially life-threatening situations. For further information, contact the School Safety
Officer.


           THE AUTHORISED OFFICER MUST BE ADVISED OF THE SAFE
                       RETURN OF THE FIELD PARTY


   Vehicle operations
No person is permitted to drive a JCU vehicle unless his or her driver’s license is currently
registered with the JCU Transport Section. No person is permitted to drive a 4 wheel drive
vehicle (JCU owned, or hired) unless he or she has completed the JCU 4 wheel drive
instruction course and test. Persons qualified to drive 4 wheel drive vehicles must be noted
on the Field Trip Operational Details form.

   Accident procedures
In the event of an accident:
   ensure the victim is stabilized and made medically comfortable.
   contact emergency services if warranted giving details of the number of persons injured,
    the nature of the accident and injuries, and the exact location and/or meeting point. If
    using a mobile or satellite phone, dial 000.

                                            9
   as soon as free to do so, notify the University.


   Accident reports
All accidents involving injury, no matter how minor, must be reported by completing an
Accident Report Form. These are in all School first aid kits, and are also available from the
School Safety Officer. This is a statutory requirement under the Queensland Workplace
Health and Safety Act.


         ACCIDENT REPORTS MUST BE SUBMITTED WITHIN 3 DAYS OF
         THE RETURN OF THE FIELD PARTY


   HOSPITALISATION
In the event of an accident which results in an overnight stay in a hospital, the Workplace
Health and Safety Coordinator MUST BE NOTIFIED WITHIN 24 HOURS (phone (07) 4781
5418 or after hours (07) 4773 3482)

This is a Statutory requirement as such accidents must be reported to the Division of
Workplace Health and Safety by the Workplace Health and Safety Coordinator within the
specified time.




                                           10
                                         HAZARD IDENTIFICATION,
                                                           RISK ASSESSMENT AND
                                                                        RISK CONTROL

A wide variety of hazards may be encountered during field activities. They may range from
hazards posed by poor road conditions en-route to the field site, to dangerous wildlife. The
checklist provided in the Hazard Identification and Risk Control form (Appendix 2) may assist
in identifying hazards associated with your field work.


        The risks posed to personnel by identified hazards must be
        assessed, and appropriate achievable control measures put in
        place to reduce the risks to an acceptable level.


Using the Hazard Identification and Risk Control form (Appendix 2) (or similar methodology),
you must:
     list in the table provided the HAZARDS you have identified that are associated with the
     field activities.
     briefly describe in the table the risks associated with each hazard.
     using the risk assessment chart assess, and record in the table the risk presented by
     that hazard (HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW).
     address risks with a HIGH rating first.
     in the table indicate what control measures are being taken to minimize the risk.
     attach the completed form to the Field Trip Operational Details form and submit both
     for assessment.
     prepare and implement the control measures.

Control Measures
     ELIMINATE the hazard.
     SUBSTITUTE something with a lesser risk e.g. manual handling - substitute a smaller
     container.
     ISOLATE the hazard e.g. proper storage of chemicals or firearm.
     use ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS - provide training, adequate supervision.
     have available PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT e.g. gloves, safety boots,
     sunhat, sunscreen.

Controls should be selected from as high up on this list as is reasonably practical to
maximize effectiveness. In many cases a combination of controls may be necessary to
reduce the hazard.

Courses in Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment are conducted
during the year at Townsville and Cairns campuses. Ask your School
Safety Officer, or the Workplace Health and Safety Coordinator for
details.




                                          11
                                  Field Work Activities
Safe work practices must be established and communicated in a safety induction verbally
and in writing to all participants. This includes details of appropriate safety equipment and
clothing.

All participants must comply with safety directives including:
   wearing of suitable clothing including footwear.
   not undertaking activities for which they have not been trained or competency assessed
    (e.g. tree and rock climbing, abseiling).
   adopting correct manual handling techniques, especially loading and unloading vehicles.

Students who do not comply with the safety directives shall not be permitted to participate in
the activity.


           NO SUITABLE CLOTHING AND FOOTWEAR MEANS NO FIELD
                                 TRIP !




                                     Fauna And Flora
Field parties must consider potential hazards from flora and fauna. The Officer-in-charge
must adequately brief participants, and the field party must carry appropriate first aid
supplies for the area in which they will be working.

Crocodiles

Crocodiles are very common in most mangrove and estuarine areas in the tropics, and may
occur many kilometres upstream in larger rivers. Crocodiles can remain submerged for long
periods, and swim slowly without so much as a ripple, even in shallow water, to get within
striking distance of their prey. They then lunge with great speed – much faster than a person
can escape – to attack and drag their prey back into the water. When working in possible
crocodile habitats, do not enter the water, be very vigilant, and do not stand or sit close to
the water’s edge. Seek reliable local information if in unfamiliar territory.

Snakes

Snakes are common and a number of highly venomous species may be encountered. Do
not attempt to capture or handle snakes unless you have adequate training and experience.
Wear stout boots and long pants. Take care when traversing the work site, look over logs
before stepping over. Check carefully before putting hands into hollow logs, between rocks
or into thick grass. If lifting logs, sheets of iron etc. do so in such a way that any animal
which may be underneath is directed away from, not towards you or other personnel. Use a
torch when moving around at night.

A summary of first aid for snake bite is provided in Appendix 7. All participants should be
familiar with the first aid procedure.

       FIRST AID FOR SNAKE BITE MUST BE RENDERED IMMEDIATELY.
       MEDICAL TREATMENT IS NEEDED URGENTLY.




                                           12
Sea snakes

Sea snakes may be encountered in intertidal areas. Avoid any contact as
most species are dangerous, any bite should be considered life-threatening
and treated in the same manner as terrestial venomous snake bites.


Stone fish and Bullrouts

These fish are well camouflaged to blend in with rocks. They occur in saltwater habitats
and fresh water streams. They have sharp venomous spines which will easily penetrate soft
footwear, resulting in intense pain which can lead to shock. Stout footwear should be worn. If
envenomated, medical treatment is needed urgently, CPR may be required. First aid
for stone fish sting is detailed in Appendix 7.


Cone shells

Cone shells lie buried in sand or amongst rocks and coral. They can envenomate through
soft footwear, so stout footwear should be worn. If envenomated, medical treatment is
needed urgently, EAR may be required. First aid for cone shellfish sting is detailed in
Appendix 7.


Blue-ringed octopus

Blue-ringed octopus occur in all coastal areas. They are normally small and sandy brown in
appearance, but display iridescent blue rings and stripes when touched or disturbed. Avoid
any contact as the bite, whilst not usually initially painful can be life-threatening. If
envenomated, medical treatment is needed urgently, EAR may be required. First aid
for blue ringed octopus bite is detailed in Appendix 7.


Jellyfish

All jellyfish have stinging capsules and in some species, the stings can be life-threatening.
When working in intertidal areas, all parts of the body which may enter the water should be
covered. This is especially important during the warmer months (October to May). Jellyfish,
including the extremely dangerous box jellyfish can be encountered even in ankle deep
water and in the uppermost reaches of mangrove systems. Jellyfish stings require urgent
medical treatment, CPR may be required. First aid for jellyfish stings is detailed in
Appendix 7.

       2 LITRES OF VINEGAR MUST ALWAYS BE AVAILABLE TO FIELD PARTIES
       WORKING IN MARINE, ESTURINE OR MANGROVE AREAS FOR IMMEDIATE
       TREATMENT OF JELLYFISH STINGS


Mammals

Many mammals are capable of inflicting painful bites. Participants must receive instruction
in the handling of animals and use protective gloves when appropriate. Disinfect the bite site
thoroughly. Watch for signs of infection. Medical advice should be sought as soon as
possible regarding tetanus precautions and risk of zoonotic diseases.


                                         13
Bats

Bats (fruit bats and microbats) are carriers of lyssavirus, an organism which causes an
untreatable terminal disease in humans. Bats must only be handled by staff members,
and then only if they have been vaccinated against the disease.

Should a participant be scratched or bitten by a bat, no matter how minor the injury may
seem, the victim will be immediately conveyed to town for medical attention. The bat must be
conveyed to DPI Oonoomba for testing.


Leeches

These are common in rainforest areas. To deter leeches, use insect repellant on exposed
skin. To remove leeches, touch with a hot match head or cigarette, or apply a little salt.


Insects

Ticks attach themselves and engorge blood, becoming partially buried in the skin. They
secrete a toxin which can produce a progressive, possibly fatal paralysis in humans. They
can also inject infective material which may cause diseases including Lyme disease and Q
fever. Ticks are about the size of a pin head initially, but rapidly increase in size. The first
indication of a tick’s presence is usually itchiness. Investigate any itches, and when in tick
infested areas, a specific daily check should be made. To remove a tick, first kill it by
applying kerosene, turpentine, diesel, alcohol or tea tree oil. The victim should feel it
releasing, it can then be carefully levered out. Do not squeeze with tweezers as this may
cause more poison to be injected. Make sure the head is intact. If the head is left behind and
cannot be removed, or any symptoms develop, seek medical advice as serious poisoning
may occur.

Scorpions, bees, wasps, bull ants and centipedes carry a sting which they inject when
disturbed. These can be extremely painful, but rarely serious for the
victim. Some indivuals are allergic to honey bee or wasp stings. If an
allergy develops, medical treatment is needed urgently, CPR may be
required.

Spider bites inflicted by red-back, northern funnel-web and whistling
spiders may be life threatening. Always watch for spiders and avoid contact.

A summary of first aid treatment for bites and stings is provided in Appendix 7.

Mosquitoes and sandflies (midges) may carry diseases such as Dengue or Ross River
fevers. It is advisable to protect yourself from insect bites by using insect repellants and
clothing which covers as much of your body as possible.




                                          14
Poisonous plants

Poisonous plants may be encountered in any habitats. Do not eat any plant material unless
advised that it is safe to do so by a “bush tucker” expert, and then only in small quantities in
case of an adverse reaction.

Wait-a-while or Lawyer Vine is a climbing palm which gets its common name from the
backward facing hooks on the long leafless stems which emerge opposite each leaf. These
catch unwary walkers, forcing them to “wait-a-while”. If caught, the best way to release
yourself is to stop and back up until the tension on the stem is relieved. The main stem is
covered with fine spines which break off in the skin in large numbers if brushed against. If
not removed, these can cause a great deal of irritation and may become infected. Watch for
wait-a-while at all times in rainforest areas, especially in disturbed areas and along margins.
When walking in a group, take care so as not to allow vines and other vegetation to swing
back onto the person following you.

Stinging trees (“Gympie”) are common in and adjacent to rainforest areas, especially in
disturbed areas, along tracks and roadsides and at the edges of clearings. They range from
low plants close to the ground, to trees several metres high. The leaves are large, deep
green, and heart-shaped. They are relatively few, are held near-horizontally, have a
distinctive serrated edge and are commonly eaten with holes. The surface looks soft, but
features fine visible hairs which contain poison. Participants need to be able to identify
Gympie correctly and take care to avoid any accidental skin contacts. The sting, even
when lightly brushed, causes intense pain and later glandular swelling; the fine siliceous
spines are hollow and are embedded in the skin. The pain will last for hours, even days. It
recurs whenever the affected area is washed, or perspires, for up to a year afterwards.

Take extreme care at rainforest margins. Wear long pants, boots and preferably long
sleeves. A classic sting scenario is contact when pushing vegetation aside with the back of
the hand to pass through understory shrubs when entering or exiting rainforest. Treatment
for Stinging Tree stings is detailed in Appendix 7.

      WAX STRIPS SHOULD BE CARRIED AT ALL TIMES WHEN WORKING IN AREAS
      WHERE STINGING TREES MAY BE ENCOUNTERED

Scrub itch (in forest areas) or black soil itch (in savannah areas) results from the bite of
larvae of mites which climb onto warm-blooded animals, including humans, and settle in skin
folds or where clothing is tight e.g. around the waist and ankles, and in the groin. The larvae
remain attached for several days, resulting in itchy, hard lumps. The mites are most common
in grassy areas, and in leaf litter, and seem to be more prevalent when conditions are drier.
Avoid sitting on the ground or logs without a ground sheet, use insect repellant around the
ankles. Dabbing on Selsun shampoo as soon as symptoms are apparent helps get rid of the
irritation sooner. Watch for any sign of infection.


Zoonotic infections

Mammals or their parasites may transmit zoonoses including Leptospirosis, Salmonellosis,
Melioidosis, Q Fever, Scrub Typhus and Toxoplasmosis to handlers via bites or open
wounds, eyes, hand to mouth, or from infected soil and water through skin abrasions,
inhalation and ingestion. Always use gloves when handling animals, wash hands thoroughly
and always wear footwear in the field.



                                          15
                          Camp Site And Camp Requisites
A campsite should be selected so as to be free from hazards such as falling branches, flash
flooding, vehicular traffic, dangerous wildlife, and stock. Particular attention must be paid to
hygiene, especially with regard to food storage and preparation, and sanitation. Personnel
unfamiliar with camping should seek advice from an experienced person or the Workplace
Health and Safety Coordinator.

If there is no toilet facility, go 100 metres from camp and dig a hole at least 15 cm deep.

Activities which commonly lead to accidents are:
- cutting up food; take care with sharp knives.
- cutting fire wood; use a bow saw for cutting through logs, not an axe. Chain saws should
    be used only when absolutely necessary, and then only by an experienced operator.
- pouring boiling water; use a ladle to decant water for hot drinks, use extreme care when
    pouring hot water for washing up.

Liquefied petroleum gas equipment requires special care:
- always transport cylinders in an upright position, outside the passenger compartment
    and in a well ventilated area.
- always immediately investigate any smell of gas in case of leaks.
- never leave cylinders in direct sunlight.
- never use LP gas equipment in a confined space e.g. a tent.

If using a 240 volt generator, remember that contact with a bare conductor will be just as
fatal as with mains power. Do not use generators in confined spaces, position so that
exhaust fumes are carried away from the camp.

A range of camping equipment is available from the Biological Sciences Equipment store.



                                Swimming And Bathing
Take extreme care in water-holes, creeks and rivers. Most contain logs and rocks, these are
often not visible because of turbidity. Many streams are fast flowing. Cases of death or
serious injury due to diving into shallow water or onto obstacles are all too common. A
lookout should be kept by a responsible person on the bank whenever hazards such as
crocodiles, sharks, fast-flowing, deep and/or cold water may exist.

       NEVER DIVE INTO STREAMS OR WATERHOLES

Do not use soaps, shampoos or toothpaste in waterways, do not go to the toilet within 30
metres (further if possible) of a watercourse.




                                           Health
Persons who participate in remote field work should be reasonably fit and have no existing
uncontrolled medical conditions which might give rise to a life threatening situation.
Participants should make the Officer-in-charge aware of any medical condition that may
require special consideration in planning.



                                          16
                                          Transport
An appropriate type of vehicle, suitably equipped, should be used for field work. When
working in remote locations, extra tools, spare parts, water, fuel and recovery equipment
may be needed.

   Utilities and station wagons
Passengers must not be carried in the cargo space or on the outside of any vehicle. The
number of persons that can be legally carried in a vehicle is the seating capacity as given on
the vehicle compliance plate and registration certificate. The carrying of passengers in the
cargo space of utilities is extremely hazardous and even a low speed incident can result in
death or very serious injury. Unsecured passengers in the cargo space of station wagons
and “troop carriers” are also at unacceptable risk.

Unsecured cargo in such vehicles is a danger to passengers in the event of even a minor
accident. Station wagons and “troop carriers” should be used to transport soft baggage only.
Heavy, solid equipment should be carried in utilities and trailers.
It is an offence to carry baggage in buses, a trailer or separate vehicle must be used.

       PERSONNEL SHALL NOT BE CARRIED IN THE CARGO SPACE OF UTILITIES
       AND STATION WAGONS

   Private vehicles
The use of private vehicles on field trips by staff and postgraduate students must be
approved in writing by the Head-of-School before departure.

Private vehicles owned by undergraduate students are not permitted on a University field trip
unless there are extenuating circumstances. A final decision will rest with the Officer-in-
charge.
For further information, see the JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety. Section 7.9.

   Driver’s responsibilities

       SMOKING IS NOT PERMITTED IN UNIVERSITY VEHICLES

Personnel driving vehicles must:
   hold a current, relevant licence for the type of vehicle being operated, and that licence
    must be registered with the JCU Transport Section.
   have completed the JCU 4 wheel drive instruction course and test before operating a 4
    wheel drive vehicle (JCU owned or hired).
   comply with all government regulations.

After receiving the vehicle, the driver is responsible for all aspects of preparation and general
maintenance of the vehicle and equipment during the trip. When taking delivery of a JCU or
hired vehicle, ensure that:
   you have the jack, jack handle and wheel spanner. Extra tools and spare parts will be
    required if travelling to remote areas.
   you are familiar with the vehicles controls, in particular the 4 wheel drive and high and
    low range controls, free wheeling hubs and winch on 4 wheel drive vehicles. Check that
    you are able to engage and disengage the front hubs, you may need a pair of pliers.


                                           17
   you know which fuel the vehicle uses, how far it will travel on a full tank of fuel and that
    you have the fuel card.
   the fire extinguisher is in place, and its indicator is in the green area.

The following checks should be made before departure, and daily during the trip:
   Tyres: tread conditions, inflation. Correct inflation is especially important when carrying
    heavy loads, and in trailer tyres. Don’t forget the spares.
   Radiator: check coolant level when cold. Do not remove the cap when hot.
   Engine oil level.
   Brake and clutch master cylinders: check fluid level.
   Trailer coupling: check all is secure and safety chains connected.
   Lights: check correct operation including trailer lights.
   Battery condition: check electrolyte level, and that mounting and terminals are secure.
   Load: ensure that your load is secure.

Further information is available from the Officer-in-charge, Vehicle Maintenance and in the 4
wheel drive vehicle training course booklet. A checklist of vehicle spare parts and equipment
is provided in Appendix 9.

Prior to setting off, check local conditions, particularly in the wet season. If going to an area
you are not familiar with, obtain a map and plan your trip. If travelling through very remote
areas, find out where fuel is available. Not all towns will have fuel suppliers who accept
University fuel cards. Extra fuel, if required, should only be carried in metal jerry cans; make
sure that you have a spout, funnel or other suitable means of transferring fuel to the
vehicle’s tank. Adequate water must be carried for the personnel and vehicle.

   Driving through long grass
Driving a vehicle through long grass presents the driver with a number of hazards:
- the flow of air through the radiator may become blocked by grass, causing the motor to
    overheat. Check the radiator and grill regularly and remove any obstructions.
- grass may become packed around the exhaust system, causing a very real risk of fire.
    Grass may also wrap around the driveshafts, and the axles of vehicles with independent
    suspensions. This can cause fire due to friction, or may cause mechanical damage to the
    vehicle. Check under the vehicle regularly and remove any buildup. Immediately
    investigate unusual noises or smells.

       KNOW WHERE TO FIND THE FIRE EXTINGUISHER AND HOW TO USE IT


   Vehicle recovery
This handbook is not concerned with techniques in recovery or repairs. It should be
remembered that in attempting any recovery or repair, new possibly severe risks exist.
Proceed with care and attention. Take time to study all aspects of your predicament and plan
your tactics.

   Changing drivers
When changing drivers, extra care must be taken as it takes time for a new driver to adjust
to the vehicle handling and characteristics, and to road conditions. This is recognized as a
classic time for accidents to happen.


                                            18
       CHANGING DRIVERS? – TAKE EXTRA CARE WHILST BECOMING FAMILIAR
       WITH THE VEHICLE AND ROAD CONDITIONS

   Field work on roadsides
When working on roadsides, it is important not to hinder or distract passing traffic. This
becomes a much greater problem when there is a large group with a number of vehicles.
When in this situation:
   try to avoid curves where visibility is restricted.
   park all the vehicles on the same side of the road.
   park as far from the road as possible, at least 5 metres from the centre line.
   make sure your passengers stay on the side of the vehicles away from the road.
   discourage participants from distracting drivers by standing close to or crossing the
    roadway when vehicles are approaching.

        ROADSIDE PARKING - THINK SAFETY, ACT SAFELY AT ALL TIMES



                           Limits On Driving And Work Time
Drivers travelling alone should not drive more than 2 hours without a break of 20 minutes
away from the vehicle. Where driving is shared, it is recommended that drivers change every
2 hours. You should not drive more than 8 hours in 24, or work (including) driving more than
12 hours in 24.

Alcohol shall not be consumed nor any non-prescribed or drowsiness inducing drugs taken
within 8 hours of or during the period of the journey by any officer undertaking driving duties.
For further information, see the JCU Policy for Fieldwork Health and Safety, Section 7.11.

        YOU MUST NOT DRIVE WITHIN 8 HOURS AFTER CONSUMING ALCOHOL OR
        DRUGS

                                        Bush Etiquette
When working on private property, it is very important to have permission. It is proper to
contact the land owner in advance of the planned visit and explain its purpose. Seek advice
on access, and ask if there is any special care you should take or areas which should be
avoided (they might be mustering, or have sensitive stock in a particular paddock). Ask
about fire risks and preferred camp sites. Pay particular attention to the following:-
   leave all gates as you find them. Don’t leave a gate open for a following vehicle unless
    you have a definite arrangement with the driver. Don’t close a gate which is open when
    you come to it, you could prevent stock from accessing their water supply.
   don’t drive on property roads when they are affected by rain, the wheel
    ruts you leave will haunt the landholders until they can afford the time
    and/or money to repair them.
   be scrupulous about putting your camp fire out.
   properly dispose of, or preferably remove ALL rubbish.




                                    Climate And Weather

                                             19
Field personnel should make themselves aware of the climatic conditions and weather
events that may be encountered, and obtain current weather forecasts on a regular basis.
For much of the year, coastal and near coastal tropical regions experience hot and humid
conditions whilst inland regions have hot to very hot days with low humidity. Night
temperatures in inland areas can fall to zero during winter. Personnel must be aware of the
risk of heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

   How to avoid heat exhaustion and heat stroke:
       keep fully covered (i.e. keep your clothes on), this allows perspiration to evaporate
       more slowly, giving the maximum cooling effect.
       wear light coloured clothes as these reflect the sun. Wool and flannelette enhance the
       body’s cooling by controlling the rate of evaporation of perspiration.
       ensure you have a high intake of water (more than 1 litre a day in ideal conditions, you
       may require 4 to 6 litres). Remember to drink before you become thirsty. It is best to
       drink a little often.
       avoid activities when unwell, e.g. vomiting or diarrhoea, as these greatly increase your
       water loss.
If you are feeling unwell or suspect you may be becoming dehydrated, tell your first aider or
Officer-in-charge.
First aid for heat-related conditions is provided in Appendix 6.

       YOU MUST MAINTAIN ADEQUATE FLUID INTAKE DURING HOT WEATHER


Sunburn

Sunburn occurs more quickly in the tropics and can occur even on dull, overcast days. The
most dangerous time is between 10 am and 4 pm. During this time, wear protective clothing
(no bare shoulders, wear a hat) and apply SPF 15+ sunscreen. If burnt, make sure that you
are not exposed to further sun, keep the affected area as cool as possible and maintain fluid
intake. If extensive blistering occurs, seek medical attention. Do not break blisters.


Cyclones

Tropical cyclones are extremely dangerous storms, known elsewhere as hurricanes or
typhoons. Wind gusts may reach 240 km/h. They are usually accompanied by very heavy
rainfall leading to flooding, and may cause higher than normal tides and tidal surges. The
main areas affected are tropical coastal areas, between November and April, but cyclones
can strike at any time and in other areas. Tropical cyclone advice bulletins are broadcast by
radio and television stations in the cyclone belt:

   Cyclone Watch
A cyclone watch is issued if a cyclone or potential cyclone
exists and there are strong indications that winds above
gale force will affect coastal or island communities within 24 to
48 hours of issue. Cyclone watch messages are renewed
every 6 hours.



        In the event of a cyclone watch, field parties should consider
        whether to move to a secure location. No field trips are to begin,
        nor camping equipment to be taken from the equipment store

                                          20
        during this period. All equipment from returning field trips must
        be secured in the appropriate stores or buildings.


   Cyclone Warning
A cyclone warning is issued as soon as gale or stronger winds are expected to affect coastal
or islander communities within 24 hours. A warning will identify the communities being
threatened and contains the cyclone’s name, its location, intensity, its movements and
travelling speed. Communities under threat should take precautions necessary to safeguard
their lives and property. Cyclone warning messages are renewed every 3 hours, or more
often if under radar surveillance.

      ALL FIELD ACTIVITIES SHOULD BE TERMINATED IMMEDIATELY AND FIELD
      PARTIES MOVED TO A SECURE LOCATION. All equipment from returning field
      trips must be secured in the appropriate stores or buildings.

Tropical cyclone advice bulletins indicate the expected severity of the cyclone as a category
number. These range from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe).

Things to remember:
 always check the official weather report prior to any field activity.

 always follow weather bureau warnings; cyclones don’t always give hours of warning.
 the area affected by the destructive winds may extend well out from the center.
 never assume that just because you are experiencing calm weather, a cyclone isn’t
   heading towards you – it is very common to have a period of complete calm before a
   cyclone.
 coastal areas may be affected by abnormal high tidal levels, or even a destructive tidal
   surge.
 extremely heavy rainfall, usually mainly south of the center, will cause flooding, which
   may isolate you in the field.
 if the center passes close to or over you, you may experience a calm “eye”, do not leave
   your place of shelter as the full force of the winds will very soon return, but from the
   opposite direction.

   Cyclone procedures
    Immediately prior to / during a cyclone:
    - listen to the radio.
    - keep calm.
    - seek shelter in the strongest part of the building.
    - if no building available, seek secure shelter in a depression, but remember that low
       lying areas may suddenly flood with heavy rain.

    After a cyclone:
    - continue to listen to your radio.
    - do not go outside until advised officially.
    - do not remain in the open unnecessarily.
    - watch for fallen power lines and other dangerous situations.
    - if your communications equipment is functioning, attempt to contact your authorised
       officer and advise of your situation.
    - do not attempt to travel home until officially advised to do so.


      NEVER DISREGARD A CYCLONE WARNING, OR ANY OTHER WEATHER
      BUREAU ADVICE
                            21
                                       Navigation
All field parties should be equipped with appropriate large scale maps, an accurate compass,
and if possible, a GPS (global positioning system).

Field workers who intend or even possibly may be required to leave established tracks,
either in vehicles or on foot should undertake a course in basic navigation. Information is
also available in survival guides including “Aids to Survival” and “Stay Alive” (see Appendix
11).



                                  Traverses On Foot
When field workers leave their vehicle or camp to traverse some distance across country,
their circumstances change considerably and different safety routines must be respected. A
variety of potentially severe risks exist. These include the risk of becoming lost, suffering
heat or physical exhaustion, and a range of accidental objective dangers, such as snake
bite, falling trees, loose stones on steep ground, severe stinging tree contact etc.

There are three basic rules cross-country field workers must observe:
1. never work alone.
2. be scrupulous in leaving details of the planned traverse. Leave a note if the vehicle or
   camp is being left unattended. Park the vehicle in a conspicuous place.
3. continuously review progress to keep control of the parties known location, judge
   carefully the time and effort required for the return journey, monitor water and food, and
   try to perceive new objective risks ahead.

   Preparation for a field traverse
The following details should be checked before starting any traverse:
 minimum equipment to be carried should include a compass, a map or aerial
   photographs, a watch, and, if possible, a GPS and spare batteries. A compass should be
   carried even if a GPS is being used as batteries can fail, satellite contact is sometimes
   restricted by forest canopy, or the unit itself may be damaged in a fall.
 correct starting point on the map.
 appropriate clothing for the anticipated terrain and vegetation, including hat and strong,
   comfortable footwear. Long pants and long sleeved shirts are recommended. Bright
   colours will be easier to spot should any participant become separated or the party
   become lost.
 careful estimation of the time anticipated for the traverse.
 well judged quantities of food and water, sunscreen and repellant.
 emergency gear including matches, a knife, and a “bum bag” first aid kit.
 shelter and cooking equipment if an overnight traverse.
 leaving of notes of intended route and time of return.


      NEVER ATTEMPT TO TRAVEL CROSS-COUNTRY WITHOUT A COMPASS
      AND A WATCH

For “Procedures When Lost”, see Appendix 8.




                                         22
                                      Firearms
The use of firearms on field trips is subject to the JCU Policy on Firearms – purchase,
storage and use (E.3.4, Policy and Procedures manual). See JCU Policy for Field Work
Health and Safety, section 7.13.




                                      23
                                      Other Hazards
Field work may entail the carriage of equipment and substances which may present a variety
of hazards. These should be identified and appropriate controls and safe work practices
implemented. Mandatory packaging and labeling requirements must be met and Material
Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) must be available for all hazardous substances taken into the
field e.g. preserving alcohol and fixatives.

   Smoking and Alcohol
It is University policy to provide a smoke-free workplace. Accordingly smoking is prohibited in
JCU vehicles and hired vehicles used on field trips and smoking is prohibited in shared
places in the field (whether indoors or not).

Smokers should take all due care with respect to LP gas, and to any other fire hazards.
These may be extreme during the dry season.

      NO SMOKING IN SHARED OR GROUP ACTIVITY AREAS

The field is a workplace, and appropriate standards of workplace behaviour should be
maintained. Accordingly alcohol should not be consumed while undertaking field work.
Should participants choose to consume alcohol after work, it is the individuals responsibility
to ensure that they are not affected by alcohol when next they undertake work.

      NO PERSON SHALL BE IN CHARGE OF A MOTOR VEHICLE LESS THAN 8
      HOURS AFTER CONSUMING ALCOHOL.


   Sexual Harassment
The field is a workplace and the same standards of workplace behaviour including the right
to work and study in an environment free from personal intimidation and harassment apply
as on campus. If a person considers that they are being sexually harassed during a field trip,
he or she should bring this to the attention of the Officer-in-charge or another staff member.




                                          24
Appendix 1
                                             BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES GROUP

                            FIELD TRIP OPERATION DETAILS
                                                        (NON-BOATING)
                        Form must be submitted to your School Safety Officer one week prior to
                                    departure on terrestrial or marine field trips.

         School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture
         School of Tropical Biology

Project Title:

Officer in Charge:

Position:           Staff             UG Student                            PG Student         
Proposed Dates of Trip: From / /                   To        / /

Location of proposed field work (attached photocopy of map of work areas if available and
indicate most likely works areas and camp sites):




Describe purpose of trip and principal work methods to be used:




Have the Hazard Identification and Control form (attached) been completed by the OIC? Yes                              
No    

PERSONNEL (include every person on the trip. Attach additional sheet if necessary)
Status       Name                                         Next of Kin                                        Phone
OIC




Status:
L = Leader; B= Bus Driver; D = Driver; D4 = Four-wheel drive driver; S = University Staff; UG = Undergraduate;
PG = Postgraduate; V = volunteer; O = other; C = Communications operator; F = First Aider – First Aider is
mandatory for remote area field trips that are in areas where it takes more than a half hour to get medical aid to an ill
or injured person.


                     DEPARTMENTAL SAFETY OFFICER’S FIELD TRIP ASSESMENT

Is field trip documentation complete? Yes                  No   
Are proposed control measures appropriate for the hazards identified?                             Yes      No   
If No, then what additional control measures are required?

                                                       25
Assessed: ……………………..on ……../……/….. Approved: …………………….……..on
……../……/…..
School Safety Officer              Head of School
As OIC I understand my responsibilities as outlined in the JCU Policy on Field Work. I have
undertaken to personally check the safety equipment and safety procedures required for this
field trip.

OIC Name ………………………………………….. Signature……………………………..Date
…../……/…..




                                        26
                                    BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES GROUP

                                    COMMUNICATION DETAILS
COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS TO BE USED: (tick)

         Mobile telephone: Phone Number
          (…….)…………………………………………………………………….

         Satellite telephone: Phone Number
          (…….)…………………………………………………………………..

         Radio Communication

If radio: Radio type:     UHF          VHF    HF     27 MHz   
Call Sign:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Frequency or channel
number:………………………………………………………………………………………..
Radio Schedules
(times):……………………………………………………………………………………………….
With whom (including address and phone number):
……………………………………………………………..
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…..

         Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (EPIRB)
          No.:……………………………………………...

         Other
          (Describe)………………………………………………………………………………………………..

Pre-trip training/instruction in communication procedures for personnel completed Yes   
No    
How can the field party be contacted in an emergency?
…………………………………………..
How
often::………………………………………Times:………………………….………………………
JCU                                           Contact                                       After
Hours:…………………….Phone:………………………………………………….
Authorised                                                     Officer:……………………………
Phone:………………………………………………….


                                              27
Address:
…………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Action   to   be       taken   if   a   scheduled      contact    is   not   received   by   the   Authorised
Officer:…………………..………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Search and rescue shall be initiated if the field party fails to return by
……………….(time) on …………..………………………………….(day and date)


SAFETY EQUIPMENT: Tick safety equipment carried and indicate number where applicable:
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUPMENT
    Hat                Clothing                  Footwear                  Sunscreen                Other
……………………………………….…….


CAMPING
 Tents (no. and size) ………………………………………….  Water drums (                                           x       lt)
 Food (for how long) …………………………..……..  First aid kit                                                Portable
generator
 Compass       GPS  Torch                 Cooking Equipment                  Lighting Equipment
VEHICLE
 Spare tyres  Water (……….lt)               Tools (vehicles, other)            Spare fuel (………lt)
 Winch         First aid kit               Radio               GPS           Spare battery
                                                 Spare                                                   parts
(details)……………………………………………………………………………………….




                                                  28
                                   BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES GROUP

                                  TRANSPORTATION DETAILS

 School of Marine Biology and Aquaculture
 School of Tropical Biology
JCU vehicle details:
Registration Number :___________________________________________

Vehicle (make, model,
type):__________________________________________________________________


If vehicle is a four-wheel drive, has the driver completed JCU 4WD training course?   
Hired vehicle details:
Company Name:_______________________________________________


Vehicle (make, model,
type):___________________________________________________________________

Company Phone
Number:______________________________________________________________________



Private vehicle details:         This must be approved by your Head of School:

Why is it necessary to use a private
vehicle:_____________________________________________________




Vehicle Registration
Number:___________________________________________________________________


Current comprehensive insurance policy:   
Attached complete proof of payment of your insurance policy:   

Name of all passengers accompanying you: ________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

TRAVEL REQUISITION NO (If applicable): JCU
________________________________________________




                                              29
Approval of HOD--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DISCLAIMER:
In the event of an accident in your own vehicle whilst on University business, any insurance
claim which may arise should be made through your own insurers. This will NOT be a claim
against the University insurers. (Mileage allowance covers the cost of maintenance, wear
and tear, fuel and insurance costs).

Signature:…………………………………………………………                                       Date:……………………………




                                                  30
Appendix 2                                                       HAZARD IDENTIFICATION AND
                                                                         RISK CONTROL FORM
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION                                                      with locals
                                   Personal protective                     with authorised officer
The following checklist of         equipment
hazards                             gloves                             Tides and Weather
 and other items to be              goggles                             tide data
considered                          face masks                          Met Bureau forecasts
when planning field work.           respirator                          radio broadcasts
                                    harness                             cyclone warnings
Fieldwork party                     helmet
 size                                                                  Fire Risks
 composition                      Personal                              extinguisher
 novice/experienced                sunburn                            Firearms
 fitness                           heat stress                         safe storage
 medical conditions                cold stress                         ammunition
                                    manual handling, lifting
Fieldwork activities at the         striking and grasping              Mechanical hazards
site                                slips and trips                     vehicles
 urban survey                      mental stress                       machinery, equipment in
 bushwalking, traverse on          personal security & safety           motion
    foot                                                                 vibration
                                    medical conditions?
 abseiling                                                              pressure equipment
 rock / tree climbing             Camp site                             generation of dust
 working at height                 terrain
 sample collecting                 falling tree branches              Radiation hazards
 underground work, caving          flash flooding                      ionizing - sealed / unsealed
 diving (refer to Diving SO)       safe from wildlife                   source
 boating                           safe from vehicles                  laser
                                    secure from theft,                  radiofrequency
Etiquette requirements               harassment, hostile
 bush etiquette                     persons                            Fire and Explosion
 native etiquette                                                       flammable substances
                                   Camp requisites                       explosives
  collecting permits               potable water and food
  permission to enter private      cooking facilities                 Thermal hazards
   land                             LP gas arrangements                 cryogenic fluids
Fauna & Flora                       electrical power facilities
 box jellyfish, etc.               lighting                           Electrical
 stonefish, etc.                   noise                               high voltage equipment
 crocodiles, sharks, etc.          privacy                               e.g. electrofisher
 wild pigs, cattle etc.            accommodation facilities            240v electrical equipment
 snakes
 bats (vaccinations?)                hygiene and ablution             Chemicals/Hazardous
 spiders, ticks, leeches etc.         arrangements                     Substances
                                      smoking and alcohol               carcinogens, genotoxins
   allergens                          consumption                        (mutagens, teratogens)
   zoonoses                                                             sensitizing agents
   handling of small animals      Transport                             corrosive agents
   handling of large animals       vehicles                            irritants
                                    motor bikes                         toxic/harmful substances
   harmful plant contacts (sap,    boats                                (poisons)
    stinging hairs)                                                      solvents
                                      aircraft                          MSDS available
First Aid requirements                driver licensing                  dangerous goods transport
 first aider                         driver training
 kit in transport                                                      Urban
 portable kit                     Navigation                            urban dogs
 additional items required?        route selection                     hostile, or violent persons

Clothing                              location determination           Overseas fieldwork
 hat                                 direction determination           disease
 shirt,                                                                 vaccinations
 trousers/overalls                Communication                         political climate
 footwear                          between participants
                                             31
Other
Specify



Complete the Risk Control
section of this form
overleaf.






                            32
                                              RISK CONTROL*

       One method of evaluating risks is to use a risk assessment chart:
                                                                             LIKELIHOOD
                                                  Very           Likely       Unlikely     Highly
                                                  likely                                   unlikely
                                 Fatality         High            High         High        Medium

                                  Major           High            High       Medium        Medium
                                 injuries
                                  Minor           High           Medium       Medium         Low
                                 injuries
                                Negligible      Medium         Medium           Low          Low
                                 injuries
       CONSEQUENCE

     What you should do:
   1. List in the following table** the HAZARDS you have identified that are associated with the field
      activities.
   2. Briefly describe in the table the risks associated with each hazard.
   3. Using the risk assessment chart assess, and record in the table the risk presented by that hazard
      (HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW).
   4. Address risks with a HIGH rating first.
   5. In the table indicate what control measures are being taken to minimize the the risk.

   Control Measures
      ELIMINATE the hazard
      SUBSTITUTE something with a lesser risk eg. manual handling - substitute a smaller
     container
      ISOLATE the hazard eg. proper storage of chemicals or firearm.
      Use ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROLS - provide training, adequate supervision.
      Provide PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT eg. gloves, safety boots, sunhat,
     sunscreen

       Controls should be selected from as high up on this list as is reasonably practical to
       maximise effectiveness.
       In many cases a combination of controls may be necessary to reduce the hazard.

* Safetywise: Self assessing OH&S in the workplace. COMCARE 1997** Guide for Workplace Health and Safety Plans. DTIR
WorkplaceHealth & Safety
         Description of hazard                       Description of risk                 Asses        Risk Control measures
                                                                                          sed
                                                                                          Risk
     box jellyfish sting                     wading waist deep in sea whilst              high        wear stinger suit; have 2
                                             dragging net (during February)                           litres vinegar with first aid
                                                                                                      kit; first aider present;
                                                                                                      assistant briefed on
                                                                                                      hazard.
   manual handling - back strain /           lifting field gear in and out from the      medium       pack gear into easily lifted
   sprain                                    back of vehicle                                          containers; team lift heavy
                                                                                                      items; revise correct lifting
                                                                                                      technique




                                                            33
APPENDIX 3

Acknowledgement of Field Trip Induction

School of ……………………………………………………………………………………..

Subject /Project ………………………………………………………………………………

Field Trip dates ………………………………………………………………………………

Destinations ………………………………………………………………………………….

I hereby acknowledge that I have been informed of the nature of the field trip specified
above and I am aware that participation in field work may require extensive work in remote
areas, long, strenuous hikes and/or long periods of time outdoors in tropical conditions
recording field data.

I accept full responsibility for my own behaviour and actions while on the field trip.

I agree to take all reasonable precautions to avoid hazards and I also agree to conform to all
reasonable requests by the staff member in charge of the field trip. I understand my
obligations to follow safety directives.

I am aware that it may be essential for people other than myself to know about conditions
which pertain to me, and that any information I provide to the staff member-in-charge of the
field trip will be treated with the strictest confidence and not disclosed to anyone without my
consent, except in the case of a medical emergency.

I am aware that the field trip first aid facilities do not include provision of medications such as
analgesics, antihistamines, Ventolin, insulin etc..



………………………………………………………………….                                                 ……………………………
 Name (and student number if applicable) please print                         Signed


Please specify the following:

Name, address and phone number of person to be contacted in the event of an accident:




                                                       Phone:(         )

The JCU Student Union Student Accident Insurance Scheme covers students for University-
related accidents only, not sickness. It includes ambulance transfer, and insurance cover for
students on field trips. For further information contact the Union Welfare Office Administration
Assistant.




                                            34
Appendix 4

             SUGGESTED CONTENTS OF A FIRST AID KIT FOR
                    A SMALL SIZED WORKPLACE

Preference is for all items to be disposable where possible.

CONTENTS                                                                           USE/FUNCTION/COMMENTS
adhesive strips (assorted sizes) .................................................. minor wound dressing
non-allergenic adhesive tape (e.g. 5m x 2.5cm) .......................... secure dressings, strapping
eye pads (e.g. 5 single packs) ..................................................... emergency eye cover
triangular bandage (e.g. 2) .......................................................... slings, support. Padding
hospital crepe or conforming bandage ......................................... retain dressings (heavier crepe
(various sizes e.g. 2.5cm - 10cm)                                              bandages for sprains may also be
                                                                               required)
wound/combine dressings (assorted sizes) ................................. bleeding control, cover wound
non-adhesive dressings (assorted sizes) .................................... wound dressing
safety pins (e.g. packet of 10) ..................................................... secure bandage, slings
scissors (e.g. stainless steel sharp/blunt type-12.5cm) ............... cutting dressings, clothing
kidney dish ................................................................................... holds dressings, instruments (where
                                                                                                reusable, clean and disinfect after
use)
small dressings bowl .................................................................... holds liquids e.g., antiseptic solutions
                                                                                          (where reusable, clean and disinfect
                                                                                          after use)
gauze squares (e.g. 2 packets) ................................................... wound cleaning
forceps/tweezers or needle........................................................... remove foreign bodies e.g., splinters
(preferably disposable splinter type - 12.5cm)                                        (where reusable, clean and sterilise
                                                                                       after use)
disposable latex or vinyl gloves (e.g. box of 10                                   infection control
sharps disposal container. ........................................................... infection control - disposal purposes
sterile saline/wafer ....................................................................... emergency eye wash - irrigating eye
(e.g. 1 bottle - 250ml,                                                                      wounds (once opened contents MUST
or single use ampoules - 3Oml)                                                               be discarded)
resuscitation mask ....................................................................... to be used by qualified personnel for
                                                                                           resuscitation purposes
antiseptic solution (e.g. 30 ml) ..................................................... pre-measured containers with expiry
                                                                                       dates, low use - single packs
plastic bags (e.g. 12 medium size) .............................................. waste disposal
note pad and pencil ..................................................................... recording the injured or ill person's
(and accident report forms)                                                               condition and treatment given
re-usable ice-pack ....................................................................... for treatment of strains, sprains and
                                                                                           bruises




                                                           35
Other items suggested for inclusion in a field first aid kit are:

         Hydrocolloid wound dressings which are waterproof and can be left on for some days.
         Pre-packed sterile dressings for minor cuts, grazes and burns e.g. Cutifilm, Cutiplast,
          Cutinova, available from chemists shops.

Vinegar (2 litres) must be taken on all marine field activities. This includes field work in
mangroves and estuaries. All vessels must carry a first aid kit, and in addition 2 litres of
vinegar if used for marine operations.


The above contents are suggested for a small workplace (less than 30 workers), where the risk of
injury or illness is low. The bracketed numbers are for guidance only and do NOT represent minimum
requirements. The actual quantity of particular items and contents of the kit SHOULD be determined by
the Risk Assessment for First Aid requirements undertaken for particular field work.




                                                 36
Appendix 5

           SUGGESTED ADDITIONAL CONTENTS OF A FIRST
           AID KIT AND A MAJOR TRAUMA KIT FOR REMOTE
                            LOCATIONS

Type of hazards                 Additional contents                  Comments

distance from medical             heavy smooth crepe                           for snakebites (sufficient number
assistance                        roller bandages, 10 cm                       for bandaging lower limbs)

                                  splint                                       for snakebites and fractures
                                                                                (to immobilise limit)

                                  vinegar (2 litres)                           for box jellyfish stings

                                  large burns sheet                            for covering burn areas

                                  thermal/emergency blanket                    for treatment of shock
                                  (also for assisting portability)

                                  cold water supply and                        for cooling and dressing of burns
                                  clean sheeting

                                  first aid text                               emergency reference manual

                                  torch/flashlight                             for use at night, attracting attention
                                  note pad and pencil                          for recording the injured or ill
                                                                               person's condition,
                                                                               and treatment given

rainforest field work             Hair remover wax strips                      treat stinging tree contact

                                  vinegar                                      treat stinging tree contact

                                  EURAX ointment(S2)                           treat stinging tree contact

                                  Teatree oil                                  removing ticks

In addition, it may be worthwhile considering a major trauma kit for a remote location:

Universal Dressing large (2)                                Foil Dressing for Sucking Chest Wounds 10cm
Conforming Bandage 15cm (2)                                 x 10cm (1)
Conforming Bandage 10cm (2)                                 Combine Pads 9cm x I 0cm (2)
Scissors (1)                                                Adhesive Plaster Strips (6)
Adhesive Tape 2,5cm (1)                                     Triangular Bandage (1)
Safety Pins (pkt of 6)                                      Eye Pads Sterile (2)
Non-adherent Burn Dressing Small (1)                        disposable Gloves (1 pair)
Thermal Accident Blanket (1)


A Major Trauma Kit is available from St. John Ambulance. Code 6011)
The above additional items for including in a first aid kit are guidelines only.




                                                   37
Appendix 6

            FIRST AID TREATMENT FOR HEAT EXHAUSTION
                        AND HEAT STROKE*

HEAT EXHAUSTION
Heat exhaustion is the common form of heat-related illness. It typically occurs after long periods of
strenuous exercise or work in a hot environment. Although heat exhaustion is commonly associated
with athletes, it also affects field workers, and those who wear heavy clothing in a hot, humid
environment.

Heat exhaustion is an early indication that the body's temperature-regulating mechanism is becoming
overwhelmed. The victim loses fluid through sweating, which decreases the blood volume. Blood flow
to the skin increases, reducing blood flow to the vital organs. Because the circulatory system is
affected, the person develops mild shock.

The symptoms and signs of heat exhaustion include:
        normal or below normal skin temperature;
        cool, moist, pale skin progressing to red skin;
        headache;
        nausea;
        dizziness and weakness;
        exhaustion;
        sweating;
        rapid,
        weak pulse

Heat exhaustion in its early stage can usually be reversed with prompt care. Often the victim feels
better after resting in a cool place and drinking cool water. If heat exhaustion progresses, however, the
victim's condition worsens. The body temperature continues to climb and the victim may vomit and
begin to show changes in the level of consciousness.
   Care for Heat Exhaustion
    1. Encourage the victim to rest lying down with the legs slightly raised. Loosen any tight clothing.
    2. If fully conscious, give small drinks of cold water to drink. If the victim is vomiting and unable to
            take any fluids, arrange for urgent medical treatment.

If unconscious, position the victim on the side and care for the airway, breathing and circulation.

HEAT STROKE
Heat stroke is the least common and most severe heat emergency. Heat stroke develops when the
body systems are overwhelmed by heat and begin to stop functioning. Sweating stops because body
fluid levels are low. When sweating stops, the body cannot cool itself effectively, and body temperature
rapidly rises. It soon reaches a level at which the brain and other vital organs, such as the heart and
kidneys, begin to fail. If the body is not cooled, convulsions, unconsciousness and death will result.
Heat stroke is a serious medical emergency. You must recognise the signs of this heat-related illness
and provide care immediately. The signs of heat stroke include:
          high body temperature (often as high as 40°C);
          red, hot, dry skin;
          progressive deterioration in the conscious state;
          full, bounding pulse;
          rapid, shallow, noisy breathing.
Someone with heat stroke may at first have a strong, rapid pulse, as the heart works hard to rid the
body of heat by dilating blood vessels and sending more blood to the skin. As consciousness
deteriorates, the circulatory system begins to fail and the pulse becomes weak and irregular. Without
prompt care, the heat stroke victim will die.

   Caring for Heat-Stroke




                                                 38
When any symptoms and signs of sudden illness develop and you suspect the illness is
caused by overexposure to heat, follow these general care steps immediately:
        1.    Stop the person from continuing any activity.
        2.    Cool the body.
        3.    Give cool, clear fluids if the victim is fully conscious.
        4.    Minimise shock.
        5.    Seek urgent medical care.

When you recognise heat-related illness in its early stages, you can usually reverse it. Remove the
victim from the hot environment and give the victim frequent drinks of cool water. Moving the victim out
of the sun or away from the heat allows the body's own temperature-regulating mechanism to recover,
cooling the body more quickly. Remember, it is important that the victim be persuaded to stop all
activity as the person may be beyond the point of making a rational decision.

Loosen any tight clothing and remove clothing soaked with perspiration. Apply cool, wet cloths, such as
towels or sheets, to the skin and fan the victim to increase evaporation. Continue cooling the victim
until the body temperature fails to 38°C.

If the victim is conscious, drinking cool water slowly will help replenish the vital fluids lost through
sweating. The victim is likely to be nauseated, and water is less likely than other fluids to cause
vomiting and is more quickly absorbed into the body from the stomach. Do not let the victim drink too
quickly. Give half a glass (100ml) about every 15 minutes. Let the victim rest in a comfortable position,
and watch carefully for changes in the victim's condition. A victim of heat-related illness should not
resume normal activities the same day.

   When to seek medical attention.
Refusing water, vomiting and changes in the victim's conscious state are signs that the victim's
condition is worsening. Call an ambulance immediately or in an isolated area transport the victim to a
medical facility immediately. If the person vomits, stop giving fluids and position the victim on the side.
Make sure the airway is clear. Monitor the airway, breathing and circulation and check vital signs. Keep
the victim lying down and continue to cool the body.

A change in the conscious state is the first reliable sign that a victim's condition is deteriorating. If you
observe changes in the conscious state, cool the body by any means available. Soak towels or sheets
and apply them to the victim's body. If you have ice packs or cold packs, place them on each of the
victim's wrists and ankles, on the groin, in each armpit and on the neck to cool the large blood vessels.
Do not apply rubbing alcohol, which closes the skin's pores and prevents heat loss. Maintain an open
airway and monitor the airway, breathing and circulation. Immersing the victim in cool water is not a
good idea because doing so may cause additional problems, including abnormal heart rhythms. A
person with heat stroke may experience respiratory or cardiac arrest. Be prepared to give EAR or
CPR.

Summary of first aid treatment for heat-related illness
        Monitor the victim's condition for signs of deterioration.
        Loosen tight clothing.
        Remove perspiration-soaked clothing.
        Apply cool, wet cloths to skin, and fan the victim.
        Monitor the condition carefully.
        Call an ambulance, or in an isolated area transport the victim to a medical facility immediately.
        Cool the body by any means available: wet towels or sheets or ice packs to armpits and/or
         groins.
        Monitor the Airway, Breathing, Circulation
        Be prepared to perform EAR or CPR.

* Australian Red Cross. First Aid. Responding to Emergencies. (Queensland Ambulance Service)
1995.




                                                  39
Appendix 7



               BASIC FIRST AID FOR BITES AND
                          STINGS

Field workers should familarise themselves with the full account of first aid for these injuries as
provided in the publication Australian Red Cross, First Aid, Responding to Emergencies (Queensland
Ambulance Service) 1995.

PRESSURE IMMOBILISATION TECHNIQUE
This is the most common method of treating many bites and stings. It is effective because the pressure
over the bite area slows the rate at which venom enters the circulation, thus reducing the toxic effects
of the poison. This method should not be used for bites and stings of red-backed spiders, bees,
wasps, ants, ticks and venomous fish spines unless the victim has a known allergy to the
venom.

       Apply firm pressure over the bite site, using your hand if necessary.
       Apply a crepe roller bandage to maintain pressure over the area of the bite.
       For a bite on the leg or arm, use a second crepe bandage starting at the fingertips or toes and
        working upwards to cover as much of the limb as possible. The bandages should not be so
        tight as to cut of circulation below them.
       Immobilise the limb with splint. Do not allow the victim to stand or walk.
       Check for signs of impaired circulation below the bandaging (discolouration, coldness,
        numbness). If necessary, loosen the bandage to allow blood flow.
       Do not remove the compression bandage. The patient should be handed over to skilled
        medical personnel with bandages and splints in place.




           Name                         Signs/symptoms                      Recommended First Aid

SCORPIONS,                         pain at the bite site                1. For a bee sting, remove the barb
CENTIPEDES,                        swelling and redness around the         quickly by scraping sideways with
BULLANTS,BEES, WASPS                site                                    a fingernail.
                                   in the case of honey bees, a barb    2. Apply a cold compress or ice pack
                                    lodged in the skin                      for pain relief.
                                   allergic reactions including         3. Keep the injured part elevated and
                                    itching, rash, swollen eyelids,         supported to reduce swelling.
                                    respiratory distress, altered        4. Monitor breathing and circulation in
                                    conscious state                         case of an allergic reaction.


                                   pain at the site that spreads to a
RED-BACK SPIDERS                                                         1. Use an ice pack to lessen the pain.
                                    red, swollen, sweating, hot area
                                                                         2. Continually monitor the victim’s
                                   nausea, vomiting and stomach            breathing and circulation.
                                    pain                                 3. Call an ambulance immediately or
                                   heavy sweating                          in a remote area transport the
                                   swollen glands in the groin or          victim to a medical facility
                                    armpits                                 immediately.


                                              40
                           pain away from the bite site

         Name                   Signs/symptoms                       Recommended First Aid

SNAKES (including sea      single or paired puncture marks      1. Use the pressure immobilisation
snakes)                    nausea, vomiting                        technique for a bite on a limb. If no
                           headache                                compression bandage is available,
                           altered conscious state                 or the bite is not on a limb, direct
                           double vision or blurred vision         compression over the bite site with
                           problems with speaking and/or           the hand should be used.
                            swallowing                           2. Continually monitor the airway,
                           respiratory distress or cardiac         breathing and circulation and be
                            arrest                                  prepared to give EAR or CPR if
                                                                    needed.
                           clotting defects
                                                                 3. Keep the victim calm, reassured
                                                                    and at total rest.
                                                                 4. Call an ambulance, or in an
                                                                    isolated area transport the victim to
                                                                    a medical facility immediately. If
                                                                    possible, advise the facility that you
                                                                    are coming. Antivenom is available
                                                                    for most poisonous snake bites.
                                                                 5. DO NOT wash the bite. DO NOT
                                                                    cut the bite or try to drain or suck
                                                                    out the venom. DO NOT apply a
                                                                    tourniquet.
                           pain, but little other reaction in   1. Use the pressure immobilisation
NORTHERN FUNNEL-            the bite area                           technique if the bite is on a limb.
WEB AND WHISTLING          heavy sweating                       2. Continually monitor breathing and
SPIDERS                    heavy production of saliva;             circulation and be prepared to give
                            tingling about the mouth                EAR or CPR if required.
                           stomach pain                         3. Keep the victim calm, reassured
                           altered conscious state, possibly       and at rest.
                            progressing to unconsciousness       4. Call an ambulance immediately or
                           twitching of muscles                    in a remote area transport the
                           respiratory distress, possibly          victim to a medical facility
                            leading to respiratory arrest           immediately.

STONEFISH,                 immediate excruciating pain in       1. To reduce pain, plunge the
BULLROUTSAND                the local area                          envenomated part into comfortably
STINGRAYS                  swelling, an open wound and             hot (not boiling) water (gauged by
                            discolouration at the site              the rescuer, not the patient).
                           panic or irrational behaviour        2. DO NOT apply compression
                                                                    immobilisation technique.
                                                                 3. Apply EAR or CPR as required.
                                                                 4. Seek skilled medical help.




                                      41
         Name                     Signs/symptoms                      Recommended First Aid

JELLYFISH (including Box      instant and severe pain (often a   1. Prevent the victim from rubbing the
Jellyfish)                     burning sensation)                    stung area.
                              sting marks on the victim /        2. Keep the victim calm, at rest and
                               tentacles adhered to the victim       reassured.
                              localised muscle cramps            3. Douse the stung area with vinegar.
                              breathing difficulties/painful     4. Apply a cold pack or ice wrapped
                               breathing                             in cloth to relieve local pain.
                              lower back pain                    5. For stings of Irukundji and box
                              anxiety                               jellyfish, use the pressure
                                                                     immobilisation technique (as
                              nausea/vomiting
                                                                     above) after applying vinegar.
                              headaches
                                                                  6. Monitor the victims airway,
                              convulsions                           breathing and circulation and call
                              respiratory arrest                    an ambulance or in an isolated
                                                                     area, transport the victim to a
                                                                     medical facility immediately. There
                                                                     is an antivenom for box jellyfish
                                                                     stings.
                                                                  7. Be prepared to give EAR or CPR if
                                                                     needed, and continue until help is
                                                                     available. Sometimes this may be
                                                                     for several hours, but there is still a
                                                                     chance of complete recovery.

CONE SHELLFISH AND            relatively painless bite           1. Keep the victim calm, reassured
BLUE-RINGED OCTOPUS           numbness of the tongue and lips       and at rest.
                              progressive muscle weakness        2. Use the pressure immobilisation
                               which can lead to respiratory         technique for the bite area.
                               arrest within 30 minutes           3. Call an ambulance, or in an
                                                                     isolated area transport the victim to
                                                                     a medical facility immediately.
                                                                  4. Continually monitor airway,
                                                                     breathing and circulation and be
                                                                     prepared to give EAR. The venom
                                                                     may cause the muscle of
                                                                     respiration to cease functioning,
                                                                     although the heart will continue to
                                                                     beat if EAR is given.




                                         42
       Name            Signs/symptoms            Recommended First Aid

STINGING TREE      Immediate severe pain    1. Apply wax strips to the affected
CONTACT                                         area. Carefully pull off the strip (as
                   Redness and swelling        per instructions) or plastic skin to
                   Enlarged glands             remove the plant hairs. Repeat this
                                                treatment (using a new strip each
                   Pain may lead to shock      time) until most of the hairs are
                                                removed. If wax strips or plastic
                                                skin are not available use adhesive
                                                plaster or tape, or carefully shave
                                                the affected area. It is important to
                                                remove as many hairs as possible
                                                as soon as possible.
                                             2. Wash the area with tepid water to
                                                remove any remaining wax and
                                                dry.
                                             3. The application of vinegar after
                                                removal of the hairs may reduce
                                                the painful reaction in some cases.
                                             4. Badly stung victims may exhibit
                                                signs of shock arising from the
                                                severe pain experienced. Treat the
                                                victim for shock first, then treat the
                                                affected area.
                                             5. The application of EURAX cream
                                                may further reduce the effects of a
                                                stinging tree contact. Eurax cream
                                                (an S2 item) should be carried in
                                                First Aid kits, so that victims can
                                                administer it to themselves if they
                                                wish to.

                                             *Hair remover wax strips (e.g. Mariana
                                             wax strips, Nair Easiwax) are available
                                             from chemist shops and supermarkets.
                                             They are ready to use immediately, no
                                             heating is required. The wax is water
                                             soluble.




                             43
Appendix 8

                             WHAT TO DO WHEN LOST

The following information is taken from Stay Alive - a handbook on survival Chapter 6, Dunlevy, 1981.

           If you do get lost, don’t panic - sit down and think
           Examine your map if you have one - can you recognize any landmarks?
           What was the last one you saw?
           Get out your sketch map. Compare the two. Is the map in error?
           If not ask yourself whether you have drifted to the right or left, or whether you have passed
            your objective
           Did you walk around an obstacle and fail to take account of it?
           Do you have a record of the distance you have travelled?
           Try to reconstruct the course you took since the last known landmark
           Climb a tree or hill and look around.

If you are really lost,
         Stay where you are
         Try to make yourself and your camp easily visible
         Brightly coloured garments, groundsheet or coloured plastic may help, so may signals in
            the sand, if there is sand
         Light a fire and keep it smoking
         Be prepared to signal to rescuers - remember if there is a search for you it may be
            conducted by ground and air (see diagrams below)
         Conserve your water, your food and energy
         Do not blunder about
         Should you decide to walk out, leave plenty of evidence that you were there and
         Indicate where you are going next, and the physical condition of members of the party




                                              44
 Appendix 9


                 CHECKLIST OF VEHICLE SPARE PARTS AND
                              EQUIPMENT
                THAT MAY BE REQUIRED ON A REMOTE AREA
                               FIELD TRIP

 Items currently provided by the JCU vehicle maintenance section are indicated*

 Other items, if available, may be provided on request, or may have to be provided by the School.
 Please refer to the OIC Vehicle Maintenance section in the first instance.

ITEMS FOR BOTH PETROL & DIESEL                               Electrical circuit tester
ENGINES                                                   LUBRICANTS ETC.
   Drive belts (e.g. fan & power steering belts             Engine oil
    etc.)                                                    Transmission oil
   Radiator and heater hoses                                Distilled water
   Oil filter                                               Water - enough to fill radiator in addition to
   Fuel filter                                               drinking water
   Brake fluid
   Wire
                                                          MISCELLANEOUS REPAIR ITEMS
   Fuses and fusible link
   Globes                                                   Aero start
   Oil seals for input/output shafts                        Spare nuts
   Wheel bearings                                           bolts
   Tyres and tubes                                          washers etc.
   Valves for tubes                                         Gasket cement
   Tyre/tube patches, glue etc.                             PVC fuel hose
   Spare wheel*                                             Contact cement
                                                             Silicone adhesive

TOOLS
                                                             Araldite, Plastibond etc.
                                                             Radiator stop leak
   Wheel brace / spanner *                                  fencing wire
   Comprehensive tool kit (with all necessary size          Dewatering fluid (e.g. CRC)
    sockets and spanners)                                    Duct or Gaffers tape
   Jack (standard)* and base plate                          Self amalgamating tape
   Jumper leads                                             Insulation tape
   Tyre pump
   Tyre pressure gauge
   Tyre levers                                           RECOVERY. EQUIPMENT
   Rubber mallet                                            High lift jack
   Spare tube                                               Leather gloves
   Tube patch kit                                           Snatch strap
   Hacksaw and blades                                       Rope
   G Clamp                                                  Winch* (standard equipment, JCU 4-WD)
   Drill - hand or 12 volt and set of drill bits            Shovel
   Soldering iron (12 volt) and solder                      Snatch block
   Wire brush                                               Shackles*


                                                   45
                                    OPTIONAL ITEMS TO CONSIDER
OTHER ESSENTIAL ITEMS
                                       Portable warning signs
   Vehicle Handbook *                 Wheel chains
   Maps and compass                   Jerry cans *
   First-aid kit                      CB Radio
   Fire extinguisher*                 Pick
   Knife (pocket or sheath)           Radiator blind or tarpaulin
   trouble lamp                       Flares
   Workshop manual
   Survival book
   Survival kit




                               46
Appendix 10


              LIST OF RELEVANT FORMS AND CONTACTS
                      All forms are located online:
            http://www.jcu.edu.au/school/bsg/resources.html

FORM                                 LOCATION                         SUBMIT TO
*Field Trip Operational Details      Online                           School Safety Officer

*Hazard ID and Risk Control          Online                           School Safety Officer

*Acknowledgement of Field Trip       Online                           School Safety Officer
Induction

Travel Request (when claiming        Bio Science Finance Office       Bio Science Finance Office
expenses)

Transport Requisition (Vehicle       Online                           Transport Office
Bookings)


Approval for non-JCU passenger in    Online                           Transport Office
JCU vehicle

Approval to garage JCU vehicle at    Online                           Transport Office
home overnight

Equipment Store Bookings             Equipment Store                  Equipment Store

Accident Report                      First Aid Kits, Safety Officer   School Safety Officer

Applications for Permits (DOE, Nat   Online                           Respective Authority
Resources etc)

First Aid Kit Booking                Equipment Store                  Janice Cran




                                         47
Appendix 11

                 BIBLIOGRAPHY AND USEFUL SOURCES OF
                            INFORMATION

   Fauna and Flora
    Toxic Plants and Animals – a guide for Australia. Covacevich, J, Davie, P, and Peam, J
    (eds). Qld Museum.1987

   First Aid
    Australian First Aid, Volumes 1 and 2. St John Ambulance, 1998
    Remote Area First Aid. St. John Ambulance. 1991 (out of print)
    Australian Red Cross First Aid, Responding to Emergencies. 1995 (reprinted 1997)

   General Field Work and Survival
    Australian Bushcraft. Graves, R. Revised edition. Dymocks Publishing. 1984
                                                           th
    Aids to Survival. Western Australian Police Academy. 17 edition. 1998
    Four Wheel Drive Training Course Notes. University of Western Australia.
    Map Reading Handbook. Emergency Services, Tasmania.
                                                rd
    Stay Alive. Dunleavy, M. AGPS Canberra. 3 ed. 1981

   JCU Publications
    JCU Policy for Field Work Health and Safety. Central Services Office, Workplace
    Health and Safety Coordinator. 1998
    Field Safety Handbook for Marine Biologists. Marine Biology Department and WH&S.
    JCU. 1998
    Fieldwork on Land. Doak, G.B. and Stevenson, P.J. (eds). JCU. 1991




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Appendix 12



          FIELD WORK - ESSENTIAL INDUCTION ELEMENTS

All personnel undertaking particular field trip / work for the first time shall be given a safety induction by
the officer-in-charge. Undergraduate students shall be provided with this information verbally , and in
writing e.g. as part of class notes or a copy of the relevant field safety handbook.

The induction shall include
         an overview of the parts of the University Policy for Field Work Health and Safety relevant
           to the particular field work, or reference to the relevant field safety handbook;
         information on the nature and objectives of the field work;
         safety obligations of personnel;
         information on suitable clothing and behaviour;
         identified hazards including heat -related illnesses;
         the risks associated with the hazards, and the proposed control measures;
         where to access first aid facilities and who is the first aider on the project;
         instruction in the safe operation of any equipment to be used;
         instruction the correct use and maintenance of any personal protective equipment to be
           used;
         reporting accidents and illnesses;
         communications procedures;
         when-lost procedures;
         emergency procedures.




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Compiled in 1999 by the School of Tropical Biology and the
Workplace Health and Safety Section (Central Services Office),
James Cook University, QLD 4811, Australia.

Text compiled by Rob Gegg.
Designed and typeset by Orpha Bellwood.

The comments and contributions of L. Winsor and S. Francis are
gratefully acknowledged.




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