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Geography Notes

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									Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

                        Geography Notes

Development is the level of economic growth of a country or region and the
process of change taking place within it.

Classification of Industries

Primary – This industry takes raw materials from the earth and sea e.g.
Forestry, Farming, Fishing and Mining
Secondary – This industry makes things from the raw materials
(manufacturing) e.g. Steel and Furniture making.
Tertiary – This industry provides a service e.g. Transport and Education.
Quaternary – This industry provides information and expertise.

Representing Employment Structures

These indicate the percentage of people working in each sector, in a country.
There are three ways to represent data which includes pie charts, percentage
bars and triangular graphs.
Triangular Graphs – Each side of the triangle represents a percentage
scale: Primary, Secondary and Tertiary. The three percentages should add up
to 100%.

Differences in World Development

Development equals growth. Geographers are interested in differences of
levels of development and rates of growth between places across the world
and within a country or continent. It is difficult for one individual method to
represent this growth accurately. The three main methods are:
Economic Wealth – The traditional method of measuring development is to
compare wealth. Using wealth the world can be divided into two parts.
   (i)    More Economically Developed Countries (MEDCs), the richer and
          more industrialised nations of the ‘North’
   (ii) Less Economically Developed Countries (LEDCs), the poorer and
          less industrialised nations of the ‘South’.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

The wealth of a country measured by its Gross National Product (GNP) per
capita i.e. The GNP per person. This is the total value of goods and services
by a country in a year, divided by the total number of people living in that
country. The disadvantage of using GNP is that id does not show differences
in wealth between people and places within a country.
Social Factors – Although wealth is the traditional way of comparing a
country’s development, research suggests links between wealth and a range
of social factors i.e. MEDCs have lower birth and infant mortality rates,
longer life expectancy, a smaller proportion of the population aged under 15
and a higher proportion of the population over 65 than LEDCs.
Human Development Index – It was introduced in 1990 by the United
Nations. The HDI replaced GNP as the measure of developed countries. The
HDI is a social welfare index, measuring adult literacy rate (education), life
expectancy (health) ant the real GNP per person i.e. what a person’s income
will actually buy in a country (economic). The HDI is an attempt to compare
the quality of life between people and places and, unlike GNP, it can
measure differences within a country.

      Factor                       MEDCs                            LEDCs
      GNP                Majority over $5000 per person     Majority under $2000 per
                            per year, 80% of world’s         person per year, 20% of
                                     income.                  world’s total income.
Population Growth          Slow, partly due to family      Extremely fast, little or no
                            planning, 25% of world’s        family planning, 75% of
                          population. Will double in 80     world’s population. Will
                                      years.                   double in 30 years.
     Housing               High standard, permanent,        Low standard, temporary,
                                indoor amenities.             barely any amenities.
  Types Of Jobs           Secondary and tertiary, 75%     Primary and some secondary,
    Level Of              Highly mechanised, 96% of       Mainly hand labour or use of
  Mechanisation               world’s spending on                   animals.
                           development and research.
      Exports                 Manufactured goods           Unprocessed raw materials
      Energy                High consumption. Main          Low consumption. Main
                         sources are coal, oil, HEP and     source is wood. 20% of
                            nuclear. 80% of world’s             world’s energy.
 Communication           Motorways, railways, airports.   Roads, rails and airports near
                                                                  main cities.
       Diet              Balanced, several meals a day,     Unbalanced, 20% suffer
                              high protein intake.         malnutrition, low protein
  Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

   Life Expectancy                  75 years +                         60 years+
        Health              Very good, lots of doctors.      Very poor, few doctors. Bad
                             Good hospital facilities.             hospital facilities.
      Education            Most have full-time secondary     Little have formal education.
                                 education (16+).            Females are disadvantaged.
  Differences in Regional Development

  Economic development is rarely evenly spread. Growth becomes
  concentrated in a few favoured places (cities or regions) whilst others are
  left relatively poor and under developed by comparison.

      Level                 More Developed                         Less Developed
Local/British City               Suburbia                           Old inner city
Regional/National       Capital city e.g. south-east          Isolated, rural village e.g.
                          England, north Italy             north-west England, south Italy
  International        EU – Germany, Netherlands                EU – Portugal, Ireland

  The Core-Periphery

  The core is the most prosperous part of a country. This region is likely to
  include the capital city and the country’s main industrial areas. These
  provide a large local marker which attracts other industries and services to
  the region e.g. banking, insurance and government offices. As levels of
  capital (money), technology and skilled labour increase, the region becomes
  wealthier. This means that it can afford to invest in better schools, hospitals,
  modern transport, networks and better-quality housing. These are all positive
  points for the area and act as pull factors attracting people to the area.
  In many countries, the level of prosperity (wealth) decreases with distance
  form the core. The poorest parts of a country are found towards its
  periphery. At the periphery, jobs are fewer, poorly paid and likely to be in
  the primary sector. There is likely to be fewer opportunities, poor service
  provision and poor government investment. These are all negative points for
  the area and act as push factors that force many people to migrate towards
  the core region.
  As a country develops, industry and wealth spread out and secondary core
  regions develop. In the UK the south-east is the core region. The secondary
  cores are places like Yorkshire and Lancashire.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

Stages in Economic Development – The Rostow Model

Walt Rostow (an economist) developed a model for economic growth. He
suggested that all countries had the potential to pass through a series of
stages of growth until they became fully industrialised and economically

                                                           5. The age of high
                                                           mass consumption.

                                                 4. The drive to

                                   3. Take-off.

                    2. The preconditions
                        for take off.

            1. The traditional

                                                        5. Japan, USA, UK,

                                              4. Brazil, Portugal

                                   3. India

                 2. Kenya, Bangladesh

          1. South America
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

Stages of Development

Stage 1 – A subsistence economy based around farming. There are
insufficient technology and capital to process raw materials or develop
industries and services.
Stage 2 – To progress to stage 2, a country usually need external help.
Primary activities start to develop but most products are exported. There are
limited technological improvements and an improvement in the transport
network. Slow improvement in people’s standard of living (GNP).
Stage 3 – Manufacturing industry grows rapidly. Improved technology to
process raw materials. Increasing investment in agriculture, transport and
services. Development limited to core regions. Improvement in standard of
Stage 4 – Economic growth spreads to most of the country. Transport
networks and industries develop further. Rapid urbanisation and declining
primary activities. Living standards also improve further.
Stage 5 – There is a rapid expansion of services and high-tech industries.
There is a decline in manufacturing.

Rostow’s model can be criticised. He said capital was needed from an
MEDC before take-off. Many countries are unlikely to become
industrialised due to lack of raw materials or capital.

Sustainable Development

This leads to an improvement in people’s:
Quality of Life – Allows them to be more content with their way of life and
the surrounding environment.
Standard of Living – Enables them, and future generations, to be
economically better off.
This can be achieved in a number of ways:
   (i)    By encouraging economic development at a realistic pace to avoid
          the country falling into debt.
   (ii) By developing appropriate technology.
These are also skills that can be developed and handed down to future
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

Trade and Interdependence

No country is fully self-sufficient in full range of raw materials and
manufactured goods. To try and achieve sufficiency, different countries must
trade with each other. Trade equals a flow of goods from producer to
consumer. One way for a country to improve its standard of living and
quality (and grow more wealthy) of life is to sell more than it buys (exports
more than it imports). However, for every country that exports more than it
imports, another has to import more than it exports. Therefore, some
countries have a trade surplus whilst others have a trade deficit.
Most of the world’s population lives in LEDCs. These countries produce the
majority of primary raw materials which are needed by MEDCs They then
buy the raw materials and process/manufacture the goods which are needed
by themselves and the LEDCs.

       Trade of Developing                      Trade of Developed
    A legacy of former colonial            Mainly manufactured goods are
  economies where a mineral once            traded, as the countries are
   mined or a crop once grown is                   industrialised.
  exported in its raw state. Mainly
         primary products.
  Two or three items are exported.            A wide range of products are
   Prices and demand for the items       Prices and demand for the items tend
 fluctuate annually. Prices rise less.       to be steady. Prices have risen
           Trade is small.                            Trade is large.
  Exports come form transnational          Profits are retained by the export
 companies, which send the profits                       country.
 Trade is hindered by poor transport      Trade is helped by good transport
              networks.                               networks.
  Trade is severely hit at times of       Trade is badly affected by times of
     world economic recession.               world economic recession.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

Changes in Britain’s Trade

                         1973                                        The biggest
                                               Rest Of Europe        increase has
                                                                    been with EU
                        4%                     North America        countries. We
                                                                    have become
                                               Other Developed    quite dependent
            7%                                 Countries              upon it for
                                               OPEC                      trade.
            10%                                                   In 1994, 80% of
                                               Other Developing    Britain’s trade
                              16%              Countries               was with
                                               Centally Planned         MEDCs,
                                               Economies           compared with
                                                                    74% in 1973
                                               EU                     and 68% in
                       1994                                              1951.
                        4%                     North America
                  5%                                                 Despite our
            6%                                                       need for raw
                                               Other Developing    materials (until
       7%                                                         the 1990s) there
                                               Rest Of Europe +   was a decline in
                                               Former USSR
                                                                   trade between
      8%                                       Asian Tiger
                                         57%                       us and LEDCs.
                                                                     These links
                                               Japan                 were mainly
        13%                                                            formed in
                                               Other Developed     colonial times.

Britain’s links with OPECs have declined since the exploitation of North Sea
oil. Although we are an MEDC, we have developed a trade deficit that is
proving hard to reduce.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

World Trade

Regional Trade Groups – The EU is an example of countries grouping
together to try and increase trade. By eliminating import duties between
members, they reduced the cost of products that were sold between them and
increased its number of potential customers. This made it competitive, but
they also made restrictions, which protected their goods against cheaper
imports. This meant it was a lot harder for LEDCs to sell their products. The
future seems to indicate the enlargement of regional trading blocks, like the
Direction, Volume and Value – The world’s trade is dominated by the few
market economies of the MEDCs. In 1995 the world trade shares were: EU –
38%, USA – 44% and Japan – 8% (In 1990 they were: EU – 44%, USA –
13% and Japan – 9%). Japan had a slightly declining surplus, the USA had
an increasing deficit and the EU had a slight trade surplus (the UK had a
deficit). Older industrialised countries in the West have recently faced strong
competition form the East. They now have 10% of world trade. The amount
of Pacific trade now exceeds Atlantic trade.
Although trade between LEDCs has increased, in 1995 over 60% of this was
shared by only 8 nations. The trade gap for most developing countries
remains wide as they continue to export raw materials and import
manufactured goods. As it widens further, they fall into deeper debt, as they
can’t buy as many overseas products and the volume of world trade
OPECs share in world trade has declined since 1990 due to the Gulf War
and the world recession. The world’s trade is becoming dominated by
powerful, transnational corporations.

GATT and the WTO

GATT (General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs) was established in 1947,
to encourage free and multiple trading between countries. It was hoped that
GATT would help by finding ways of reducing tariffs, quotas and trade
barriers, set up to protect domestic producers. It wasn’t until April 1994 that
an agreement was signed. Tariffs were immediately reduced on many
industrial products. This was to benefit many as increased competition
should lower prices. Farm subsidies and agricultural tariffs were gradually
cut over six years. This delay was to the detriment of many developing
countries which relied on the export of agricultural products.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

In January 1995 GATT was replaced by the WTO (World Trade
Organisation). It was designed to supervise the implementation of trade
agreements and to settle disputes.


Aid is when one country gives another country a form of resource. It is given
to try and help developing countries improve their standard of living, to help
with natural disasters and to buy goods form richer countries.
    (i)   Bilateral Aid – When resources are given directly from a rich
          country to a poor country, with ‘strings attached’.
    (ii) Multilateral Aid – When a richer country gives money to an
          international organisation. Then they give it out to poorer
          countries. They decide where it goes, if at all.
    (iii) Voluntary Aid – When charities raise money in rich countries and
          donate it for use on a specific project in a poorer country. They
          normally help with the after effects of a natural disaster.

Disadvantages of Aid to a Recipient Country

Aid rarely reaches the poorest people who need it most. Inefficient and/or
corrupt officials direct it to themselves or urban areas, where they live. The
gap between the wealthier urban dwellers and poorer rural dwellers therefore
increases. Aid also forces the recipient countries to produce raw materials
for the richer countries rather than growing food and developing industries
for themselves. The recipient country can become dependent on aid. Aid is
almost always in the forms of loans and so the poorer countries actually
become poorer as they get into more debt as the interest increases.

Advantages of Aid to a Recipient Country

Short term aid includes: food, clothing, shelter and medical care. They tend
to be provided after a natural disaster or civil war.
Long term aid should encourage a recipient country to become independent
and self-sufficient. This can be done by: improving educational standards,
developing skills, encouraging the growth of higher yielding crops for
themselves, developing sustainable industries using appropriate technology
and improving water supplies. Richer countries can also help by buying
products form the developing countries.
     Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

                                              Aid from

                     Donor cannot sell.                     Recipient sets up
                    Recipient cannot buy.                industry. Products cheap
                       Recession and                       due to due local raw
                         stagnation.                     material and low wages.

    Loss of income for                                                   Recipient earns money.
recipient, can’t buy goods,
                                     The Traditional                     Donor loses some trade
   donor loses markets.              Trade-Aid Cycle                      due to cheap imports.

                   Donor sets up protection                 Recipient finds new
                    policy, recipient loses                  markets previously
                           markets.                        belonging to the donor.

                                      Loss of markets means
                                     increased unemployment
                                       in the donor country.

                                              Aid from
                                                                Recipient sets up industry.
            Recipient can afford more                           Products are cheap due to
             goods from the donor.                                 local raw materials.

                                        The Recommended
   Both countries increase               Trade-Aid Cycle             Recipient earns
   production and income.                                               money.
                                           Donor allows
                                          imports, making
                                        recipient better off.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

        Case Study – Development in Japan and Kenya
Levels of Independence


Economic Wealth and Employment Structures

Japan is estimated to be the 14th richest country in the world. Its employment
structure is typical of an MEDC. There is a small portion of the working
population in the primary sector. This is due to young people preferring
urban areas. Farming is now highly mechanised, but there is little of it and
mining as well. A large portion lies in the secondary sector. Despite a lack of
raw materials, it still has: the capital, to set up industries; an education
system, which provides technological knowledge; a wealthy local market, to
buy goods; and the ability to export goods. It has another large portion in the
tertiary sector.

Social Measures and the HDI

Japan’s population data corresponds closely with that expected of an MEDC.
The Japanese live longer than people in any other country. Japan has one of
the largest HDIs – 0.937.


Economic Wealth and Employment Structures

Kenya is estimated to be one of the poorest countries of the world. Its
employment structure is typical of an LEDC. It has a large portion of the
working population in the primary sector. It is mainly farming, which is
often at a subsistence level. There are also small amounts of mining, forestry
and fishing. It has a low portion in the secondary sector, due to a lack of
capital, energy supplies, education, the export of raw materials, equipment
and a poor local market. It has a small portion in the tertiary sector. Tourism
is the country’s main money earner.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

Social Measures and the HDI

Kenya’s population data corresponds closely with that expected of an
LEDC. In the 1990s, Kenya had the highest natural increase in the world.
Kenya has an HDI of 0.481.

Trade and Interdependence


Japan has a large population, limited flat land and few natural resources.
This means it has to import almost all of its energy supplies (which are
expensive), raw materials and minerals; and large amounts of foodstuffs
(farming is intensive but there is insufficient land). But by working long
hours and developing better technology etc, the Japanese can produce and
export their high quality goods globally. Due to this, Japan has become the
world’s 3rd largest trader. 41.8% of Japan’s trade in 1993 was with the USA
and the EU, although during the 1990s there was an increase in trade with
the NICs. Since 1983 it has had the world’s largest trade surplus. This is due
to: using nuclear power and reducing their energy bill, importing cheap raw
materials and exporting expensive goods, protecting (until GATT in 1994)
its industries with tariffs, building factories abroad and financing research in
developing countries, in return for non-renewable resources.


The North is desert, but areas in the South are well suited to agriculture.
Where the climate and soil are best, subsistence farmers grow their crops.
With lots of rain and fertile soil; tea, coffee and fruit can be grown for
export. Unfortunately, foodstuffs and raw materials make little money for
the country. Kenya also has little industry, so it imports most of its
manufactured goods, which are all very expensive. This means Kenya has a
large trade deficit. Over 40% of its trade is with the EU. The UK remains the
most important buyer and supplier. Three significant changes occurred
during the 1990s: Japan became the largest overseas investor, so Kenya has
to buy more Japanese goods; Kenya has developed a trade surplus, within
Africa (although it is too small to balance out its trade deficit) and air freight
is used to export perishable goods to Europe, making them fresher when
they arrive earlier.
Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

               Case Study – Core-Periphery in Japan
The Core – Tokyo

Land values here are the highest in the world. The Kanto region (surrounds
Tokyo Bay) is where 30% of the population live and it’s the centre of the
country’s industry, commerce and services. Tokyo Bay provides a deep,
sheltered harbour for large ships to import raw materials and energy
supplies; and export manufactured goods. Land is constantly being
reclaimed from the sea to have new factories, offices, houses and port
facilities built on. Tokyo is the centre of land communications. It has a high
population density and a high cost of living, but its highly paid jobs continue
to attract younger people.

The Periphery – Hokkaido

It is poorer than Tokyo, but still equal to many MEDCs, e.g. the UK. But by
Japan’s standards, it is a periphery region. It used to be important for
providing raw materials. This led to steel and ship-building industries. Due
to problems and the distance to Japan’s major ports and internal markets,
there has been a recent decline in these facilities. Hokkaido tends not to
attract new industries as they perceive the island as a cold, prone to
earthquakes and isolated. It has a low population density, probably because,
although it has high wages, people tend to work somewhere else.
         Callum Jeffrey – Geography Notes

           Case Study – Sustainable Development in Ladakh, India
         ‘Global Concern’ is a British charity which supports projects in Ladakh.
         Ladakh is in the foothills of the Himalayas and it has an extreme climate. On
         average, temperatures are below, or near to, 0oC for over half the year. The
         growing season is less than five months and annual precipitation is under
         20cm (making it a desert). There are also very strong winds. People in
         Ladakh do not want ‘Western’ development as it has many socio-cultural
         and urbanisation problems. Instead they promote development based n
         ecological principles, to take into account the local conditions, traditions and
         resources. This will protect the environment and preserve the traditional

                            Leh, the capital,         The ecological
                             is 3500m above         development centre
                            sea-level and it’s        trains people in
                              next to a river.    traditional handcrafts.

         Houses                                                             Energy

Solar power heats them and                                       Strong winds and the sun are
          water.                            Ladakh               important renewable sources
                                                                         of energy.
Largest wall faces South, to
  get the most sunshine.                                             Small hydro schemes
                                                                      generate electricity.
Solar cookers avoid the use                  Water
 of precious resources and                                         Solar greenhouses allow
   improves health (less              Snow melt is used for       vegetables to grow all year.
          smoke).                 irrigation and hydro-power.
Cavity walls filled with mud        Locally-made hydraulic
and stones to conserve heat.      rams pump water to higher
                                     levels, extending the
                                     cultivation area, and
                                     Ladakh remains self-

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