Human Body_ Organ System Test Study Guide

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Human Body_ Organ System Test Study Guide Powered By Docstoc
					Human Body/ Organ System Test Study Guide

In the human body an organ is composed of two or more different types of
tissue (i.e. muscle and connective, bone and nerve etc.) that work together to
carry out a complex function. An organ system consists of a group of organs
that perform intricate functions necessary for the survival of an organism.
Sometimes an organism can survive with an impaired or nonfunctioning organ.
However, when a whole system of organs shuts down, the life of the organism
becomes compromised. Thus, the organ systems work together to maintain a
constant internal environment called homeostasis within the body to ensure
survival of the organism.

There are eleven organ systems within the human body: integumentary, skeletal,
muscular, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive,
urinary, and reproductive.

The following section contains the information each Organ Systems
group must put into their “groups presentation”.

(Note: the majority of the test will be matching the organ with its

The integumentary system acts as a protective barrier for the human body
against microorganisms, dehydration, and injuries caused by the outside
environment. Additionally, the integumentary system regulates body
temperature. Organs of the integumentary system include hair, nails,
sebaceous glands, sudoriferous glands, and the largest organ of the body, the

The skeletal system is a structural framework providing support, shape, and
protection to the human body. Additionally, the skeletal system provides
attachment sites for organs. The skeletal system also stores minerals and lipids
and forms blood cells. Bones, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments are all organs of
the skeletal system.

The muscular system provides movement to the human body as a whole as
well as movement of materials through organs and organ systems. Additionally,
the muscular system functions to maintain posture and produce heat. The
muscular system consists of skeletal muscle, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.

The nervous system conducts electro-chemical impulses throughout the body
to regulate and control physiological processes of the other organ systems.
Organs of the nervous system include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
The endocrine system also functions to regulate and control physiological
processes of the body. However, the endocrine system accomplishes its functions
by sending out chemical signals called hormones into the blood. Glands, the
organs of the endocrine system, secrete hormones and include: pituitary gland,
pineal gland, hypothalamus, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, thymus, adrenal
glands, pancreas, ovaries, and the testes.

The circulatory system circulates blood throughout the body and in doing so
transports gases, nutrients, and wastes to and from tissues. Organs of the
circulatory system include the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

The lymphatic system, also known as the immune system, defends the body
against microorganisms and other foreign bodies. Additionally, the lymphatic
system transports fluids from the body's tissues to the blood, thus helping to
control fluid balance in the body. This system also absorbs substances from the
digestive system. The organs of the lymphatic system include the lymph,
lymph nodes, lymph vessels, thymus, spleen, and tonsils.

The respiratory system exchanges gases between the body's tissues and the
external environment. Oxygen is inhaled from the external environment and
passes from the lungs into the blood, where it is exchanged for carbon dioxide
that passes from the blood to the lungs and is expelled. The respiratory system
consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs.

The digestive system functions to digest and absorb nutrients from the food
ingested into the body. Additionally, the digestive system transports foodstuff
through the gastrointestinal tract. The primary organs of the digestive system
include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine,
rectum, and anal canal. Accessory organs that aid the primary organs include the
teeth, salivary glands, tongue, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and appendix.

The urinary system excretory system removes excess water and nutrients and
filters wastes from the circulatory system. Additionally, the urinary system aids in
red blood cell formation and metabolizes vitamin D. The urinary system's organs
include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.

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