# Topic Outline – Looking After the World

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```					               Section 2

Energy Topic
Topic:                    Energy                    Stage           Levels C and D
Component:                Science
Key Features:             Properties and Uses of Energy
Energy and Forces

Learning Outcomes:

By the end of the topic children should know:

Energy

   That there are eight forms of energy
   That they are called Heat, Light, Kinetic, Potential, Sound, Electrical, Chemical
and Nuclear
   That energy cannot be created or destroyed and is only transferred
   Specific examples of energy transfer between Heat, Light, Potential, Sound,
Chemical and Electrical

Heat

   How to use and read a thermometer
   That temperature and heat are not the same thing
   That heat can flow by conduction, e.g. along a metal bar
   That some materials are good conductors of heat and some are poor, e.g. steel is
good, polystyrene is poor
   That heat can travel by convection, e.g. hot air rising from a heater
   That heat can travel by radiation, e.g. warming your hands at an electric fire

Electricity and Magnetism

   How to construct simple circuits from their symbols
   A circuit can be used to transfer electrical energy to other forms e.g. buzzer:
electrical – sound: bulb: electrical – light
   The strength of current flowing through a bulb is indicated by its brightness
   Current is measured in amps
   How to use an ammeter to measure current flowing around the circuit
   The scientific name for a battery is a „cell‟
   The more cells the larger the voltage(push of charge)
   Components in circuits have resistance to currents e.g. bulbs, buzzers, motors
   The larger the resistance in a circuit the lower the current
   How to describe the structure of a simple Electro-magnet and apply this in order
to construct one
   How to give an example of an Electro –magnet in everyday life e.g. door bell

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills/Strands                  Pupil Activities                                                           Assessment
Understanding
Introduction
Introduction to the eight       Preparing for task               Lead class discussion on the meaning of the word energy                  Ability to list types
forms                                                               drawing on pupil‟s prior knowledge. Establish the correct terms        Ability to apply names to
Of energy.                                                          for the eight forms. Use flash cards to produce an illustrated         new situations
list as reference for further study.

Transfer of energy.             Carrying out task                      Pupils complete a circus of experiments illustrating energy
transfer. At each activity the types of energy transferred are
recorded. Workcard details experiments: Finger on desk.
Kinetic to Heat. Shaker. Kinetic to sound. Twisted Rubber
band. Potential to Kinetic. Falling Weight. Potential to
Electrical. Hand Generator. Kinetic to Light.

   Class discussion to introduce the idea that all types of energy    Transfer activities has led
can be transferred to any other type, if you have the correct      to use of key terms.
equipment. Along with the conservation of energy. i.e. The         1. Energy Transfer
total amount of energy in the universe is always the constant.     2. Heat Energy
We cannot create or destroy energy, only change its form.          3. Potential Energy
4. Light Energy
Potential to Kinetic            Preparing for task                     Class discussion of the concept cartoon on the model car.          5. Sound Energy
Define types of energy transferred and prepare for                 6. Kinetic Energy
investigation. e.g. Number turns against speed or distance
travelled. Speed can be time taken to travel fixed distance.

       Clockwork car experiment
Carrying out task                                                                                          Ability to choose variables
       Pupil‟s carry out investigation and collect results in table and   to test. Control of
draw graph or chart.                                               variables in a fair test.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                             Assessment
Understanding
Properties and uses of          Reviewing and reporting         Pool groups conclusions in whole class context                               Pupils contribute to
energy                                                                                                                                       discussion
Heat
Knowledge and                   2.1 How to use and read a thermometer.
understanding. Preparing         Familiarise the children with a thermometer and discuss its uses.          Observe accurate reading of
for tasks. Reviewing and         Discuss how you would read and obtain information from a                   thermometer
 Talk about the scale and tell the children it is in degrees Celsius.
 Emphasise return to starting point on scale before taking a second
reading. (They may have seen a doctor or nurse shake the
thermometer to do so.)
 In small groups, measure the temperature in different places in and
around the school, e.g. the playground, different classrooms, hall,
office etc. and record findings in a table.
 Worksheet: 2.1
Properties and uses of          Knowledge and                   2.2 Distinguish between heat and temperature.
energy                          understanding. Prepare for       Through discussion establish that temperature tells us how hot an          Can children describe the
Reviewing and reporting on       In small groups, measure the temperature of warm water in a cup and        temperature?
tasks.                              at regular intervals as it cools and record findings.
 Establish that the drop in temperature is due to the loss of heat
energy.
 Explain that temperature and heat are not the same thing, e.g. Pour
a cup of warm water into a bowl. Tell the children that this water has   Observe children‟s level of
a temperature and a certain amount of heat energy. Measure the           participation in discussion.
temperature of the water. Add another cup of water with exactly the
same temperature. Measure the temperature of the hot water in the
bowl now. The temperature should remain the same. However the
heat energy has now doubled.
 Children should write up the experiments in a structured format using
Links with Functional               the worksheet guide 2.2.                                                 Accuracy of Written work in
Writing.                                                                                                     structured format.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                              Assessment
Understanding
Properties and uses of          Knowledge and                   2.3 Heat can flow by conduction                                               Observation of correctly
energy                          understanding. Preparing         Through discussion establish that conduction is when heat energy            handling materials.
Reviewing and reporting on       Tell children that heat energy always moves from hot objects to cold
 In small groups carry out various experiments to show conduction of
heat in a variety of materials, e.g. Stand a few rods of metal, plastic   Level of participation during
and wood in a beaker. Smear a blob of Vaseline on the end of each         experiments and discussion.
rod and use this to stick a small bead on each blob. Carefully pour
hot water into the mug with the help of an adult. Watch the butter and
well heat travels along the different materials.
 Further examples can be found in BBC Fact finders – Energy page
32, Flying Start Science – Heat Page 22 and background Science for
Primary Teachers – Energy page 23.
 Investigate conductivity in a variety of materials. Record whether
objects conduct heat or not.
 Children should write up experiments in a structured format.
Worksheet 2.3

Properties and uses of          Knowledge and                   2.4 Some materials are good conductors of heat and some are poor.
energy.                         understanding. Preparing         Introduce the term “insulator” (bad conductor). Explain that an
for tasks. Carrying out             insulator is a material, which slows the loss of heat and keeps the
tasks. Reviewing and                heat in and/or the cold out.
reporting on tasks.              Discuss and make a list of insulators of heat used in the home, e.g.
clothing, bedding, lagging for pipes etc.
 Identify the uses of good conductors of heat used in the home, e.g.
metals in radiators, cooking utensils etc.
 In small groups discuss, plan and carry out an investigation to find out
what materials will keep a container of hot water warm for the longest
time. Worksheet 2.4.
 Children should write up experiments in a structured format.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                                 Assessment
Understanding
Properties and uses of          Knowledge and                   2.6.      Heat can travel by radiation.                                          Observing children‟s level of
energy.                         understanding. Preparing         Tell the children that radiation is heat which travels in rays through air     participation during
for tasks. Carry out tasks.          and space, e.g. The suns rays travel in straight lines called heat rays.    discussions and
Reviewing and reporting on           When the sunlight hits the earth its radiation is absorbed or reflected.    experiments.
cooker, electric fires etc.                                                 Children give examples of
 Establish through discussion that darker surfaces absorb more of the           radiated heat and describe
clothes makes you feel cooler in summer as they reflect heat rays.
 Investigate the loss of heat from hot water through a brightly shining
can and through a dull black can. (Black can lose heat much faster
because it is a good radiator. Polished surfaces are poor radiators so
keep the water warm for longer). Worksheet 2.6.
 Children should write up experiments in a structured format.
 Tell the children that heat travels most quickly by rays – radiation.
Tell that heat rays are known as infra – red rays.
 Discuss dangers and benefits of the sun‟s rays.

The children will take responsibility, in-groups, for planning and producing     Selection of appropriate
a pictorial display to show that heat energy comes in the three forms –          examples to depict heat

Construction of simple          Reviewing and reporting         Electricity and magnetism
circuits from their symbols                                     3.1 Revision of electrical equipment                                             Identifying equipment –
 Questions from already set-up circuit on equipment names                       crocodile clips, switch, bulb,
 Questions on concept of circuit using key terms                                buzzers.
 Follow up – hold up flashcards showing terms, children to explain
concepts.                                                                    Key terms being explained
 Revise related symbols. Task: in pairs children to make up circuit             correctly – flow; energy;
using symbols shown on work card 3.1                                         circuit; voltage; conductor;
battery and cell.

Ability to create correct
circuits – peer assessment.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                            Assessment
Understanding
Transfer of electrical          Preparing for task              3.2 Electrical Energy
energy                                                           Lead discussion on effects of electrical energy in home and outside
e.g. television, streetlights, and hairdryer. Individually brainstorm
further examples on worksheet 3.2
 As class look at circuits. Select children to explain which energies
are being transferred within given circuits: (a) bulb (b) buzzer
(c) motor
 Question children on any other effects within the circuits observed.
 Establish these are 5 key energies. Introduce concept of „movement
energy‟ being known as „Kinetic‟ energy.
 Return to brainstormed list on worksheet. Children to use a colour
coding system to identify different energies produced by electrical
items.
Extension
Children create energy transfer diagrams:                                   Children to correctly identify
the main energy changes,
Battery                                 Lamp                                which have taken, place,
Chemical-----------------------Light/heat                                   within chains diagrams
Electrical                                                    created.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                               Assessment
Understanding
Brightness of bulbs and                                         3.3 Series and Parallel Circuits
indicate strength of current                                     Gather children around to observe different circuits:
(a) simple 1 bulb circuit
(b) series 2/3 bulbs
(c) parallel 2/3 bulbs

Preparing for task              Task for children to identify which circuit has the brightest shine from the   Adding more cells to the
bulb                                                                           circuit.

Teaching point – elicit from children through questioning that the brightest
bulb tells us that this is where the strongest current is flowing.

   Task – children to suggest/ experiment how to increase current
(make bulbs shine brighter) in series and parallel circuits.
   Question children on why „brightness of bulb‟ is not a completely
effective way of measuring electrical current. Encourage a variety of
responses.

Preparing for task              As class briefly brainstorm different measuring devices e.g.
Metre stick – length – m/cm
Scales – weight – kg/g
Watch – time – hrs/min
Through discussion establish that electrical current can also be measured
accurately. Show children an ammeter.

Current is measured in                                             Focus children‟s thoughts on the word ammeter and encourage                Ability to explain job of
amps                                                                suggestions regarding what unit of measure is appropriate for an           ammeter using terms amps
electric current. Establish „amps‟ as a unit of measure.                   and current appropriately.
How to use an ammeter           Carrying out task                  Model use of an ammeter within a basic circuit. Select children to
create different circuits and measure currents. Develop discussion
through questioning on how to increase current within a circuit.
Encourage variety of ideas.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                              Assessment
Understanding
Scientific name for a                                              If children suggest that adding batteries increase current, encourage
battery is a cell.                                                  then to consider why this is so.
Teaching point: A battery is made up of cells. A push is needed in order      Through questioning
to get the electrons, which form the electrical current, moving this push     children‟s ability to explain
The more cells the larger                                       can be provided by a battery and is measured in volts . After                 concept of increasing
the voltage                                                     Allessandro Volta‟s first battery in 1794. The higher the voltage the         current.
larger the current).

Preparing for task                 Children study range of batteries to identify their voltage
   Children to plan how this information linking voltage and current could
be tested.
Circuits available for testing with ammeter:
 Single cell
 3 cell battery
 2 x 3 cell battery
Circuits to include bulb with switch
Reviewing and reporting         Recording of experiment to include:
 diagram with symbols
 voltage of batteries used in each circuit
 current flowing

Gather together to share groups results. Consolidate understanding from
previous sessions through oral discussion - to include concept of
increase in current.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                               Assessment
Understanding
Components in circuits          Preparing for task                 Development
have resistance to currents
Ask for suggestions as to how to reduce current within circuits, apart from
reducing number of cells within circuit. Encourage variety of ideas.

   Provide range of circuit equipment.

   Write hypothesis (teach concept if necessary)
   Plan and conduct an experiment in order to investigate how to reduce
electrical current.                                                        Question to ascertain
 Gather groups together. Establish that something had to be added to          understanding of resistance
circuits including – light bulbs, motors or buzzers. Using group           concept
recording sheets (pro forma section) establish which component had
the greatest resistance.
Carrying out task                Lead discussion on reasons for reduction in current.
Teaching point: All these components slowed down, not stopped, the             Appropriate rule established
flow of current in the circuits in order that they could be provided enough    and explained
energy to create light, movement or sound. Each component therefore
had some resistance to the currents.
Revision of Magnetism           Preparing for Task              Magnetism
 As class use and observe magnets revise effects and related terms –
„attract‟ and „repel‟
 Develop understanding of magnetic patterns, through use of paper
held over magnet and sprinkling of iron fillings – illustrating strength
nearest the „poles‟
Magnetic field                                                  Children observe – use discussion to establish understanding.
 Unlike poles attract                                          (Workcard option, only if necessary)
 Like poles repel                                              Consolidation workcard „Magnetic Patterns‟
Extension Workcard „Making a Compass‟
Link between electricity        Preparing for task               As class observes electrical circuit explain that wire carrying electrical
and magnetism                                                       current produces a „magnetic field‟. This field is weak therefore wire
needs to be wrapped around steel or iron many times. When current
passes through, a stronger magnetic field is created.
 Workcard „ Electricity and Magnetism‟ to act as consolidation of
teaching point.
Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004
Knowledge and                   Skills /Strands                 Pupil Activities                                                           Assessment
Understanding
Electro-magnetic in                                              Class analysis of an electrical doorbell.
everyday life                                                   Dismantle bell, focusing children‟s thoughts on identifying the Electro-   Listing and justifying:
magnet /how does it ring?                                                  - Speakers
Reinforce that movement is needed to make sound. Children to identify      - Bells
other types of Electro-magnets.                                            - Buzzers

Carrying out task               Making an Elecro-magnet                                                    Ability to make
- Teacher illustrates / models                                             Electromagnets from card –
- Children in groups of 3 or 4 attempt workcard                            explaining appropriately why
- Write up task                                                            the creation is considered an
electromagnet.

Reviewing and Reporting         Workcard resource „Making an electromagnet‟.

Stirling Council Children‟s Services Science and Technology P6-S2
Section 2: Energy Topic
Summer 2004

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Description: Topic Outline – Looking After the World