Orientation and Mobility

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					Orientation and Mobility
Goal 11
___ will complete the following objectives on orientation and
mobility skills for children with visual impairments as evidenced
by mastery of ___ of ___ objectives.

MC01 - follow procedures for shopping in a grocery store.
MC02 - call ahead to arrange for shopping assistance in a grocery
MC03 - locate the entrance of the grocery store.
MC04 - solicit assistance as needed from a clerk or customer
service in a grocery store.
MC05 - go through a turnstile in a grocery store.
MC06 - push or pull a cart in a grocery store.
MC07 - identify names or labels of items in a grocery store.
MC08 - visually locate a specific item in a grocery store.
MC09 - put items in a cart in a grocery store.
MC10 - locate the cashier and the end of the line in a grocery
MC11 - wait in line in a grocery store.
MC12 - put items on the counter in a grocery store.
MC13 - hand money to the cashier in a grocery store.
MC14 - wait for change in a grocery store.
MC15 - locate the exit in a grocery store.
MC16 - follow procedures for shopping in a variety of stores.
MC17 - obtain information about a business by using the
MC18 - enter a store or business establishment.
MC19 - obtain information about the store by using one’s senses.
MC20 - use correct cane techniques within a store.
MC21 - negotiate pedestrians, displays, and counters.
MC22 - locate a clerk to aid in finding a desired item.
MC23 - visually locate a specific department in a store.
MC24 - obtain information from another customer.
MC25 - independently locate a desired article.
MC26 - locate the cash register and check-out line.
MC27 - pay for store item(s).
MC28 - exit from the store.
MC29 - follow procedures for traveling in a shopping mall.
MC30 - effectively solicit assistance in a shopping mall.
MC31 - locate and use the directory in a shopping mall.
MC32 - locate specific destinations in a shopping mall.
MC33 - follow procedures for traveling in a post office or bank.
MC34 - locate the end of the line in a post office or bank.
MC35 - wait one’s turn in line in a post office or bank.
MC36 - go to the counter when called and complete a transaction
in a post office or bank.
MC37 - put a letter in the mailbox in a post office or bank.
MC38 - follow procedures for going to a restaurant.
MC39 - accommodate to dim lighting in a restaurant.
MC40 - locate a table in a restaurant.
MC41 - locate and read a menu in a restaurant.
MC42 - get assistance in reading the menu, if necessary in a
MC43 - order a meal independently in a restaurant.
MC44 - locate objects on the table (e.g., salt and pepper,
silverware, sugar, vase) in a restaurant.
MC45 - eat without assistance in a restaurant.
MC46 - use proper table manners in a restaurant.
MC47 - locate the restroom in a restaurant.
MC48 - pay the bill, including tip in a restaurant.
MC49 - locate the exit in a restaurant.

MM01 - demonstrates correct use of sighted guide.
MM02 - demonstrate the following sighted guide techniques:
proper arm, hand, and body position, correct position without
letting go, stopping and going, changing surfaces, going up and
down curbs, narrow passage technique, congested area
technique, changing sides, changing directions (e.g., in
auditorium, in crowds, in elevators), going through a closed door
(e.g., hold the door, assist), ascending and descending stairs,
escalator skills, hines break technique.
MM03 - use hand trailing: for locating landmarks, for maintaining
a line of direction, for determining place in space.
MM04 - use forearm protective technique.
MM05 - use lower body protective technique.
MM06 - combine trailing with protective technique.
MM07 - use squaring off technique.
MM08 - use parallel alignment (direction taking).
MM09 - locate dropped objects in a systematic manner.
MM10 - travel using a sighted guide to all familiar locations.
MM11 - use an adaptive mobility device to develop the concepts
and motor skills needed for future long cane use: explore the
device, maintain a grip on the device while standing or moving,
maintain the device in front of the body, wtop when the device
contacts obstacles, wtop when the device contacts drop-offs,
negotiate doors, negotiate stairs, hold the device while traveling
with a sighted guide.
MM12 - demonstrate an awareness of different types of canes.
MM13 - recognize and name parts of a cane.
MM14 - demonstrate diagonal technique: arm position, hand
position, grip, tip position.
MM15 - demonstrate diagonal trailing technique: with cane only,
with cane and hand trailing.
MM16 - demonstrate verification cane technique: arm position,
drip, tip position, application to various environmental conditions,
response to information gained.
MM17 - demonstrate touch technique: arm position, hand
position, grip, wrist movement, arc width, arc height, rhythm and
pace, in-step, in-step correction.
MM18 - demonstrate trailing with the touch technique.
MM19 - demonstrate touch and drag technique.
MM20 - demonstrate touch and slide technique.
MM21 - demonstrate shoreline/guideline technique.
MM22 - demonstrate three-point touch technique.
MM23 - demonstrate constant contact technique: arm position,
hand position, grip, wrist movement, arc width, rhythm and pace,
in-step, in-step correction.
MM24 - demonstrate three-point search technique.
MM25 - ascend stairs (alternate or step-by-step).
MM26 - descend stairs (alternate or step-by-step).
MM27 - use the cane responsibly.
MM28 - store and retrieve the cane at: table, chair, desk, sofa,
booth, counter, car, auditorium, bus.
MM29 - hold or use the cane appropriately with a sighted guide.
MM30 - clear with the cane before stepping.
MM31 - recognize the need for head-level protection areas in
specific areas in residential travel (e.g., overhanging branches,
head level signs, awnings).
MM32 - use a modified forearm protective technique when
needed in residential travel.

MN01 - wear appropriate clothing to be visible at dusk and at
night for traveling.
MN02 - accommodate to a variety of lighting conditions (e.g.,
light to dark, dark to lighted room) for night travel.
MN03 - detect obstacles in path of travel at night.
MN04 - sees intersecting sidewalks at night.
MN05 - detect drop-offs at night.
MN06 - use shadows to gain information for night travel.
MN07 - use a flashlight or other night vision device to enhance
visual performance for night travel.
MN08 - see walk signals and traffic lights during night travel.
MN09 - see crosswalks during night travel.
MN10 - compensate for glare distraction (e.g., from headlights,
neon signs) during night travel.

MP01 - seat self in a vehicle.
MP02 - ride comfortably in a variety of vehicles.
MP03 - take arranged public transportation using a learned
MP04 - execute a given bus route.
MP05 - solicit information to plan a bus route.
MP06 - execute a simple route to a familiar location.
MP07 - execute a route with one transfer to a familiar location.
MP08 - execute a route with multiple transfers to a familiar
MP09 - know emergency procedures if a planned stop is missed.
MP10 - solicit information and execute a bus route to an
unfamiliar location.
MP11 - solicit information, purchase a ticket, and execute a route
on intercity transportation.
MP12 - develop the skills necessary to travel on public
MP13 - follow procedures for traveling on a bus: obtain needed
significant information, use a bus schedule, locate bus stops, read
bus numbers, wait for the bus in an appropriate manner, board
and exit, use the lift safely when using a wheelchair, pay or show
ID to the bus driver, solicit assistance from the bus driver or
other passengers, locate a seat, maintain orientation after
disembarking, transfer to a second bus on the route, know an
emergency procedure, if the planned stop is missed.
MP14 - follow procedures for special transit: obtain an
identification card for special transit, arrange for transportation
pick up and drop off, board and exit, utilize a lift safely when
using a wheelchair, pay or show ID to special transit driver, solicit
assistance from the driver or other passengers, locate a seat,
maintain orientation after disembarking.
MP15 - follow procedures for taxicabs: arrange for taxicab pick up
and drop off (e.g., time, location, estimated fare), wait for the
taxicab in the designated place, pay and tip the driver upon
arrival at the destination, maintain orientation after reaching the
destination, solicit assistance from the driver for orientation at
the destination.
MP16 - follow procedures for traveling on mass transit systems:
locate the entrance to a familiar mass transit station, locate the
fare box, turnstile, and information booth, locate the edge of the
platform for orientation purposes, locate the appropriate waiting
area, locate the door and enter the train car, locate the seat or
standing area in a crowded train car, follow emergency
procedures, if necessary, exit the train car at the destination,
maintain orientation after disembarking, exit the station and
remain oriented, obtain sighted assistance when needed and in
unfamiliar stations.
MP17 - follow procedures for traveling on public transportation
systems between cities: obtain travel information (e.g.,
schedules, cost), obtain ticket, travel to the station or airport,
check baggage and obtain seat assignment, if appropriate, obtain
assistance to gate or boarding area, board the plane, train, or
bus, locate a seat, exit safely, make arrangements for further
transportation upon arrival.

MR01 - identify landmarks, clues, and hazards unique to rural
areas: cattle guards, farmgates, electric fences, barbed wire
fences, slatted cattle fences, creeks.
MR02 - use cane techniques appropriate for rural area travel.
MR03 - identify the distinct guideline and type of surface at the
edge of a street or road (e.g., curb, shoulder, grassline, fence,
gravel, dirt, blacktop, embankment) during rural travel.
MR04 - demonstrate a modified cane technique for traveling on
rough surfaces during rural travel.
MR05 - follow the edge of a roadway with an intermittent curb or
no curb during rural travel.
MR06 - walk safely on the street edge facing on-coming traffic
during rural travel.
MR07 - walk safely on the street edge traveling in the same
direction as traffic during rural travel.
MR08 - maintain a line of travel and relocate the
guideline/shoreline after short breaks are encountered during
rural travel.
MR09 - re-establish a line of travel after negotiating puddles, leaf
piles, or other obstacles during rural travel.
MR10 - travel safely around parked vehicles during rural travel.
MR11 - demonstrate efficient and safe travel along a dirt footpath
and in various depths of grass during rural travel.
MR12 - cross streets safely in rural areas during rural travel.
MR13 - correctly cross a street in a rural area during rural travel.
MR14 - identify and use rural landmarks and clues during rural

MS01 - follows 3 different one-step directions given without
MS02 - responds to two-part simple requests.
MS03 - demonstrates simple problem solving.
MS04 - shows awareness of routine by preparing for next activity
without reminder.
MS05 - tells first and last name when requested.
MS06 - follows rules in group games led by an adult.
MS07 - carries out a series of 3 directions in correct sequence.
MS08 - seeks and accepts help when needed.
MS09 - faces person with whom s/he is speaking.
MS10 - occasionally says "please," "thank you," 'excuse me," or
"I'm sorry" without reminders.
MS11 - listens to and follows directions given to group as a
MS12 - faces activity when sitting or standing in group of
MS13 - states full name, address, and phone number.
MS14 - states full name of at least one parent.
MS15 - uses dial or pushbutton phone to make a call.
MS16 - respond with “yes” or “no” to “Do you want to ___?"
MS17 - answer who, what, where questions.
MS18 - answer why and how questions.
MS19 - answer yes-no questions that require judgment (e.g.,
“Did you pass the water fountain?”).
MS20 - demonstrate positive feelings and attitudes toward
independent travel.
MS21 - exhibit an acceptance of her visual impairment and
recognize the need for mobility instruction.
MS22 - cooperate with the instructor.
MS23 - rely on self for travel needs.
MS24 - exhibit confidence during travel.
MS25 - exhibit appropriate behavior in public.

MT01 - independently moves about in familiar room; may or may
not explore inquisitively.
MT02 - Independently explores familiar rooms in own home.
MT03 – delivers items to familiar room when asked.
MT04 - moves to destination quickly and easily in own home.
MT05 - moves to appropriate area in classroom and finds an
empty place.
MT06 - moves to appropriate area in classroom (where activity is
happening) and finds an empty place with little or no assistance.
MT07 - walks to a familiar location within a block of home
MT08 - initiate any movement or exploration.
MT09 - move toward a sensory cue (e.g., auditory, visual).
MT10 - purposefully search for a specific objective.
MT11 - locate specific rooms.
MT12 - initiate appropriate use of objects and areas.
MT13 - initiate purposeful movement.
MT14 - function independently in the home/living setting.
MT15 - travel indoors using rotely learned routes.
MT16 - travel areas using to other campus or other buildings
rotely learned routes.
MT17 - create new routes between familiar places indoors.
MT18 - execute a route, given a set of verbal directions to an
unfamiliar location within one building.
MT19 - execute a route, given a set of verbal directions to an
unfamiliar location in another building.
MT20 - locate an unfamiliar place by using numbering systems.
MT21 - solicit assistance to orient self to a building.
MT22 - solicit assistance to orient self to a high school campus or
MT23 - solicit assistance to orient self to a college campus.
MT26 - travel independently in a classroom setting: locate seat,
utilize systematic search pattern in independent room orientation
(e.g., peripheral, grid, zig-zag, object to object), travel in a room
without contacting objects or people, safely locate pertinent areas
and objects in a room, use protective techniques safely when
traveling in a classroom; with cane, without cane, exit the
classroom safely during an emergency situation.
MT27 - travel independently to other rooms on campus (e.g.,
bathroom, gym, cafeteria, auditorium, dorm room).
MT28 - accommodate to different lighting conditions during
MT29 - identify contrast changes (e.g., carpet, tile) and drop-offs
visually during travel.
MT30 - read signs, letters, or room numbers on a wall during
MT31 - wee other people and large objects during travel.
MT33 - avoid contacting objects in path during travel.
MT34 - detect stairs during travel.
MT35 - go up and down stairs alone.
MT36 - locate open/closed doors during travel.
MT37 - open and close doors unassisted during travel.
MT38 - hold objects while walking.
MT39 - locate needed areas (e.g., class/bathroom, dorm).
MT40 - safely maneuver around pedestrians.
MT41 - use indoor numbering systems.
MT42 - travel independently on the campus grounds.
MT43 - name streets in the school vicinity.
MT44 - stop at a street independently.
MT45 - locate outdoor areas of the campus (e.g., playground, bus
stop, track).
MT46 - locate other buildings on campus.
MT47 - negotiate pedestrian traffic safely on campus (e.g., during
arrival and dismissal, at lunch, during recess).
MT48 - travel to, from, and around the backyard.
MT49 - travel to a car on the street or driveway.
MT50 - travel to a mailbox.
MT51 - travel in a residential area one or two houses away.
MT52 - travel in a neighborhood involving a straight route and
residential street crossings.
MT53 - travel in a neighborhood using L-shaped routes and
MT54 - travel in a neighborhood and locate a specific address.
MT55 - gather location information and travel to a specific
address in an unfamiliar area.
MT56 - define a residential area.
MT57 - develop the concept of a city block.
MT58 - locate and identify common components of a residential
area:, sidewalk, broken sidewalk, corner, house, lawn, bushes
and trees, street, alley, cul-de-sac, parkway, curb, ramped curb
cut, driveway (gravel, concrete, asphalt), gutter, path, blended
curb, mailbox.
MT59 - develop the concept of an intersection and its relationship
to a city block.
MT60 - develop the concept of a grid system.
MT61 - maintain a straight line of travel on a sidewalk without
excessive veering.
MT62 - correct for veering on a sidewalk.
MT63 - detect a curb, drop-off, ramped curb cut, or blended curb
at the corner.
MT64 - execute the following routes within one block: a straight
line from corner to corner, an “L” shape, a “U” shape, around the
MT65 - execute the following routes within a grid pattern: a linear
route of consecutive blocks, an “L’ shaped route of consecutive
blocks, a “U” shaped route around a series of blocks, a zig-zag
route consisting of a series of blocks, a rectangular route.
MT66 - react appropriately to warning signals or sounds in the
environment (e.g., sirens, trucks backing up, railroad crossing
bells, vehicles honking, audible traffic signals, car alarms).
MT67 - use traffic for orientation purposes.
MT68 - recognize the presence and absence of traffic.
MT69 - identify parallel traffic.
MT70 - identify perpendicular traffic.
MT71 - identify when traffic is far or near.
MT72 - identify fast and slow traffic.
MT73 - identify traffic moving toward and away from self.
MT74 - identify vehicles by sound (e.g., busses, trucks, cars,
MT75 - travel safely and reorient on irregular sidewalks.
MT76 - maneuver safely around obstacles in the travel path (e.g.,
trash cans, vehicles) and maintain the line of travel.
MT77 - travel safely in areas without sidewalks or paths.
MT78 - locate a down curb or ramped curb cut and stop at a safe
distance from the street.
MT79 - wait for assistance to cross the street, if applicable.
MT80 - locate a crosswalk.
MT81 - visually locate the opposite corner and/or stop signs.
MT82 - visually judge the distance and speed of moving vehicles.
MT83 - identify and define a stop-sign-controlled intersection
(e.g., 2-, 3-, or 4-way stops).
MT84 - maintain a line of direction at the corner.
MT85 - position oneself correctly for crossing.
MT86 - hold the cane in ready and waiting position.
MT87 - wait on traffic when in question.
MT88 - wave traffic on when in question.
MT89 - cross in the absence of traffic using: line of travel,
shoreline/grassline, curb alignment, auditory clues, visual clues.
MT90 - cross in the presence of traffic using: line of travel,
shoreline/grassline, curb alignment, auditory clues, visual clues.
MT91 - safely navigate around an idling car.
MT92 - correct for veering when crossing.
MT93 - correct for veering after crossing.
MT94 - locate the desired direction after crossing.
MT95 - locate the central dividing line for north/south and
east/west streets (0 or 100 blocks).
MT96 - distinguish odd and even sides of streets.
MT97 - locate specific destinations by address.

MU01 - maintain a straight line of travel on the sidewalk.
MU02 - solicit help in a proper manner.
MU03 - identify and negotiate gas stations and parking lots.
MU04 - identify the following street hardware: mailbox, trash can,
public telephone, bus bench, bus shelter, bus sign, parking
meter, dumpster, storm drain, display windows, pole, newspaper
rack, recessed doorway, street sign, guy wire, outdoor stairs,
alley, metal grate, access ramp, ramped curb cut.
MU05 - travel safely past street hardware.
MU06 - read simple signs and words.
MU07 - locate specific destinations in a commercial area.
MU08 - safely use escalators when traveling.
MU09 - locate the escalator within a store or building.
MU10 - approach the escalator safely.
MU11 - determine the direction of movement of the escalator.
MU12 - board the escalator safely.
MU13 - exit the escalator safely.
MU14 - locate the appropriate escalator to continue to the next
floor if needed.
MU15 - safely use revolving doors in travel.
MU16 - approach the revolving door safely.
MU17 - enter the revolving door compartment safely if still or if
MU18 - exit the revolving door safely and clear the path after
MU19 - use an elevator safely.
MU20 - locate and approach the elevator.
MU21 - use the outside button to call the elevator.
MU22 - clear before entering the elevator.
MU23 - locate and use interior buttons.
MU24 - ask for assistance.
MU25 - clear before exiting.
MU26 - recognize and safely cross railroad tracks when
encountered in travel.
MU27 - recognize the presence of railroad tracks.
MU28 - select a landmark as a safe waiting point if a train is
MU29 - cross the railroad tracks safely.
MU30 - determine what to do if a train approaches while in the
process of crossing the railroad tracks.
MU31 - negotiate construction tunnels and construction areas.
MU32 - find an alternative when a crossing is too confusing or
MU33 - identify parallel and perpendicular traffic surges.
MU34 - see traffic lights.
MU35 - see Walk/Don’t Walk signs.
MU36 - locate and understand the use of crosswalk buttons.
MU37 - identify and use audible traffic signals.
MU38 - identify turning cars.
MU39 - position body correctly at a corner for crossing.
MU40 - align with traffic.
MU41 - know the correct time to cross.
MU42 - maintain a straight line of travel during crossing.
MU43 - remain oriented to the desired direction of travel after
MU44 - make multiple or double street crossings.
MU45 - safely cross at a left turn light and other complex
MU46 - identify T, Y, and offset intersections and make safe
crossing decisions.
MU47 - negotiate an intersection with a traffic control island.
MV01 - develop the knowledge and skills necessary for traveling
in adverse weather conditions.
MV02 - demonstrate special travel skills needed in adverse
weather conditions.
MV03 - travel safely on familiar routes in adverse weather.
MV04 - remain oriented to familiar routes in adverse weather.
MV05 - remain calm as weather conditions change.
MV06 - obtain and use sighted assistance in adverse weather
conditions as needed.
MV07 - interpret difficult travel situations and determine when to
use alternative methods of travel (e.g., sighted assistance, calling
a taxi).
MV08 - recognize when auditory clues are masked or distorted
(e.g., from wind, rain).
MV09 - recognize when tactile clues are masked or distorted
(e.g., from leaves, snow, ice).
MV10 - wear appropriate clothing and gear for different weather
MV11 - gather information in advance concerning travel
MV12 - travel safely in unfamiliar areas in adverse weather.
MV13 - demonstrate specialized skills needed for ice and snow
MV14 - maintain balance on ice and snow.
MV15 - maintain stamina on ice and snow.
MV16 - respond to tactile information received through hands and
feet in cold weather.
MV17 - stay on sidewalk while traveling in snow.
MV18 - maintain a line of travel when sidewalk conditions change
in snow
MV19 - identify a curb in snow.
MV20 - cross the street safely in snow.
MV21 - maintain effective use of vision while traveling, when the
glare of the sun on the snow is present.
MV22 - identify drop-offs when there is a lack of contrast caused
by snow.

MW01 - demonstrate basic skills for wheelchair use.
MW02 - safely transfer into and out of a wheelchair (e.g., setting
brakes, swinging footrests away, releasing the seat belt, planning
a transfer and positioning wheelchair to make a transfer,
fastening the seat belt, noticing safety hazards such as slippery
floors and furniture on wheels).
MW03 - set brakes for transfers and stationary activities.
MW04 - release brakes for travel.
MW05 - propel the chair forward to reach a destination.
MW06 - maneuver the chair backward for turns or to go through
MW07 - execute right and left turns safely.
MW08 - stop or slow the movement of the chair: on indoor level
surfaces at the destination, when traveling down an access ramp,
as needed when traveling up an access ramp, when approaching
another person, as needed, when approaching ramped curb cuts
or blended curbs, make 90°, 1800, or 360° turns clearing walls
and doors, carry objects.
MW09 - maintain a line of travel using an indoor guideline (e.g.,
wall, rail, furniture): indoors, outdoors.
MW10 - travel safely over irregularities in surfaces in a wheelchair
(e.g., thresholds).
MW11 - travel safely over various outdoor surfaces in a
wheelchair (e.g., pavement, grass, gravel).
MW12 - stay on the sidewalk traveling in a straight line in a
MW13 - move around objects in a path efficiently.
MW14 - open and close doors while in the wheelchair: on a flat
plane, on an incline, push to open, pull to open, use door
handle/knob to open.
MW15 - use access ramps and ramped curb cuts: wet, dry,
indoor, outdoor, familiar or unfamiliar, built to code or not to
MW16 - travel along a curved shoreline.
MW17 - demonstrate self-advocacy skills related to the
wheelchair: ask for assistance when needed. Refuse help when
not needed, alert other visually impaired persons of the presence
of the wheelchair (e.g., verbally, using a noisemaker), instruct
assistant in transfers.
MX01 - demonstrate basic skills for using a walker.
MX02 - make safe transitions from the floor or a chair into the
walker (e.g., proper positioning of the walker for transfer,
clearing obstacles from the immediate area to ensure stability of
the student and the walker).
MX03 - walk forward with the walker to reach a destination.
MX04 - make turns in the walker clearing obstacles without
compromising balance.
MX05 - control speed of movement when moving up or down an
access ramp, ramped curb cut, or blended curb while using a
MX06 - reach forward or sideways to obtain an object slightly out
of reach, maintaining a safe, upright position with stable balance
while using a walker.
MX07 - negotiate doorways while using a walker.
MX08 - demonstrate skills for use of a sighted assistant while
walking with a walker.
MX09 - demonstrate safe indoor travel skills while using a walker.
MX10 - travel over irregularities in surfaces (e.g., thresholds)
while using a walker.
MX11 - maintain a line of travel using objects in the environment
(e.g., wall, rail, furniture) while using a walker.
MX12 - use clues and landmarks while using a walker.
MX13 - use hand trailing while using a walker.
MX14 - demonstrate safe outdoor travel skills.
MX15 - travel safely over various outdoor surfaces (e.g.,
pavement, grass, gravel) while using a walker.
MX16 - stay on a sidewalk traveling in a straight line while using
a walker.
MX17 - use access ramps, ramped curb cuts, and blended curbs
while using a walker.
MX18 - negotiate curbs when necessary while using a walker.
MX19 - make safe street crossings while using a walker.

MY01 - demonstrate basic skills for using crutches.
MY02 - make safe transitions from the floor or a chair to a
standing position using crutches.
MY03 - walk forward to reach a destination using crutches.
MY04 - make turns using crutches, clearing obstacles without
losing balance.
MY05 - reach forward or sideways to obtain an object slightly out
of reach, using graded movement and maintaining balance.
MY06 - demonstrate skills for use of sighted assistants while
walking with crutches.
MY07 - maintain verbal, auditory, and/or visual contact with the
assistant while using crutches.
MY08 - request assistance appropriately while using crutches.
MY09 - instruct the sighted assistant regarding the level and type
of assistance needed while using crutches.
MY10 - demonstrate safe indoor travel skills while using crutches.
MY11 - travel over irregularities in surfaces (e.g. thresholds,
carpeting, tiles) while using crutches.
MY12 - scan visually or with a cane for obstacles on the floor that
might interfere with crutch placement.
MY13 - maintain a line of travel while using crutches.
MY14 - negotiate doors and stairs while using crutches.
MY15 - demonstrate safe outdoor skills while using crutches.
MY16 - travel safely over various outdoor surfaces (e.g.,
pavement, grass, gravel) while using crutches.
MY17 - stay on a sidewalk traveling in a straight line while using
MY18 - use access ramps and ramped curb cuts while using

MZ01 - demonstrate basic skills for using a support cane.
MZ02 - make safe transitions from the floor or a chair to a
standing position using a support cane.
MZ03 - walk forward to reach a destination using a support cane.
MZ04 - make turns using a support cane, clearing obstacles
without losing balance.
MZ05 - reach forward or sideways to obtain an object slightly out
of reach maintaining a safe, upright position with stable balance
using a support cane.
MZ06 - demonstrate skills for use of sighted assistants while
walking with a support cane.
MZ07 - maintain verbal, auditory, and/or visual contact with the
assistant using a support cane.
MZ08 - request assistance appropriately using a support cane.
MZ09 - instruct the sighted assistant regarding the level and type
of assistance needed using a support cane.
MZ10 - demonstrate safe indoor travel skills using a support
MZ11 - travel over irregularities in surfaces (e.g. thresholds,
carpeting, tiles) using a support cane.
MZ12 - maintain a line of travel using a support cane.
MZ13 - negotiate doors and stairs using a support cane.
MZ14 - demonstrate safe outdoor skills using a support cane.
MZ15 - travel safely over various outdoor surfaces (e.g.,
pavement, grass, gravel) using a support cane.
MZ16 - stay on a sidewalk traveling in a straight line using a
support cane.
MZ17 - use access ramps and ramped curb cuts using a support

OC01 - identifies familiar objects, toys, foods
OC02 - identifies own personal possessions
OC03 - arranges 3 items horizontally in order by size
OC04 - uses open or closed as descriptors
OC05 - identifies objects as long/short, hard/soft, rough/smooth.
OC06 - places 5 objects in horizontal arrangement by size.
OC07 - touches first, middle, last items in a row.
OC08 - answers "where" questions with prepositional phrases
using "in," "on," and "under."
OC09 - arranges 4-5 objects in sequence by length, width, or
OC10 - names ordinal position of objects (first, second, third).
OC11 - describes similarities/differences in objects.
OC12 - demonstrate the quantitative concepts of: big/little,
short/long, narrow/wide, deep/shallow, tall/short.
OC13 - demonstrate directional and positional concepts of:
up/down, top/bottom, over/under, high/low, next to (or beside),
center (or middle)/corner/side, through/around,
forward/backward, parallel/perpendicular, in/out, in front of/in
back of/behind, near/far, beginning/end, between,
straight/crooked, open/closed, toward/away, other: ___.
OC14 - demonstrate knowledge of the following shapes (name,
point to, or match): circle, square, triangle, rectangle, oval,
diamond, octagon.

OI01 - touches 1-3 body parts on request.
OI02 - names parts of own face.
OI03 - demonstrates the concept of up/down by moving self or
OI04 - touches smaller body parts.
OI05 - touches body part when function is described
OI06 - holds arms overhead, extended at shoulder- level, or
behind body for 15 seconds without tiring
OI07 - balances on either foot for 5 seconds
OI08 - names 10 body parts
OI09 - turns to face an object/person on request
OI10 - follows a variety of directions involving moving the body
with feet in one place (bend, squat)
OI11 - touches own complex body parts on request (wrist,
shoulder, ankle, waist)
OI12 - touches and names left/right on own body
OI13 - places objects across from, next to, beside, behind, in
front, to the side, left and right of self on request
OI14 - maintain hold on an object when walking (e.g., hold onto
a cup).
OI15 - identify facial parts (through touch, imitation, or functional
use): nose, mouth, chin, eyes, cheeks, ears, forehead.
OI16 - identify body parts (through touch, imitation, or functional
use): head, upper arm, stomach, foot, trunk/torso, wrist, waist,
toe, chest, elbow, hip, heel, back, hand, leg, neck, back of hand,
thigh, shoulder, palm of hand, knee, arm, thumb, calf, forearm,
finger, ankle.
OI17 - identify body planes (through touch, imitation, or
functional use): front of body, back of body, top of head, side of
body, bottom of foot.
OI18 - place objects in relation to body planes (i.e., side, front,
OI19 - demonstrate a functional understanding of objects in
relation to self (e.g., pulling a chair from a table to sit down,
opening and going through a door, getting in and out of a car).
OI20 - demonstrate left and right awareness.
OI21 - demonstrate a functional understanding of sides.
OI22 - demonstrate left and right upon request.
OI24 - demonstrate laterality in relation to objects.
OI25 - demonstrate body laterality using complex directions.
OI26 - make a quarter or 90° turn upon request.
OI27 - make a half or 1800 turn upon request.
OI28 - make a whole or 360° turn upon request.
OI29 - initiate turns as needed in independent travel.
OI30 - identify left and right awareness when facing another
OI31 - recognize directionality in relation to objects.
OI32 - demonstrate application of directionality in a complex
OI33 - identify opposite directions of north/south, east/west.
OI34 - read and use a compass correctly.
OI35 - identify compass directions in relation to self.
OI36 - use the sun to determine cardinal directions.
OI37 - identify all directional relationships.
OI38 - identify the directional side of a street.
OI39 - identify the directional corner of an intersection.
OI40 - execute a route of travel using cardinal directions.

OM01   -   walks independently
OM02   -   walks around or over obstacles
OM03   -   walks barefoot on grass and variety of surfaces
OM04   -   walks up stairs holding on to adults hand on railing
OM05   -   runs without stumbling
OM06   -   walks up stairs independently
OM07   -   walks down stairs holding on to adult's hand on railing
OM08   -   jumps in place with both feet
OM09   -   pushes chair or stool to counter and climbs up
OM10   -   walks, up and down stairs, alternating feet
OM11   -   climbs jungle gyms and ladders
OM12   -   runs smoothly, with changes in speed and direction
OM13 - walks backwards and sideways on request
OM14 - starts and stops locomotor movements on request
OM15 - walks forward short distance on balance beam
OM16 - walks in a line, either single file or with a partner
OM17 - runs 40-50 yards without discomfort
OM18 - skips on alternating feet
OM19 - carries an object weighing 10-16 pounds
OM20 - moves from one overhead bar to another swinging arms
OM21 - jumps rope independently
OM22 - coordinates several motor skills in one activity, i.e.
jumping jacks, relay races, circle games
OM23 - maintain head in upright position when walking.
OM24 - maintain body in erect posture with pelvis, spine, and
head in vertical alignment when standing.
OM25 - maintain shoulders and arms in a relaxed position when
OM26 - position toes in direction of travel when walking (i.e., heel
and toe straight ahead).
OM27 - walk with a rhythmic, coordinated movement.
OM28 - maintain adequate speed when walking with a group,
independently, or using sighted guide.
OM29 - move up or down on a curb or set of stairs with sufficient
balance to be safe from falling.
OM30 - demonstrate movement of the whole body (from a
standing position): bend body forward, bend body backward,
bend body to the side, squat down, bending at knees, stand up
on tiptoes, jump, move to the side by stepping sideways.
OM31 - orient self to an unfamiliar room.
OM32 - enter and exit a vehicle safely.
OM33 - open and close a vehicle door independently.
OM34 - store a cane appropriately in a vehicle.
OM35 - put on and take off a seat belt.
OM36 - lock and unlock the vehicle door unassisted.
OM37 - locate the passenger side and the driver side of a vehicle.
OM38 - locate the front seat and the back seat of a vehicle.
OM39 - identify and locate the door when the car is: parallel
parked, diagonally parked, perpendicularly parked
OS01 - attempts to search for toy which falls out of contact with
body when toy has no continuous sound
OS02 - explores cabinets and drawers in own home
OS03 - maintains sustained search for dropped toy
OS04 - names 10 objects or places
OS05 – understands where things belong within own home
OS06 - locates favorite play area in own yard
OS07 - touches top, bottom, front, back, and sides of an object
on request
OS08 - moves body planes in relation to flat surfaces ("Put your
back against the wall.")
OS09 - places objects over/above, under/below, upon/inside,
through, and away from other objects on request
OS10 - identifies location of sound as front/back, left/right,
near/far in relationship to own body
OS11 - locates dropped object in immediate vicinity of feet
OS12 - places objects across from, next to, beside, behind, in
front, to the side, left and right of other objects facing in the
same direction as self
OS13 - can be oriented to new rooms with some instruction
OS17 - demonstrate spatial awareness and movement of head,
limbs, and trunk (from standing or sitting): straighten arm, bend
arm at the elbow, lift arm high in the air, put arm out in front,
put arm out to the side, put arm behind (or in back), atraighten
leg, in front, bend leg at the knee.
OS18 - name the four compass directions.
OS19 - identify the front, back, left, and right side of a room in
relation to the door.
OS20 - identify the directional corners of a room (i.e., front right,
front left, back right, back left).

SA01 - identifies familiar object by its sound
SA02 - shows anticipation of events when verbal cue is provided
SA03 - identifies activities by sound in the home and
SA04 - repeats simple rhymes, songs, and fingerplays with words
and actions
SA05 - tells whether sound is loud/soft, high/low, long/short
SA06 - uses auditory cues to orient self outside of own home
SA07 - turn toward a voice or a noise.
SA08 - reach for or move toward a noise stimulus.
SA09 - attend to environmental sounds.
SA10 - attend to speech.
SA11 - localize a stationary sound.
SA12 - move toward a stationary sound.
SA13 - track a moving sound.
SA14 - identify and label environmental sounds.
SA15 - use sounds to orient to the environment.
SA16 - apply spatial concepts to sound localization (e.g., water
fountain is to my right, traffic is behind me).
SA17 - use echolocation to determine the presence or absence of
a wall or building.
SA18 - use object perception to determine the presence of
obstacles (e.g., walls, people).
SA19 - recognize sound shadows and remain oriented.
SA20 - follow one-step commands: stand up, sit down, walk
forward (or toward me), stop, walk backward (or away from me),
turn around, go around.
SA21 - follow two-step related commands (e.g., “Locate the chair
and sit down.” - “Take your coat off and hang it up.”).
SA22 - follow two-step unrelated commands (e.g., “Pass the
water fountain and stop at the first door.” - “Stand up and walk
to the sink.”).
SA23 - follow conditional commands (e.g., “If you hear a car,

SK01 - uses terrain cues to orient self outside of own home

SL01 - knows the arrangement of furniture, doors, stairs within
own home
SL02 - avoids hazards when in familiar place
SL03 - identifies common environmental features
SL04 - locates drinking fountain and restroom in familiar public
SL05 - use landmarks for orientation.
SL06 - use clues for orientation.

SO01 - identifies activities by smell in the home and
SO02 - uses olfactory cues to orient self outside of own home
SO03 - respond to olfactory information and cues.

ST01 - recognizes own name when presented in print or braille
ST02 - respond to a vibrating object (e.g., wind-up toy, hand-
held vibrator, therapy vibrator with sponge).

SV01 - look at a shiny object or light for at least 3-5 seconds.
SV02 - reach for or move toward an object or light.
SV03 - demonstrate knowledge of the following colors (name,
point to, or match): red, orange, blue, black, yellow, white,
green, purple, brown.
SV04 - understand the purpose of the low vision device.
SV05 - understand the basic principles of a distance low vision
SV06 - maintain the low vision device properly.
SV07 - use the low vision device in a safe manner.
SV08 - focus the low vision device, if applicable.
SV09 - spot specific items with a low vision device.
SV10 - trace a specific line, contour, or edge in order to
conceptualize an object using a low vision device.
SV11 - scan with the low vision device to demonstrate efficient
visual search patterns.
SV12 - track with the low vision device to follow moving objects
or people.
SV13 - recognize problems with the low vision device (e.g., dirty
lens, broken, scratched).