GLOBAL DIALOGUE                                          BUILDING LEARNING SOCIETIES
                                                                     KNOWLEDGE, INFORMATION AND HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
                                                         BÂTIR DES SOCIÉTÉS ÉDUCATIVES
                                                                     SAVOIR, INFORMATION ET DÉVELOPPEMENT HUMAIN

                                "Changes in demographic patterns, evolving employment needs and the
                                rapid expansion of information and communication technologies are
                                among the factors that are leading to the booming of demand and of sup-
                                ply in terms of learning and training opportunities.
                                                                                                                EDITORIAL                                                                   In the name of UNESCO, the UNESCO Institute
                                                                                                                                                                                            for Education is happy to have assumed the
                                                                                                                                                                                            responsibility for organising and holding the
                                                                                                                Global Dialogue 7 entitled "Building Learning Societies", which unfolded between 6-8 September 2000 on the site of
However, faced with the abundance of knowledge and its new channels of distribution, UNESCO cannot              the Universal EXPO 2000 in Hanover. This event, organised in co-operation with the German Commission for UNESCO
ignore the fact that it is not shared out fairly; it is the responsibility of the Organisation to stress that   and in partnership with the World Bank and the German Foundation for International Development, is now featured
access to knowledge must be equitable, that education is for all - as the recent Dakar World Education
                                                                                                                in the columns of this journal.
Forum recalled - and that the poor and the marginalized have not only a right to education, but that
they can represent an investment for their societies when they are given access to knowledge.                   The Global Dialogue has opened up fresh ways of approaching the whole issue of developing learning societies. Some
                                                                                                                of the major insights brought out at the event may be summarized as follows.
Our vision of learning societies is about more than just technology, economics and employment. Such             The mind grows with age and nourishes itself by its experience of contextual and social apprenticeship. Each intellec-
learned societies also value and give new meaning to traditional knowledge and to wisdom. They are
                                                                                                                tual activity results from a multitude of connections and is not bound to a specific mental zone (Susan Greenfield,
governed by ethical and democratic norms. The development of a culture of learning will indeed help
to strengthen social integration, assist in the achievement of personal independence and dignity, and           Oxford, UK). • That which enlarges the human being is the intimate knowledge and wisdom of the soul (Boubacar
encourage creativity and innovation."                                                              s            Sadou Ly, Burkina Faso). • Intelligence, universally distributed, does not constitute a rare or reserved commodity
                                                                                                                (Emilia Ferreiro, Mexico). • Intelligence should not find its purpose in the multiplication of specific facts nor in the
Koïchiro Matsuura, Director General of UNESCO                                                                   categorisiation of individuals. It is necessary to go beyond received education, to continuously decolonise the realm
Hanover, 8 September 2000                                                                                       of thought. The current “western” notion of development is a permanent insult to many peoples and their cultures
                                                                                                                (Munir Fashed, Palestine). • Today, the ability to say "no" is the prerequisite to a sustainable way of life. (Wolfgang
                                                                                                                Sachs, Germany). • The future is inevitable and, while one can gain access to it by turning one’s back on the past, one

Bâtir des                                                d'autres étaient fortement sollicitées. L'analogie
                                                         entre les constructeurs de bâtiments et les ex-
                                                         perts de l'éducation qui se sont réunis à
                                                                                                                can also discover it by facing that past. Thus, instead of the "digital divide" we should ratherspeak of the "digital delay"
                                                                                                                and give preference to free choice rooted in cultural loyalty and appropriation of what is genuinely needed. (Chander

sociétés                                                 Hanovre, mi septembre 2000, à l'occasion du
                                                         Dialogue Mondial N°7 se révèle pertinente.
                                                                                                                Daswani, India). There were also, of course, other ideas powerfully expressed…

éducatives :                                             Pour bâtir (éduquer) il faut bien connaître le ter-
                                                         rain, il faut tenir compte du passé; il faut que
                                                                                                                This journal, which appears two weeks after the event, hopes at least to give readers an impression of the sheer quan-
                                                                                                                tity and quality of the dynamic work accomplished. Other more academic publications are already available.

voilà bien un                                            cela soit une entreprise collective correspondant
                                                         réellement à un besoin; il faut pouvoir utiliser les   My colleagues and I will be delighted if the elements included here convey even a little of the enormously rich con-

objectif                                                 meilleurs matériaux qui sont parfois, mais pas
                                                         nécessairement, les plus modernes; il faut tra-
                                                         vailler en groupes complémentaires, il faut enfin
                                                                                                                tributions brought to the event, including the indignation occasionally expressed, but above all we hope to provide a
                                                                                                                vehicle to convey the message of hope and of solid commitment which transcended the debates and which filtered

ambitieux !                                              et surtout une vision, un rêve. Il faut que le pro-
                                                         jet ait un sens pour l'ensemble social.
                                                                                                                through all the interventions made by the participants, panelists and contributors. To all of you, my colleagues and I
                                                                                                                are infinitely grateful.

Les "bâtisseurs", pressentis par l'Institut de           Chacun crée son espace comme chacun crée son
l'UNESCO pour l'éducation et la Commission al-           savoir mais tous les espaces et tous les savoirs ne
lemande pour l'UNESCO ont répondu positive-
ment à l'invitation.

Le terrain ne leur était pas inconnu: ils savent ou
                                                         se valent pas. L'efficacité, la modernité et l'ur-
                                                         gence n'empêchent certainement pas le respect
                                                         d'un code de construction, d'un code éthique .
                                                                                                                                   IUE                                                              UIE
essayent de tenir compte de l'histoire; ils savent       Les sociétés éducatives n'auront d'avenir que
aussi, grâce à leurs engagements sur des ter-            moyennant la mobilisation de tous les acteurs -
rains divers avec les exclus, que, quel que soit         du chercheur le plus éminent à la personne en-         Au nom de l'UNESCO, l'Institut de l'UNESCO pour l'Education (IUE) est heureux d'avoir assumé la responsabilité de l'or-
l'architecte, l'édifice à construire ne trouvera sa      gagée dans une formation la plus humble; les           ganisation et de la tenue du dialogue mondial 7 intitulé "Bâtir les sociétés éducatives", qui s'est déroulé du 6 au 8 sep-
finalité qu'au travers d'une réelle appropriation        bâtisseurs qui sont aussi les utilisateurs doivent
par les principaux destinataires. Ils savent aussi                                                              tembre 2000 sur le site de l'EXPO universelle 2000 à Hanovre. Cet événement, organisé en coopération avec la
                                                         s'inscrire dans une dynamique de progrès, d'éga-
que les meilleures constructions seront celles           lité, d'équité, de solidarité.                         Commission allemande pour l'UNESCO (DUK) et en partenariat avec la Banque mondiale et la Fondation allemande
qui auront été demandées par ces destinataires                                                                  pour le développement international (DSE), alimente les colonnes du présent Journal.
et non celles qui, mêmes chères ou très sophis-          Que l'ensemble des informations échangées au
tiquées, sont généreusement offertes à ceux qui          cours de ces trois jours puissent réellement
ne sont pas certains d'avoir demandé exacte-             constituer des connaissances et des savoirs qui        Le dialogue mondial a ouvert de nouvelles voies sur la problématique du développement des sociétés éducatives. Les
ment cela. Ils savent aussi que la ré-appropria-         seront autant de piliers soutenant une variété de      grands thèmes qui y ont été évoqués sont les suivants :
tion apporte son lot de surprises et que des             lieux d'éducation et que les murs qui définissent
constructions ont parfois été complètement               ces espaces soient largement pourvus de portes         Le cerveau croît avec l'âge et se nourrit des expériences et des apprentissages contextuels et sociaux. Chaque activité in-
transformées par l'usage; que certaines enfin            et de fenêtres ouvertes sur (pour) un monde un
sont restées désespérément vides alors que               peu plus solidaire.                            s       tellectuelle produite résulte d'une multitude de connexions et ne provient pas seulement d'une zone spécifique, d'où
                                                                                                                l'importance de la connectivité (Susan Greenfield, Oxford, Royaume-Uni). • Ce qui fait grandir l'être humain est la
                                                                                                                connaissance et la sagesse en est l'âme (Boubacar Sadou Ly, Burkina Faso). • L'intelligence, multiple et universelle ne
Marc De Maeyer, Spécialiste Principal de la Recherche                                                           constitue pas une denrée rare ou réservée (Emilia Ferreiro, Mexique). • Elle ne doit pas aboutir à la multiplication des spé-
Institut de l’UNESCO pour l’Education, Hambourg.
                                                                                                                cificités ni à la catégorisation des individus. Il faut se guérir de l'éducation reçue et continuellement décoloniser la pen-
                                                                                                                sée. L'idée courante "occidentale" sur le développement est une insulte permanente à plusieurs peuples et cultures
                                                                                                                (Munir Fashed, Palestine). • Dire non est aujourd’hui la condition préalable du bien vivre (Wolfgang Sachs, Allemagne).
S             O               M               M               A              I            R              E      • Le futur est inévitable et on peut y accéder en tournant le dos au passé mais on peut le découvrir aussi de dos en fai-
                                                                                                                sant face au passé. Ainsi donc à la "digital divide" (le fossé du numérique) il faut préférer le "digital delay” (l'accès ulté-
                                                                                                                rieur au numérique) et le libre choix teinté de la loyauté culturelle et de l'appropriation véritable (Chander Daswani,
Bâtir des sociétés éducatives                                                                              1
                                                                                                                Inde). Il y a eu, bien sûr, d'autres idées fortes exprimées…
Connexions                                                                                                 2
                                                                                                                Ce journal qui sort deux semaines après l'événement, entend rendre compte de manière impressionniste de la quantité,
Savoirs                                                                                                    3
                                                                                                                de la qualité et de la dynamique des travaux. D'autres publications plus académiques sont d'ores et déjà prévues.
Citoyenneté et collectivités                                                                               4
                                                                                                                Mes collègues et moi serons ravis si les éléments arbitrairement retenus et présentés ici traduisent quelque peu les riches
Sociétés éducatives                                                                                        5
                                                                                                                contributions apportées, reflètent la révolte parfois exprimée mais surtout véhiculernt le message d'espoir et de ferme
Partenariats                                                                                               6    engagement qui a transcendé les débats et filtré dans toutes les interventions faites par les participants, panélistes et
                                                                                                                divers partenaires. A vous tous, mes collègues et moi sommes infiniment reconnaissants.                                  s
Semaine internationale de l'éducation des adultes                                                          7
L'Institut de l'Unesco pour l'éducation                                                                    8     Adama Ouane, Director

                                                          (                                                                                                                                                                     )
                                                          Knowledge is the cumulative effect of learning and does not exist independently. Much important learning comes through infor-
                                                          mal processes. In this learning "system", you learn from society and often the teacher becomes the learner and vice versa.
                                                          La connaissance constitue la somme de tous les apprentissages, autant ceux de l'apprenant que ceux de l'enseignant.
                                                                                                                                                                           (C.J. Daswani)

                                                          responsible for any specific intellectual activity,
    “There                                                but a constellation of different areas. Making a
                                                          comparison with cooking, she explained that the
                                                          whole (of intellectual activity) is more than the
                                                                                                                     Our understanding
    are many                                              sum of its parts (different ingredients put
                                                          together make a delicious dish). Physiologically
                                                          brain activity can be described as an interaction
                                                                                                                     of intelligence
    different                                             between the 100 billion brain cells, where elec-
                                                          trical signals travel at a speed of 250 mph and
                                                          become transformed into chemical signals in the
                                                                                                                     Maybe, we have many things inside us and we
                                                                                                                     don't know it. That is an opportunity . The prob-
                                                                                                                     lem is this: we try to take this intelligence and
                                                                                                                                                                             developing countries, we are to be very careful
                                                                                                                                                                             about that.

    forms of                                              synapses. Learning is thus related to electrical/
                                                          chemical events, and the connections between
                                                          these events are of special importance. She
                                                                                                                     graft on into the school and the school has
                                                                                                                     never been designed in a way to allows us to
                                                                                                                     understand and develop our intelligences.
                                                                                                                                                                             We have to do our own research because intel-
                                                                                                                                                                             ligence is very much connected to the social,
                                                                                                                                                                             economical, cultural, political context.

    intelligence”                                         underlined, against the current “delirium around
                                                          genes” that there is no gene for intelligence or
                                                          good learning; even clones differ from other in
                                                                                                                     If we want to create different kinds of learning
                                                                                                                     cities, which allows us to understand ourselves
                                                                                                                     in new ways, to start new kinds of relationships,
                                                                                                                                                                             Otherwise, there is a danger that, instead of lib-
                                                                                                                                                                             erating us, intelligence can become an another
                                                                                                                                                                             form of cognitive and epistemological imperial-
                                                          the way these connections operate. It is the               dialogues, to express ourselves in new ways,            ism (to control us).                            s
                                                          potential for making connections that is rele-             than, we have to create the space for these
                             Starting from the sup-                                                                  intelligence to express themselves.
                                                          vant for learning.
                                position that the                                                                    The other problem is: we cannot discuss this               L'intelligence trop souvent utilisée comme
                                    human cortex is                                                                  kind of intelligence outside the context of the            moyen d'oppression, doit enfin pouvoir
                                                          In addition she underlined that the mind is the
                                     most likely an                                                                  dominating notions of society today: the tech-             s'exprimer sous ses différentes formes et en
                                                          personalization of the brain. Furthermore, the
                                      area of impor-                                                                 no-economic consumerist society doesn't not                dehors du système éducatif formel. Il s'agit
                                                          brain remains flexible and does not follow the
                                      tance        for                                                               allow for such intelligence to develop.                    donc d'instaurer de nouveaux espaces de
                                                          same ageing pattern as the rest of the body. s
                                      learning, Prof.                                                                In US, you get the commercialisation of intelli-           réflexion et d'autres types de relations hu-
                                      Greenfield                                                                     gence. Rather than saying: we are all intelligent          maines, remettant en question la culture
                                     underlined that            Rappelant la supériorité "quantitative” du           in our own ways, you get courses and intelli-              unique imposée par la société de consom-
                                    during the last             cerveau humain sur tous les autres mammi-            gence programmes, and for that, you have to                mation et la commercialisation de l'intelli-
                                 months of preg-                fères, S. Greenfield a évoqué les expériences        pay money.                                                 gence qui se traduisent par un nouvel impé-
                        nancy there is a large                  scientifiques qui prouvent qu'une activité           Multiple intelligence, particularly in US, is              rialisme culturel.
                        growth of brain cells and               intellectuelle ne relève pas d'une zone spéci-       becoming a big business. In the South, in the
    that the human brain is significantly larger than           fique du cerveau mais bien d'une multitude
    those of the mammals.                                       de connexions entre ses différentes zones.
                                                                S'élevant contre ce qu'elle décrit comme           Manish Jain, The People’s Institute for Rethinking Education and Development - Udaipur
    With the help of “Positron Emission Topogra-                "l'hystérie qui entoure le concept de gènes",
    phy” (PET) it is possible to identify brain regions         elle soutient qu'il n'existe aucun gène de
    that are involved in intellectual activity (like            l'intelligence mais au contraire différentes
    speaking) : on the screen those regions light up.           formes d'intelligence.
    Tests showed that there is no single brain region
                                                                                                                     Udaipur as a learning city
    Contribution of Susan Greenfield,                                                                                The concept of Udaipur as a Learning City grows out of a desire to address the problems inherent in mod-
    Professor of Pharmacology at Oxford University, UK
                                                                                                                     ern urban living. We decided to explore the mind set of the middle class people of all ages, particularly
                                                                                                                     youth, living in Udaipur. Over the course of many conversations, several common sentiments began to
                                                                                                                     • Why should we think about the development of Udaipur? It is not our responsibility. We are responsi-
                                                                                                                                                      ble only for our families and ourselves. This is a job for the government
                                                                                                                                                       or for NGO.

    Un contexte                                                                                                                                         • We have never had the opportunity to think about our capacities or
                                                                                                                                                        about our talents in our schools
                                                                                                                                                        • We see no future in Udaipur; there is nothing here. We will have to

    diversifié                                                                                                                                         move to Delhi, Mumbai or Bangaloree for real opportunities
                                                                                                                                                     • Ever if we want to get involved in improving the city, we don't know
                                                                                                                                                  where to go

    qui interroge                                                                                                                                              We see Learning as the key to re establishing our human poten-
                                                                                                                                                               tial, dignity, compassion and the principle of SWARAJ - rule

    et parfois effraie.                                                                                                                                        over oneself).
                                                                                                                                                               For this to happen, the concept of learning
                                                                                                                                                               must be seen beyond what happens in
                                                                                                                                                               isolated spaces like schools, training
                                                                                                                                                               workshops, and literacy courses. Rather,
    Le changement est partie prenante de la cultu-            sont loin d'être neutres et qui proposent (voire                                                 we believe that we must explore and
    re, de toutes les cultures. Mais la vitesse des           imposent) des figures d'identification et de nou-                                              reevalue processes of reflecting, cele-
    changements n'est pas homogène parmi les cul-             veaux objets désirables. C'est aussi le contexte       brating, playing, working, creating, knowledge construction, meaning-mak-
    tures .                                                   du débat à propos des nouvelles technologies,          ing and sharing. These processes emerge from dynamic interactions in
                                                              principalement dans le secteur de l'éducation:         informal spaces, such as the family, and extended families, neighbour-
    L'insécurité naît lorsqu'un changement rapide             certains pays, certains continents étaient plus        hood and peer groups, cultural and religious groups, work environ-
    survient dans un coin du monde et qu'il interfè-          disposés que d'autres à intégrer le changement.        ments and professional associations, natural and recreational
    re dans d'autres contextes culturels; il s'agit                                                                  spots, media and other socio cultural environments. It is inter-
    alors d'évaluer si ce changement appartient (na-          Dans ce contexte, comment (et à travers qui)           esting to note that Udaipur used to be known as an Education
    turellement) à un avenir prévisible ou s'il est ou        continuera à porter le discours de la diversité        City because it is the home of many schools and colleges, which
    s'est imposé.                                             culturelle si essentiel à la compréhension du          sprouted up in the 1940s and 1950s. We think it is important that we
                                                              monde et à la démocratie.                              shift from an Education City to a Learning City.                       s
    Le discours sur la diversité doit donc tenir comp-
    te du contexte socio-politique dans lequel il est         Il est nécessaire que le concept de culture puis-
    inévitablement placé: celui d'un monde profon-            se soutenir la réflexion, ce qui n'empêche pas la                                                          “Adding wings to caterpillars does not create
    dément inégal et en voie d'homogénéisation.               reconnaissance ni la valorisation des diversités                                                            butterflies - rather, it creates awkward and
                                                              culturelles; il en est de même pour les "intelli-                                                                    dysfunctional caterpillars.”
    L'enseignement formel avait pour vocation de              gences multiples" ou une multiplication des spé-
    tenter d'offrir (imposer puisque l'école élémen-          cifications (par l'apport continuel d'adjectifs)
    taire est obligatoire) à tous et chacun un cadre          risque de nier l'intérêt théorique du concept            Une enquête effectuée auprès de la classe moyenne d'Udaipur, "Cité d'éducation" en Inde, pourvue
    permettant, en dehors des familles, de surmon-            pour ne valoriser que certaines caractéristiques         de nombreuses écoles et universités, révèle qu'un apprentissage formel isolé de tout contexte social
    ter les inégalités de départ. Actuellement, des           descriptives: certains seraient alors tentés d'at-       et familial et négligeant les valeurs humaines déresponsabilise les personnes. La connaissance ne
    forces plus puissantes que l'école poussent vers          tribuer des intelligences spécifiques (et supposé-       peut se constituer sur la base d'une interaction entre les espaces d'apprentissage formels et non for-
    l'homogénéité: la télévision internationale en            ment intrinsèques) à certains groupes sociaux            mels. Il s'agit de passer de la cité qui enseigne à la cité dans laquelle l'être humain s'éduque.
    tout premier lieu, qui transmet des messages qui          ou ethniques. On voit tout de suite le danger. s

                                                                                                                      Selon les documents de Manish Jain,
    Entrevue avec le Prof. Emilia FERREIRO                                                                            Udaipur - India.

CONVERSATION                  CULTURE        DEVELOPMENT                EDUCATION           FUNCTIONAL LITERACY                     INFORMATION

                                                                                                                (                                                                                                                               )
                                                                                                                                         "dramatic expansion of information and knowledge resources”
                                                                                                                                                   "ce que les universitaires pensent savoir"
                                                                                                                                     "stronger homogenisation of human knowledge and cultural heritage"
                                                                                                                                          "nouvelles possibilités qui s'offrent aux systèmes éducatifs"

                                                                                           "learning", a span of knowledge placed in context - and, finally, to                            Whose standard of living might we have to copy
  If there is an answer                                                                    "wisdom" - our understanding of the best ways in which to use our
                                                                                           knowledge and learning.
                                                                                                                                                                                              in order to be considered "developed" ?

                                                                                                                                                                                            We are 6 billion. If we were to have a similar
If there is an answer, it lies in our capacity to adapt our behaviour once we        We do need research but I have lately come to see that research, and even
are both familiar with our situation and are able to understand its context.
                                                                                                                                                                                             standard of living to that enjoyed by many
                                                                                     knowledge of the nature of things, does not by itself add to our wisdom.
There are 6 billion human beings now and there may be as many 9 billion of           Wisdom involves the kinds of research we should most profit from pursu-                                 Americans, then the planet could scarcely
us in 50 years' time. By 2020, two-thirds of us will live in big cities, and big     ing, and the places where it could best fulfil a genuine need. Wisdom comes                                    provide sufficient resources
cities are expensive things that cause a lot of pollution.                           from within, not from without. We certainly need a wider distribution of                                       to sustain two billion lives.
                                                                                     wisdom.                                                                  s
BUT : We already know what we need to do to solve this predicament…
                                                                                                                                                                                              If we enjoyed the same standard of living as
We must stop believing that the situation requires new knowledge, and ask                                                                                                                  Italians do, then the Earth could support billion
instead whether or not we already have the knowledge necessary to achieve                                                                                                                    people. If we all lived as Indians do, then the
our goals. If the answer is that we have the necessary knowledge, then, we                                                                                                                       Earth could sustain 10 billion persons.
need strategies to put the knowledge into effect.
There seems to me a kind of continuum that begins with the                             S'il existe une réponse, elle réside dans la capacité de l'être humain de comprendre la si-
      "datum", the smallest piece of useful information - and which then               tuation et son contexte et d'y adapter son comportement.
      stretches through                                                                                                                                                                     Societies move towards the future. The future is
      "information" itself, which is systematically assimilated to                     Et si les problèmes comme ceux de surpopulation et d'urbanisation pouvaient être résolus
      "knowledge", a useful and reliable collection of information - and               sur la base de nos connaissances actuelles ? Pourquoi ne pas privilégier une approche "dia-             inevitable. We all head for the future. Some
                                                                                       lectique" allant de la collecte de données, à l'information puis à la connaissance, à l'ap-            societies are walking towards the future with
      then on to
                                                                                       prentissage et finalement à la sagesse? Il semble que l'accumulation de connaissances ne               their face to the future and their back to the
Don Aitkin - President Canberra University
                                                                                       suffise pas mais que la sagesse issue de la réflexion et de l'expérience personnelle puisse           past. Others go into the future with their back
                                                                                       apporter des éléments de réponse.
                                                                                                                                                                                           to the future and their face to the past. For each
                                                                                                                                                                                              case, there are different consequences. When
                                                                                                                                                                                              you have your back to the past, you see new
                                                                                      Il y en a d'autres qui sont fondées sur les principes naturels qui s'appliquent à tous                 things coming from the future, and very often
  Ce qui fait grandir l'être                                                         et qui sont donc universels. Comment revenir à ces formes naturelles d'éducation?                     you think that you are discovering things for the
  humain, c'est la connaissance.                                                     Les relations humaines ne sont possibles, paisibles et profitables que si elles
                                                                                                                                                                                            first time. You think that you have innovated –
                                                                                                                                                                                                 created new knowledge for the first time.
                                                                                     sont faites sur la base d'affinités et d'un art de sagesse. C'est cette sagesse
                                                                                     qui facilite beaucoup et partout les relations. L'éducation devrait donc s'y                                On the other hand, if you are looking to the
Dans la vie, chaque phénomène tend à grandir car il est appelé à grandir pour
remplir une fonction. Quiconque s'y refuse ou s'y néglige est piétiné, puis          appuyer car les relations humaines déterminent la qualité des ressources                                  past and are walking with your back to the
désintégré. Si, en tant qu'unité, on refuse de grandir et de servir, on est désin-   humaines tellement recherchées aujourd'hui. Les relations bien faites forti-                                 future, the past is new to you; you are
tégré et mis en pièces détachées qui, elles sont mises au service des autres         fient à la fois le fort et le faible et construisent la fortune de tous. (…).                           immediately mapping on the past experience.
phénomènes entiers engagés à grandir. Personne n'échappe à cette loi.                La sagesse est l'âme de la connaissance.                                      s                         One of the things that happens to you then is
                                                                                                                                                                                           that you realise that very little is new; what you
L'être humain grandit par la connaissance et pour ne pas tomber, il doit                                                                                                                       thought was new already exists somewhere.
s'élargir en même temps - simple question d'équilibre. C'est par la sagesse                                                                                                                       What you do now have is a new way of
qu'il réussit cela car elle est par essence le facteur de relation donc d'exten-       Human growth is dependent on knowledge in that to maintain the equilibrium necessary
                                                                                       for growth, human beings must continually enlarge their knowledge, as they are mutual-
                                                                                                                                                                                            interpreting your experiences: a way that gives
sion en largeur. L'homme est soumis à cette loi de polarité entre la hauteur                                                                                                                    you a feeling of comfort hitherto unknown.
(grandir) et la largeur (s'étendre) comme tout autre phénomène.                        ly enlarged by it.
Il y a diverses formes d'éducation dont beaucoup sont artificielles et locales.        We must rediscover natural knowledge through natural principles. This is because we need
                                                                                       to fully recognise that we are part of the natural order. Wisdom – the soul of knowledge –
 Boubacar Sadu Ly - Conseil des Sages (Burkina Faso)
                                                                                       should govern the inter-relatedness of divers knowledge. Without wisdom, knowledge is                 Les sociétés s'orientent inexorablement vers
                                                                                       empty and tends to the disintegration of human beings and our natural world.                             l'avenir. Tournant le dos au passé, elles
                                                                                                                                                                                           considèrent toutes leurs découvertes comme des
                                                                                                                                                                                                innovations et leurs savoirs comme des
                                                                                     development" augurs a nightmare. If we all start consuming at the rate at                              nouveautés. Se diriger vers l'avenir à reculons
  We seem to have forgotten that                                                     which "developed "nations currently do, then, we shall need at least five
                                                                                     plants to provide both the required resources and the dumping sites for our
                                                                                                                                                                                              signifie en revanche analyser l'expérience
  learning is as natural as life itself.                                             waste. If "developing" nations consume natural resources (such as water), at
                                                                                                                                                                                           passée, comprendre que très peu de choses sont
                                                                                                                                                                                                nouvelles et qu'il s'agit en réalité de les
                                                                                     the same rate "developed" nations do, such resources would be depleted in
                                                                                     few years! In fact, this development would be destructive to the soil of the                           réinterpréter. Une approche plus réconfortante
• We need to dismantle the claim that learning can only take place in schools.       earth and the soil of cultures.                                                                                       pour l'être humain.
• We need to dismantle the practice of separating students from life for at
  least 12 years while still claiming that learning is taking place.
                                                                                     Usually, when the expression "human development" is issued, it usually
• We need to dismantle the myth that teachers can teach what they don't do.          means that people become better consumers or more useful to the consumer
• We need to dismantle the myth that education can be improved through                                                                                                                                       (C.J. Daswani)
  professionals and experts.                                                         society or to the control system.                                     s
• We need to dismantle the hegemony of words liked education, development,
  progress, excellence, rights and compensation. Rather, we need to consider
  words like wisdom, faith generosity, hope, learning, living, happiness and duty.
• We need to affirm that the vast majority of people go to school not to learn
  but to get a diploma. We need to create diverse learning environments.
• We need to affirm our capacity for doing and learning, not for getting             "en arabe DIALOGUE signifie deux pierres qui se cisèlent l'une l'autre; un dialogue, ce
                                                                                           sont deux esprits qui se cisèlent pour que l'autre et chacun embellissent."
• We need both to affirm and to regain the concept and practice of "learn-
  ing from the world", not "about the world".                                                                                                                                                                                     On parle de
• We need to affirm that people are the real solution, not the obstacle and            Apparemment nous avons oublié qu'apprendre est tout aussi naturel que vivre.
                                                                                       Plusieurs "certitudes" doivent être remises en question: la suprématie du système scolaire,                                         développement
  not ignorant.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  durable,     on
Let us take the expression "sustainable development" for a start. If we mean           la compétence incontestée du personnel enseignant, le mépris du contexte social et des
                                                                                       valeurs humaines, l'importance accordée aux diplômes. Il s'agit aussi de réfléchir à la no-                                               parle de ratio-
by "development" that which we see in "developed" nations, then "sustainable                                                                                                                                                     nalisation mais
                                                                                       tion de "développement durable" qui souvent signifie société de consommation et ruine
                                                                                       de l'environnement. Quant au "développement humain", il désigne parfois de "meilleurs"                                         il semble, malgré tout,
 Munir Fasheh - Palestine - Harvard University                                                                                                                                             que l'on soit quelque peu dans l'expectative.
                                                                                                                                                                                           Ainsi, il est intéressant de s'interroger sur le logo
                                                                                                                                                                                           de l'exposition Hanovre 2000: alors qu'en
                                                                                                                                                                                           d'autres temps, l'exposition était l'occasion d'af-
  Learning must be decolonised                                                                                                                                                             firmer des certitudes et d'afficher la confiance
                                                                                                                                                                                           (voyons la Tour Eiffel, symbole de modernité, de
                                                                                                                                                                                           force, de foi en l'avenir), le logo de l' EXPO 2000
Population growth never ceases but resources are limited. Survival depends                                                                                                                 trace plutôt des pistes, ne donne pas de message
on the cultivation of learning societies; we must, for example, use our own                                                                                                                univoque, n'affiche pas un objet industriel, palpa-
knowledge to question the use of resources, so long as we regard informa-                                                                                                                  ble. Il s'agit de quelque chose de flottant, de post
tion itself as a vital resource. We need to scrutinise directly a certain eco-         Dans la société du savoir, il faut aussi poser la question du projet: faut-il favoriser une autre   industriel, de l'ordre de l'idée. Aux interprétations
nomic discourse which prevents the development of values beyond material               utilisation des outils du savoir et échapper ainsi à la logique de l'économie matérielle.           diverses et multiples, aux lectures différentes. Il
resources.                                                                  s          La population augmente sans cesse et les ressources sont limitées. La question de la crois-         est fait appel à l'intelligence, à la créativité. s
                                                                                       sance démographique ne doit pas être du seul ressort de la science économique.
 Wolfgang Sachs                                                                        Il faut revoir le discours dominant qui empêche de créer des valeurs hors du champ des res-
 Wuppertal Institute (Germany)
                                                                                       sources matérielles.

    I N T E R N AT I O N A L C O - O P E R AT I O N K N O W L E D G E L O C A L C O M M U N I T I E S                                                  LEARNING SOCIETIES LITERACY LEARNING
    CONNECTIONS                 CONVERSATION              CULTURE         DÉVELOPPEMENT                                                                 ÉDUCATION    ÉDUCATION DES ADULTES

                                                                                                                                                      (         The ownership of learning • Learning experiences
                                                                                                                                                           Citoyenneté créative • Expériences nouvelles d'apprentissage
                                                                                                                                                                                 Create a synergy                                          )
                                                                CYBER DÉMOCRATIE, IDENTITÉ CULTURELLE ET FUITE DES CERVEAUX
           REALITIES OF THE                                     Face aux nouvelles technologies, en Afrique, nous avons deux options:
             THIRD WORLD                                        a) les combattre en disant qu'elles sont contraires à notre tradition - qu'elles menacent,
                                                                b) s'en servir, en tirant profit de notre expérience relative à la réflexion sur les valeurs traditionnelles afin d'aider les gens à s'approprier leur propre développement.
         A modem costs more than a cow
                         •                                      La question de la cyber démocratie et de l'utilisation des nouvelles technologies renvoie à un débat récurrent en Afrique : celui relatif à la "tradition" et à la "mo-
           Access to telecommunication                          dernité". La question n'est pas simple mais mon opinion est claire: la cohabitation entre tradition et modernité est possible et les nouvelles technologies ne modi-
                   is a privilege                               fient en rien les termes du débat.
                         •                                      En Afrique nous avons délaissé nos spécificités et avons embrassé les autres cultures, les autres usages. Je crois donc que l'on peut garder ou retrouver des éléments
           Information is, by definition,                       de la tradition en les valorisant, par exemple dans l'éducation. Pour cela, il faut que l'enseignement puisse concerner davantage de monde (jeunes et adultes). Au
               Government Property                              Sénégal, seuls 40% des enfants vont à l'école; les 60% qui n'y vont pas n'ont aucune attache culturelle: très vite, ils quittent leur milieu et se retrouvent dans les
                                                                villes. Dans les mégalopoles, ils ne bénéficient ni de la tradition, ni de la modernité.
      The typical Internet user world-wide is
                                                                Bien plus grave, les 40% de scolarisés sont totalement détachés des valeurs familiales et villageoises. Quand elle existe, l'école tend à nier les valeurs traditionnelles.
         male, under 35 years old, with a                       On a une situation paradoxale: scolarisés et non scolarisés ne bénéficient d'aucune sédentarisation culturelle. En Afrique, nous avons été éduqués à partir, à aller
      university education and high income,                     vers le Nord. Il nous faut renverser cette tendance qui accentue la fuite des cerveaux: l'Afrique perd chaque année 12.000 intellectuels.
        urban based and English speaking
                                                                Nous devons rendre l'espoir. C'est tout le drame des enfants qui rentrent dans les trains d'atterrissage des avions, eux à qui on a fait croire qu'il n' y avait plus
      (UNDP Human Development Report 1999)                      d'espoir. Même l'école est en train de perdre l'espoir, de perdre la confiance de ses clients immédiats: enfants, parents, professeurs. Les professeurs ne croient plus
                                                                en les capacités de l'école.
                                                                (Rencontre avec Mr Tapsoba, Directeur régional du CRDI)

    L'impérieuse nécessité                                                                                                    In South Africa, a Learning
    de l'implication du secteur public                                                                                        Programme to Reinforce Democracy
    Dans le Tiers-monde, les politiques d'ajustement structurel ont favorisé la dilution du rôle de l'Etat dans               Before 1984 many democrats had to acquire their knowledge and education under illegal conditions.
    le secteur de l'éducation publique; des initiatives non gouvernementales ont pris le relais et innové tout                Formal education was often the privilege of the rich, and little was done to make education truly ac-
    en essayant de rejoindre les exclus de l'école et de la société. L'introduction plus ou moins massive des                 cessible to all. When one considers the vital contribution of public education to the maintenance and
    nouvelles technologies dans les pays en développement fait craindre un nouveau recul de l'État, les pro-                  reinforcement of democracy, one easily understands why state commitment to education was so weak
    grammes et les formations étant alors conçus et distribués selon les logiques du marché.                                  during this period. Democrats know that public education constitutes the best guarantee for the birth
                                                                                                                              and growth of a modern state.
    Cette double tendance, si elle devait perdurer ou s'amplifier, constituerait une menace non seulement
    pour le secteur de l'éducation mais aussi pour la démocratie.                                                             After 1984 the whole South African community has been involved in fundamental educational changes,
                                                                                                                              which have given a key position to civic education. A major process of reform is under way. It has been
    C'est parce que l'État se fait de plus en plus absent que des ONG et d’autres associations civiles prennent               necessary for us to rethink the objectives of public education from top to bottom, for it is through edu-
    des initiatives et innovent dans le secteur de l'éducation, reliant cette problématique aux autres secteurs               cation that we shall finally break down racial barriers and social prejudices.
    (santé, travail, environnement, participation,…). Leurs actions ne seront cependant durablement signifi-
    catives que si elles maintiennent l'interpellation constante en plaidant pour une implication renforcée de                We desire an education that favours creativity. At present we are facing the challenge of providing
    l' État afin que ce dernier reprenne la place qui est toujours sienne dans l'organisation d'un enseigne-                  continuing education for the teachers who were trained under the old regime. They should be able to
    ment pour tous. Les associations forcent l'État, espace public, à transformer l'institution éducative.                    become agents of a new form of teaching, with new content and new goals.
    L'espace public se transforme et se réforme dans le même temps.
    (entrevue avec Madame Rabea Abdelkrim Chikh - Enda Tiers-Monde)                                                           Christofer Madiba

    A Citizens’ Initiative                                                                                                    The Place of Civil Society
    in the Area of New Technologies                                                                                           in Chinese Education:
                         BYTES FOR ALL recognises the           a one-stop information centre where people
                                                                                                                              The critical spirit of the citizens as one of
                         realities of "digital divides"         involved in different IT initiatives can find their           the basic components of a modern society
                         and disparities while at the           collaborators, can discuss issues pertaining to
                         same time strongly believing           their interests, and where they can know more
                         that Information Technology            about the latest developments and initiatives.                The Chinese have great admiration for the tea-           We not only need to learn from Western coun-
                         is the subversive tool which           3. It also organises different campaigns with                 ching profession and for education in general.           tries about free discussion; we also need to sear-
                         we have to use in order                regard to ICT developments in the Third World                 They also admire education as practised abroad,          ch the by-ways of our own tradition because we
                         • to reverse the trend                 countries, from developing software for the rural             which explains why many Chinese, as soon as              are still, essentially, the same human beings.
                         • to place the technology in           kids of South Asia to organising campaigns to                 they have the opportunity, send their children to
       the hands of the majority interest - and                 reduce software prices, as well as establishing the           schools in other countries.                              For the sake of human beings, I believe that no
    • to challenge its own dominance and the poli-              free use of OS like Linux.                                                                                             nation should miss the free spirit of discussion.
       tics influencing its use.                                                                                              The English language is much valued, and this            This spirit has to be a component of their own
    We simply can't afford to remain indifferent to             One example:                                                  tendency, which is reinforced from abroad, can           tradition, especially in terms of learning and of
    the development of Information Technology and               - Pakistan is facing acute drought conditions in              only favour the emigration of Chinese resear-            learning societies. This is only one example: sho-
    let this technology pass by. "To find creative              certain areas. Apart form the loss of precious                chers.                                                   wing us this way is better so that people don't
    routes to turn this technology to our benefit               human lives, this has resulted in considerable loss                                                                    lose self-confidence. They don't need to consider
    is our great challenge"                                     to livestock and natural resources. There is a need           Those learning methods practised in schools and          themselves as lower class for not being the
    BYTES FOR ALL has three objectives :                        to help the affected population and vulnerable                universities in Western countries - including free       most intelligent.
    1. It looks into alternative and people oriented IT         communities through both long and short term                  discussion without the fear of political incor-
    practices in South Asia. It tries both to explore           rehabilitation plans.                                         rectness - are so important that we must learn           Chinese students want to leave China to work,
    and to showcase the possibilities and examples              The site is created to provide updated news on the            how to practice them.                                    for example, in Silicon Valley.
    of such usage, usage which would otherwise cut              situation and to link the relief activities of donors,
    short by the Mainstream Media. Some of the                  government and civil society organisations. The               Another side of this issue is that we have to ask        On the other hand, Chinese industry needs quite
    most relevant software/internet/computer/IT                 aim here is to create a synergy of humanitarian               ourselves how our ancient tradition enjoyed this         a lot of personnel in this area but they don't
    ventures in South Asia fail, ironically, to get the         help, help which is urgently required in the                  kind of discussion.                                      have sufficient funds to employ these people. It
    attention they merit. BYTES for ALL provides a vir-         drought stricken areas.                                                                                                is not only because of the commercial
    tual platform to them.                                                                                                    For example: 2000 years ago, there existed very          constraints. It is also a result of how the lear-
    2. With news clips and information BfA works as             Interview with Partha Pratim Sarker                           free - and critical - discussion among intellectuals.    ning process is organised in research.
                                                                                                                                                                                       I'm very sad as a result of the losses to the eco-
                                                                                                                                                                                       nomy and, above all, of the loss of self confi-
     SOUTH ASIA This talent-rich, resource-poor, tragic-powerhouse of immense software skills, finds its skills recognised across the globe. And yet millions here can't               dence among Chinese people, especially the
     find the solutions to make their lives a little less of a struggle. South Asia, with 23 per cent of the world's population, has less than one per cent of the world's Internet    young generation.
     users. A computer costs the average Bangladeshi more than eight years' income, compared with one month's wage for the average American. Millions of Indians are
     connected to the Internet, but millions more aren't connected to fresh water. India accounts for 30 percent of the world's software engineers, but 25 per cent of the
     world's malnourished. More than 90 per cent of India's Information Technology transactions are in English, which is spoken by five per cent of the population.                    (meeting with Mr Shi Ming - China/Germany -
                                                                                                                                                                                       Journalist educational issues)

                                                                                                                                                           LEARNING SOCIETIES

Le savoir:                                                 ciales qui produisent et transmettent les savoirs.

                                                           Pour la survie du groupe, la production et l'utili-
                                                                                                                 maintenant ont su échapper à l’appropriation
                                                                                                                 privée de leur savoir, comme dans le cas des
                                                                                                                 plantes médicinales. Le problème qui se pose
sa valeur!                                                 sation du savoir sont structurées de manière
                                                           précise: ainsi, les paysans ont amélioré eux-
                                                                                                                 évidemment, est comment, dans un tel cadre,
                                                                                                                 imposer des contraintes éthiques sur l’utilisation     and Expertise
Quelle valeur?                                             mêmes leurs connaissances des semences, pour
                                                           leur propre bénéfice; les spécialistes de la santé
                                                           ont contrôlé connaissances et remèdes, même si
                                                                                                                 et la production de savoir. L’éthique par rapport
                                                                                                                 à l’utilisation du savoir n’est pas indépendante
                                                                                                                 de l'ensemble du code de valeurs sociales.
                                                                                                                                                                        It is very important to know and respect the
                                                                                                                                                                        expertise of "les petites gens" because they are
Le savoir n’existe pas en soi. Il est toujours lié à       les bénéficiaires sont aussi les populations. La                                                             built over many long years of experience, they
des pratiques sociales de production et d'utilisa-         complexité croissante des sociétés qui se mani-       La double question se pose donc: jusqu’à quel          are contextual to the local setting, they are real,
tion. Historiquement, il est le fruit de la re-            feste dans la division du travail, les hiérarchies    point nous accepterons que la logique du mar-          they have been tried and modified, they are
cherche humaine visant à améliorer les condi-              sociales, le pouvoir politique et la puissance éco-   ché libéral devienne la base du développement          shared by a huge base of the population, they
tions de vie des groupes sociaux: accroître les            nomique, a eu comme effet un changement               (et par là de l’utilisation du savoir) de nos socié-   are transmitted in deep ways and become root-
moyens de (sur)vie, réduire la maladie, mais               fondamental dans la logique de l’utilisation du       tés; sommes-nous capables d’imposer des règles         ed in people's cognitive and affective domains,
aussi comprendre ce que sont la vie et la mort.            savoir. Comme l’a décrit Habermas, les forces         sociales qui domestiquent cette logique (écono-        they are technically viable and are scientific in
Le savoir se matérialise à la fois dans les pro-           dominantes sont aujourd’hui le pouvoir et l’ar-       mique) pour enfin formuler des valeurs plus            the truest sense of word.
duits, (les plantes domestiquées, les briques, les         gent, et ce sont ces forces qui déterminent la lo-    fondamentales que le "share holder value".
remèdes, les ordinateurs et les outils nécessaires         gique subjacente à l’organisation de la produc-                                                              Take the rubbish collectors (Cairo, Egypt), they
à leur production) mais aussi, immatériel, appa-           tion et les institutions qui la réglementent. Le      Dans une telle situation, de nombreuses ques-          did not read in a book that door-to-door collec-
raît dans les connaissances, compétences et pra-           savoir devient dans cette dynamique un facteur        tions se posent pour les institutions productrices     tion of garbage was the most efficient way of
tiques des utilisateurs et des producteurs.                de production qui n’est lié en tant que tel a prio-   et distributrices de savoir.                           recovering household waste. Yet they have done
                                                           ri à aucune contrainte, pourvu qu’il contribue à                                                             that for 40 years and have recovered 80% of
La question relative à la responsabilité liée au sa-       la productivité dans le cadre d’une société capi-     Note:                                                  what they collect. This is science. The science of
voir concerne donc les individus considérés à              taliste globalisée.                                   Des propositions intéressant les politiques édu-       business that the private sector is calling for but
trois niveaux: en tant qu'individus, en tant que                                                                 catives des principaux acteurs seront dévelop-         does not consider to be business when practised
membres d’institutions sociales qui utilisent les          Ceci explique l’intérêt des entreprises à capitali-   pées dans la prochaine publication consacrée,          by the "petits gens".                            s
savoirs et en tant que membres d’institutions so-          ser les connaissances des sociétés qui jusqu’à        par l' IUE, aux travaux du Dialogue global    s
                                                                                                                                                                         Laila Iskandar Kamel,
Ingrid Jung, Administrateur de programmes - Education de base - DSE                                                                                                      Mokkatam (Egypt)

Knowledge, Learning                                                                                              There is research and empirical evidence behind
                                                                                                                 these assertions. Technologies by themselves do
                                                                                                                 not produce learning, they cannot substitute
                                                                                                                                                                        meet other adults, women meet other women.
                                                                                                                                                                        The learning that takes place in such organized
                                                                                                                                                                        educational settings is not confined to the so-

and Schooling:                                                                                                   teachers, they cannot explore schools. If proper-
                                                                                                                 ly and sensitively used, they can complement
                                                                                                                 schools, assist teachers and parents in their own
                                                                                                                                                                        called "prescribed curriculum". Learners are full-
                                                                                                                                                                        time learners who learn also during breaks,
                                                                                                                                                                        through non-verbal communication, from their

Many Questions,                                                                                                  learning, amplify what is learned at home and in
                                                                                                                 schools. Genuine learning involves human inter-
                                                                                                                 action, with a teacher, with peers, with col-
                                                                                                                                                                        classmates, from the teachers outside the class-
                                                                                                                                                                        room, and even from the institutional arrange-
                                                                                                                                                                        ments and management styles.

No Universal Solutions                                                                                           leagues. And it requires motivation and effort on
                                                                                                                 the part of the learner as well as time and cer-
                                                                                                                 tain minimum material conditions.
                                                                                                                                                                        Third, in order to be effective, the school system
                                                                                                                                                                        needs to undergo profound changes if it is going
                                                                                                                                                                        to fulfill its mission of both preserving and
Education, learning, knowledge are always                  tem as a whole -- is starting to disappear from                                                              transforming culture and of preparing the new
about asking questions. Everything about                   the knowledge and learning discourse. It is scary.               Who produces                                generations as critical actors in the development
knowledge is provisional. We still know very lit-          There is not such a thing as "the solution" for                   knowledge?                                 of their societies.
tle about learning and how it operates; what we            anything, let alone for education, knowledge, or
do know is that it is much more complex than               learning. Solution to what?, in the first place.      Everyone produces knowledge, every single day.         Fourth, teachers and societies as a whole must
simply "having access to information" or "dis-             Solution for whom? Problems may appear as             Knowledge is the making sense of information.          acknowledge today that the school is not the only
seminating knowledge". Learning needs are not              universal depending on how you conceptualize          Scientific knowledge has its own rules and insti-      education and learning institution: children,
a given, are not universal and they change over            them, but they are diverse in nature, and they        tutions of production and dissemination, and           youth and adults learn also at home, in the neigh-
time. Thus, despite the tremendous development             are perceived differently, in different contexts      this is one of the key missions traditionally          borhood or in the community, with their peers, in
of information and knowledge, there is much we             and cultures. For example: the gender issue           attributed to the school system worldwide.             the workplace, through the mass media, and now
do not know. Raising questions is thus an obvi-            related to education adopts different faces in        However, so-called "traditional knowledge",            also through the Internet. Complementing and
ous need and the first step towards building               the different regions, countries, cultures and        "common knowledge" or "people's knowledge"             looking beyond the school is at the very heart of
sound and responsible answers in all these                 social groups. For us, in Latin America and the       also includes elements of sound scientific             the concept of lifelong learning.
fields. Formulating the right questions is half            Caribbean today, gender equality in education         knowledge. Without it people would not be able
way to finding the right answers. I think we have          refers very clearly not only to girls and women       to survive, to work, to relate to others. A carpen-    Fifth, we need to define in each case what is the
made a very important progress in this regard:             but also to boys and men: in many countries,          ter, a car mechanic, a peasant, are putting basic      role of each of the educational institutions in
identifying the right questions and formulating            there are more girls than boys attending school       physics and chemistry into action in their daily       satisfying the basic learning needs of children,
them properly.                                             and more women then men attending universi-           work, even if they are not aware of it.                young people and adults. What can and should
                                                           ty, drop-out and repetition in primary and sec-                                                              only be learned at home, what can be learned
In this context, it is amazing to see the oversim-         ondary school are higher among boys than                                                                     better in school, what can be learned in an ad-
plification and banalization with which many               among girls, and in general girls do better in         And what is the specific                              hoc non-formal programme, in a library or
people are playing with these complex issues               school than boys. This is true also in some             role of school today?                                through Internet, and how can all these comple-
today. This has been favored by the arrival of the         African and Asian countries. And yet, the "gen-                                                              ment and reinforce each other.
modern information and communication tech-                 der issue", from the perspective of international     This is a very complex question I would like to give
nologies (ICT). While many of us are struggling            agencies, continues to be understood and              a set of inter-related answers.                        Sixth, learning -- whether it takes place within
to understand better the problems of education,            applied homogeneously and unilaterally to the                                                                or outside the school system -- is not about
the ways to make sure learners learn and learn             "developing world" as if it were a girl problem       First, we must acknowledge that the school sys-        consuming information or knowledge. This has
what is meaningful and relevant to them, others            only and as if gender were a female issue only.       tem remains and will remain a key education            been precisely the role of the old and bad trans-
have apparently all the answers, answers for                                                                     and learning institution, particularly for those       missive school we criticize and need to change. I
everything and for everyone, particularly when             Problems and solutions are context related and        -- the majority of the population worldwide --         see today the risk that the new technologies will
"everyone" refers to so-called "developing coun-           culturally related. Ignoring this has been at the     who have little or no access to other education-       revive and even legitimize the "banking"
tries". For them, the problems are already clear           very root of the failure of education policies and    al opportunities such as educated families,            approach to education and learning that has
and so are the solutions; in as much as they view          reforms in the past, both at the national and         libraries, computers or Internet.                      been questioned by progressive education
such problems as common to all such countries,             international level. Top-down and external inter-                                                            thinking and practice worldwide. Learning
solutions are also viewed as standardized and              ventions do not -- cannot -- modify the school        Second -- and this is too often ignored or             implies building knowledge, not only receiving
applicable to all. For them, the problems of edu-          or any other educational institution, because         undervalued -- school is not only a place for          it. The good school is a place not only for knowl-
cation will all be solved with modern technolo-            institutions are made up of people, and people        systematic learning; it is also a place for social-    edge consumption but also for knowledge pro-
gies; moreover, information, knowledge, learn-             have motivations, expectations, desires, needs,       izing, for making friends, for learning about how      duction. The good learner is one that tries to
ing, are used interchangeably as if they meant             interests, that cannot be ignored. "Solutions"        to become a person and a citizen. Schools (and         understand and make sense of what he or she is
the same thing. Learning appears as a simple               must be participatory, context based and cultur-      organized educational settings in general) are         told, of what they experience, see or read.
matter of access to information and knowledge.             ally relevant -- otherwise they are not solutions     places where children meet other children,             Otherwise, it is not learning. So-called "rote
The very word education -- and the school sys-             or they create more problems than they solve.         young people meet other young people, adults           learning" should not, in fact, be called learning. s

Rosa Maria Torres, International Consultant in Education

    PA R T N E R S H I P S

                                                                                                                                                       (            Imagination is more important than knowledge:
                                                                                                                                                             knowledge is limited, imagination encirles the world. (Einstein)
                    The Power of Ideas:                                                                                                                  Knowledge Learning and
                    Building Tomorrow's Global                                                                                                           Sustainable Development
                    Knowledge Economies                                                                                                                  (Global Focus organised by the World Bank)
    CONVENED by German Foundation for International Development (DSE)
                                                                                                                                         Of the 276 million people in the world today who use the Internet, 90 percent are in the developed
    Running parallel to WORKSHOP 21 organized by UNESCO, the German Foundation for International                                         world. There are more internet users in Manhattan than in continental Africa, more in Finland than
    Development (DSE) was posing the question of the power of ideas in the future knowledge economies                                    in Latin America and the Caribbean combined. OECD countries are investing $130 per capita annu-
    to some political pundits and internationally renowned experts.                                                                      ally in information infrastructure, compared with only $9 per capita in sub-Saharan Africa.
    In his report on the second major part of the Global Dialogue No 7, the “Policy Dialogue” on “The Power                              90% des 276 millions de personnes dans le monde qui utilisent Internet vivent dans les pays indus-
    of Ideas”, Klaus Hüfner, chairperson of the German Commission for UNESCO, highlighted some critical                                  trialisés. Il y a plus d'internautes à Manhattan que sur le continent africain, plus en Finlande qu'en
    points in the overall task of bridging the so-called “digital divide”.                                                               Amérique latine et aux Caraïbes réunies. Les pays de l'OCDE investissent annuellement 130$ par per-
                                                                                                                                         sonne pour l'infrastructure informatique par rapport à 9$ seulement par personne pour l'Afrique
    The digital divide is a knowledge divide, corresponding to a growing gap between rich and poor popu-
    lations. Some 80 % of the world’s population are not linked through the internet, and 90 % of users live
    in OECD countries. In order to enable people, even in poorer regions, to share their knowledge, and tak-
    ing into account population growth, increasing competition and technological progress, intelligent use
    of techniques is needed (exemplified by the Grameen Telecom in Bangladesh or the Costa Rica                                          Comment combler le fossé dans les domaines de l'alphabétisation et de l'éducation face à
    Foundation for Sustainable Development) as well as an organic link to services in areas such as com-                                 la montée de la compétition dans une économie globale à forte intensité de connaissances?
    puter training, basic health and environment, virtual literacy and community broadcasting. There is
                                                                                                                                         La Banque mondiale, bailleur de fonds et promoteur de savoir, joue un rôle déterminant pour le dé-
    obviously a potential for a new business culture, but at the same time a danger that only parts of the
                                                                                                                                         veloppement dans une société dont l'apprentissage et la détention du savoir constituent les prin-
    societies will profit from these “islands of prosperity" and that such unequal development re-enforces
                                                                                                                                         cipales ressources. Un programme, le GDLN (réseau d'apprentissage pour un développement glo-
    the digital divide. Here the issue of “knowledge ownership" is also at stake as well as the homogenising
                                                                                                                                         bal) a été conçu en 1997 pour propager technologies appropriées et connaissances sophistiquées
    cultural effects. So far the new ICTs have been primarily servicing business. But markets do not solve
                                                                                                                                         dans les coins les plus reculés du monde et pour promouvoir l'échange au-delà des frontières sur
    the issue of poverty.
                                                                                                                                         des sujets d'actualité.
    The role of the state in this area of new ICTs, although changing, is still a major one in pluralistic soci-
    eties. The state will of course use modern technologies for administration purposes, but will also accom-
    pany their development by appropriate legislation to promote the building of civil society.

      Le fossé du numérique
      La question de “la propriété du savoir” et donc de la détention du pouvoir ainsi que le risque d’uniformisation de la culture    How to bridge the existing gaps in literacy and education,
      doivent être soigneusement examinés. Il incombe en particulier à l’Etat de jouer un rôle de contrepoids par rapport aux forces   against an increasingly competitive backdrop
      du marché et de réglementer l’usage des technologies de l’information et de la communication.                                    of an information-based global economy ?
                                                                                                                                       "Bringing the developing part of the world into the global knowledge mainstream and bringing the poor
                                                                                                                                       into the new communities of learning and practice that are springing up everywhere, this is one of the
    Talk Around the World:                                                                                                             most powerful tools we have to fight poverty and we need to put it to work now".
                                                                                                                                       (World Bank Vice President for Europe Jean-François Rischard).
    A Conversation Across Cultures                                                                                                     As the World Bank grows into an institution that is both a source of funding and a source of knowl-
                                                                                                                                       edge for development, "it is very important that we conceive the development challenge as involving
    "What is missing from the world is a sense of direction, because we are overwhelmed by the conflicts                               those two essential factors". This means not only working with governments to build regulatory frame-
    around us... I should like some of us to start conversations that dispel that darkness, using them to cre-                         works that allow access to information technology at low cost; it also means making the necessary
    ate equality, to give ourselves courage, to open ourselves to strangers, and, most practically, to remake                          investments in education and committing to unprecedented levels of transparency and public partici-
    our working world." (Zeldin, moderator of the "conversation", member of the BBC Brains Trust, invited                              pation in decision-making.
    speaker to a wide range of state, regional, business, financial, political, artistic and philanthropic meetings).
                                                                                                                                       THE GLOBAL DEVELOPMENT LEARNING NETWORK (GDLN) aims to build development expertise and
    Une conversation, ce sont deux ou plusieurs personnes qui se rencontrent. D'une autre nature que l'ar-
                                                                                                                                       knowledge. By harnessing the latest technology GDLN partners are beaming learning activities, includ-
    gumentation ou le débat, la conversation, telle que définie par l'historien Zeldin et ses invités, doit
                                                                                                                                       ing courses, seminars and discussions, to and from the farthest corners of the world.
    d'abord lever un certain nombre d'obstacles dont la peur n’en est pas le moindre. Ils ont rappelé que la
    peur et la crainte ont souvent été les moteurs de l'Histoire et qu'un certain type d'éducation s'est éga-
                                                                                                                                       GDLN provides unique opportunities for participants to discuss pressing issues which call for a common
    lement organisé autour de ce principe: on a peur de ne pas savoir; on apprend à avoir peur de l'autre,
                                                                                                                                       international agenda or which have repercussions requiring local policy responses.
    on nous impose, toujours via une certaine éducation, de se méfier de soi et d’avoir peur des autres (des
                                                                                                                                       In real time, and without the need for foreign travel, these participants can engage in discussion on top-
    voisins comme des pays). Rien de bien surprenant que la préoccupation sécuritaire devienne dominan-
                                                                                                                                       ics ranging from finance and trade to education reform and HIV/AIDS.
    te pour les individus et les sociétés, que des assurances de toutes sortes soient proposées de plus en
    plus nombreuses, justement parce que nous craignons toujours quelque chose.
                                                                                                                                       GDLN partner organisations today work together to facilitate not only one-way transfers of knowledge
    La crainte fait partie de notre héritage culturel et éducatif; tout comme il faut décoloniser une certai-                          from North to South, but knowledge sharing among communities who face similar challenges. Urban
    ne éducation, il faut veiller à ce que le moteur de l'existence de tous et chacun soit autre chose que la                          planners in Asia discuss their current problems with their colleagues in Latin America and Africa, etc…
    crainte et la peur. Fameux défi pour les experts et praticiens en éducation !                                                      (English texts form the papers distributed by the World Bank)

    De là à dire qu'une bonne (et "vraie") conversation puisse changer le monde car toute conversation produi-
    rait de l'égalité et du respect,… il y a une utopie naïve que beaucoup d'éducateurs, décideurs et chercheurs                       Lors du débat entre les experts à Hanovre et les correspondants à Kampala, au Caire, à Accra et en
    présents à Hanovre n'étaient pas prêts à accepter. L'inégalité est fondamentalement et structurellement                            République Dominicaine, les questions suivantes ont été posées:
    dans le monde. Les exclus attendent des mesures radicales. Et y travaillent en vue d'un changement social.
                                                                                                                                       • "Avons-nous les capacités de recevoir toute cette information; n'oublions pas que l'outil informatique
                                                                                                                                         maintient et renforce souvent les inégalités entre hommes et femmes, entre jeunes et âgés, entre
    "I do not necessarily agree that a good conversation will produce equality. We have been having conversa-                            ruraux et habitants des villes, entre pauvres et riches, entre analphabètes et alphabétisés… même si,
    tions - and some have been very good - for so long and NOTHING has happened. Am I being impatient?                                   de manière absolue, l'accès semble égalitaire.
    Hardly. Especially when I see the daily pain people have to put up with and feel that we have become so in-                        • Il ne suffit pas d'accéder à l'outil informatique pour se le ré-approprier.
    sensitive that no amount of impatience is impatient enough. We have become so unfeeling that our conver-                           • C'est le développement durable pour tous qui doit rester l'objectif et les nouvelles technologies
    sations have become too comfortable. When will the truly good conversation come around"?                                             doivent demeurer un outil parmi les outils au service des partenaires.
    Laila Iskandar Kamel Egypt, member of the panel)                                                                                   Il faut accéder à l'information mais la connaissance qui en est retirée reste un travail éprouvant: la con-
                                                                                                                                       naissance est une construction sociale et il ne faut pas confondre l'accès à l'information et l'accès à la
                                                                                                                                       connaissance. Il ne s'agit pas non plus de "donner" des connaissances mais de mettre les populations
                                                                                                                                       dans les conditions leur permettant de chercher elles-mêmes informations et savoirs dont elles ont
                                                                                                                                       besoin. Et de les produire.
                                                                                     LES ÊTRES HUMAINS ONT
                 CONVERSATION IS ONE
                                                                                        CHANGÉ LE MONDE
                     OF THE MOST
                  IMPORTANT WAYS OF
                                                                                        PLUSIEURS FOIS EN
                                                                                        CHANGEANT LEUR
                                                                                                                                                     "Même en lisant les mêmes livres
                                                                                      FAÇON DE CONVERSER .                                            et en utilisant les mêmes outils,
                                                                                                                                                              on peut maintenir
                                                                                                                                                        l'inégalité sociale de départ".

                                                                                             INTERNATIONAL ADULT LEARNER'S WEEK
TECHNOLOGIES   TRADITION  TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE                                                                                        UNESCO   WISDOM   WORLD BANK
RENCONTRES   SOCIÉTÉ ÉDUCATIVE   SAGESSE SAVOIRS                                                                                        SAVOIR TRADITIONNEL  UNESCO

September 2000: Launching of the
First International Adult Learner’s Week
  "Today, alongside the traditional celebration of International Literacy Day, UNESCO is launching the        (…) As we celebrate the First Adult Learners' Week, I should like to pay tribute to the hundreds of
  first International Adult Learners' Week. In doing so, we are taking steps to apply one of the rec-         millions of adults who are devoting their time and energy to learning and to sharing new knowl-
  ommendations of the Fifth International Conference on Adult Education, organised by the UNESCO              edge. The fact is that we are all learners, and rightly so, since lifelong education is more than ever
  Institute for Education in July 1997 in Hamburg.                                                            an essential feature of our rapidly changing world.
                                                                                                                                     Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO

                                                                                                                  Video Message for the launching of the first International Adult Learners' Week.
                                                                                                                                          Hanover - 8 September 2000.

 1992                                                                                                                                               In order to create a learning society, it was recognised that there
                                                                                                                                                    was an urgent need to make adult learning more visible. Society
Since 1992, the UK has developed a national Adult Learner's Week involving
                                                                                                                                                    needs the participation, creativity and skills of all its citizens.
broadcasters, radio, print media, education and training providers, industrial
                                                                                                                                                    Lifelong learning, therefore, must become a reality shared by a
sponsors, local and national government. The week celebrates existing adult
                                                                                                                                                    greater number of people. Learning activities should not be lim-
learners and uses their experiences to stimulate new participants.
                                                                                                                                                    ited to the time spent at school, college or university. Knowledge
                                                                                                                                                    not only belongs to institutions but should belong to all those
                                                                                                                                                    who take the trouble to acquire it. Adults now form the majori-
 J U LY, 1 4 - 1 8                  1997                                                                                                            ty in further and higher education but the system is still geared
                                                                                                                                                    towards younger people. Most adults in Europe still do not par-
"We commit ourselves to promoting the culture of learning through (…) the                                                                           ticipate in education and training and it was recognised that
development of a United Nations Week of Adult Learning (The Hamburg                                                                                 adults should be motivated, giving them responsibility and power
Declaration - art.25)                                                                                                                               to be adult learners and active citizens. Policy makers too should
                                                                                                                                                    be motivated to set up adequate and coherent frameworks of
What is the International Week ?                                                                                                                    education and training for adults. Adult Learner's week seeks to
The Adult Learners' Weeks already developed at national level in several countries around                                                           encourage and facilitate the breaking down of barriers to access
the world serve as a strategy to disseminate information and to raise the curiosity of a                                                            for everyone (Seize the Oars - Niace)
wider public, and to encourage and honour innovative approaches to adult learning.
Their main goal, however, has been to celebrate learning and to give a voice to learners.
                                                                                                                         THE                             ADULT LEARNER’S WEEK
                                                                                                                               FOLLOWING COUNTRIES HAVE HELD
  SEPTEMBER, 25                          1999                                                                                      IN PREVIOUS YEARS AND IN 2000
                                                                                                                AUSTRALIA, AUSTRIA, BENIN, BOTSWANA, CZECH REPUBLIC, EGYPT, ESTONIA,
Consultative Forum on the follow-up to CONFINTEA: "The enrichment of the International Literacy Day
through an International Adult Learner's Week, which would be built around the Literacy Day, has                FINLAND, FLANDERS, GERMANY, GUINEA CONAKRY, HONG KONG, HUNGARY,
become one of the key follow-up initiatives of CONFINTEA. (Statement of the Participants in Manila)           JAMAICA, JAPAN, LIECHTENSTEIN, LITHUANIA, NAMIBIA, NEW ZEALAND, NORWAY,
                                                                                                                PALESTINE, THE PHILIPPINES, PORTUGAL, RUSSIA, SLOVENIA, SOUTH AFRICA,
                                                                                                                                    SWEDEN, SWITZERLAND, THE UK
Resolution adopted by the General Conference of UNESCO during its 30th session to launch the                                ADULT LEARNER'S WEEK HELD FOR THE FIRST TIME
International Adult Learners' Week in September 2000. The aim of the International Adult Learner's
Week is to bridge the activities during the National Adult Learners's Week, to learn from the experience                           IN OR AROUND SEPTEMBER 2000:
of other countries, to share the celebration with people in other contexts and to amplify the co-opera-      BOSNIA, BURKINA FASO, CAPE VERDE, GHANA, GUINEA BISSAU, GUYANA, ICELAND,
tion between agencies active in the promotion of adult learning at international level.                        INDONESIA, IRAN, MADAGASCAR, MALI, THE NETHERLANDS, NIGER, ROMANIA,
                                                                                                                     SAUDI ARABIA, SENEGAL, SINGAPORE, SWAZILAND AND ZAMBIA.A.
  SEPTEMBER, 8                        2000
                                                                                                               CANADA (QUEBEC), INDIA, TOGO               AND THAILAND HAVE DEVELOPED PROMOTIONAL
Hanover, Launching of the first International Adult Learner's Week
Presentation of the Learning Festivals Guide                                                                             CAMPAIGNS AROUND THE             ANNUAL INTERNATIONAL LITERACY DAY.
This booklet is an Internationally-produced communication tool to support the launch of the first
International Adult Learners' Week.
The guide has several aims including:
• strengthening International Literacy Day, recognising that the basic learning needs of all people of all   Le 8 septembre, à 15h30, Monsieur MODOUX, Sous-Directeur général a.i. de la section des communica-
  ages should be met in each and every developing and developed country;                                                      tions, de l'information et de l'informatique lançait officiellement la première Semaine
• sharing the experiences of educators from around the world who have seen                                                    internationale de l'éducation des adultes.
  the value of using promotional campaigns to encourage learning by all;
• to foster International Adult Learners' Week                                                                                 Des chants ont rappelé que l'homme doit aussi se développer au delà de sa propre cul-
                                                                                                                               ture; s'il ne le fait pas, il "restera une petite souris". Toute musique porte un message.
" I'm very pleased to say how pleased I am that UNESCO and the National Institute for                                          Nous devons apprendre; nous devons apprendre à rencontrer les personnes, à com-
Adult and Continuing Education in this country have been able to promote the cause of                                          muniquer; nous devons dans le même temps, connaître l'univers, respecter chacun des
Adult Learning, from basic skills to the development of leadership in the community,                                           êtres humains et acquérir de nouveaux langages… comme le langage musical.
through to higher level skills that people need in the knowledge economy of today. We
have to gather together the expertise, across the world, to learn from what’s working                                          Dans leurs interventions, les Ministres du Burkina Faso et de l'Allemagne ont souligné
and to spread it. (…)                                                                                                          qu'apprendre à apprendre est un métier pour toute la vie. Apprendre doit aussi être un
…We’ll be able to share with you, and you with us, the exemplary ways of engaging men                                          plaisir. Le Ministre de l'enseignement de base du Burkina Faso a rappelé que chez lui
and women in their own learning, providing opportunities in the community and at                                               comme dans de nombreux pays, tout est question de priorité, que l'alphabétisation est
work, developing and making more flexible the opportunities in traditional institutions                                        un élément stratégique pour la mise en oeuvre participative du développement durable
of further and higher education, and doing what we all aspire to do, which is to fire peo-                                     et que l'alphabétisation et l'éducation des adultes ont toutes deux une même dyna-
ple with the love of learning, to enable them to take opportunities through learning and                                       mique de mobilisation, de célébration et de libération. La communauté éducative, c'est
to be able to spread the message to the next generation, that it will be education and                                         toute la communauté. Les interlocuteurs ont tous souligné que dans l'éducation des
life-long learning, which will be the key to opening the doors of opportunity to work and                                      adultes, les adultes sont aussi producteurs de savoirs et que les langues nationales
to earning in the years to come".                                                                                              mettent le "savoir" à la portée de la majorité de la population.

David Blunkett, Secretary of State for Education
United Kingdom

    T H E U N E S C O I N S T I T U T E F O R E D U C AT I O N

                                                                                                                                          January - September 2000 • Janvier - septembre 2000

    The UNESCO Institute for Education                                                                                        L'organisation du Dialogue Global 7 dans le cadre de l'EXPO 2000 a permis de renforcer l'assise de l'IUE dans le monde édu-
                                                                                                                              catif en dépit des menaces qui pèsent sur l'Institut: la suppression totale d'ici cinq ans de la subvention que lui accorde l e
    and his Regular Programme                                                                                                 gouvernement allemand. Grâce à l'engagement et à la créativité dont a fait preuve le personnel, le défi a été relevé et la si-
                                                                                                                              tuation interprétée comme un nouveau départ.
    Global Dialogue 7 was a challenging experience UIE went through with joy and commitment. It was an                        L'Institut a donc défini un programme de soutien aux initiatives et entrepris une évaluation des moyens dont il disposait, eu
    exciting endeavour, the Institute undertook with interesting and demanding partners. This co-operative                    égard à la situation.
    work around such a complex project added to our learning experience. UIE is definitely established as a
    learning institution. Involvement in GD 7 helped considerably to sail across the mounting cloud resulting                 Ce programme a été proposé au Conseil d'administration, après une large consultation.
    from the decision of the German authorities to phase out completely within five years their longstanding                  Dorénavant, le programme se structure autour de quatre grands axes:
                                                                                                                              • éducation tout au long de la vie dans ses diverses composantes: des principes fondamentaux au renforcement de la parti-
    institutional grant to UIE. The staff of the Institute should be commanded for the strong will, the com-
                                                                                                                                cipation créatrice
    mitment and the sense of responsibility they showed in pursuing and reforming UIE’s work and pro-                         • suivi de CONFINTEA en vue d'obtenir des changements politiques dans le secteur de l'éducation des adultes
    grammes. This serious threat has been skilfully and creatively turned into an opportunity and a challenge.                • soutien aux initiatives en éducation des adultes et éducation tout au long de la vie
    UIE was called upon to critically review its ongoing activities and overall potential in order to concen-                 • appui, communication, publications et relations publiques.
    trate on those it has the best capacity and comparative advantage to carry further. UIE has launched a                    La définition de ce programme n'a pas tenu compte de la perspective d'une éventuelle fermeture de l' IUE. C'est ainsi que l'on
    systematic and structured advocacy programme and underwent a thorough and critical in-house eval-                         peut noter ces nouveaux projets:
    uative exercise on the consequences of this new situation and its implication for the mission statement,                  • un projet au Kosovo, relatif aux réponses éducatives à apporter dans des situations d'urgence
    operative work of the Institute. Two internal task forces were set up. One on advocacy with different                     • un travail sur l'éducation intergénérationnelle, en collaboration avec plus de 1000 établissements scolaires
    stakeholders and the other on internal transformation in programme content, institutional structures                      • une étude des indicateurs relatifs à l'éducation tout au long de la vie
    and functioning, staffing pattern, funding, etc. A consolidated document on the History, Achievements                     • une extension du réseau ALADIN en matière de documentation , principalement avec les pays en développement
    and Prospects for UIE and a tracer analysis of its budget and funding were prepared and largely dis-                      • deux projets sous régionaux sur l'éducation non formelle relative à la prévention du SIDA
    seminated. Furthermore, the new integrated programme cycle worked out through a wide consultative                         • une table ronde, en novembre 2000, sur les nouveaux défis de la globalisation eu égard à l'éducation tout au long de la vie.
    process was approved by the Board and is already enjoying broad recognition. In toto, the following
    four new programme clusters were developed:
    1. Learning Throughout Life in Different Cultural Contexts: From Laying Foundation to Strengthening
                                                                                                                            MERCI - THANK YOU
       Creative Participation;
                                                                                                                            La Commission Allemande pour l’UNESCO mérite une mention spéciale et en son sein,
    2. CONFINTEA Follow-up: Monitoring and evaluating policy changes in Adult learning;                                     Dr. Christine Merkel. Nous lui exprimons ici toute notre gratitude et notre admiration pour sa
                                                                                                                            disponibilité, sa persévérance et son souci constant de la qualité des tâches accomplies.
    3. Capacity Building in Adult and Lifelong Learning; and
    4. Structured Advocacy, Communication, Publication and Social marketing.
                                                                                                                            Le concours financier généreux de quelques états membres (Afrique du Sud, Botswana, Danemark,
    The yearly calendar of activities of the Institute was not affected at all by the threats to its viability.             Nigeria, Norvège, Royaume-Uni) et de quelques sponsors a permis de prendre en charge la participation
    Besides the organising of a Global Dialogue at EXPO 2000 (described below), a range of challenging and                  d’une trentaine de spécialistes, d’activistes et de jeunes en provenance des pays en développement.
    innovative programme activities have been running normally according to schedule on the implemen-
    tation agenda of UIE. A new programme funded by the Zeit Foundation has been launched in Kosovo                         Grâce à une subvention de l’Union européenne, l’IUE est en mesure de réaliser cette publication ainsi
    on adult education and skills development for youth. Based on a series of surveys, pre-tests and field                  que la distribution du Guide de préparation de Semaines d’éducation des adultes, conçu par NIACE
    visits funded by PLAN International, UIE developed a pilot Rapid Educational Response for Sierra Leone                  (National Institute of Adult and Continuing Education – L’Institut national d’éducation des adultes et de
    dealing with mass trauma healing. A team of trainers, able to provide support and the continuity to the                 formation continue) du Royaume-Uni, en coopération avec des partenaires européens. Mon collègue
    project at national level, have been trained by UIE and a structure of logistical backing has been con-                 Marc De Maeyer est à la base de cette initiative qu’il a conduite avec passion et imagination. Tout le mé-
    stituted. PLAN International applied this model in four selected communities of the country covering                    rite lui en revient. Qu’il en soit remercié.
    3,200 children and young adults. An interim report was published by UIE in March 2000. An Internet-
    based experimental training programme is being developed with three universities to provide on-line                     Plusieurs collègues ont participé à cette entreprise avec dévouement, créativité et n’ont épargné aucun
    training in rapid educational response for humanitarian workers in crisis situations. Through an exten-                 effort pour obtenir un travail parfaitement accompli. Elles (ils) ont toute ma gratitude. Je citerai Bettina
    sive e-mail questionnaire to some 1080 schools, a school-community-based intergenerational learning                     Bochynek, la coordinatrice infatigable du programme, ainsi que Madhu Singh, spécialiste principale de
    initiative is being explored and analysed jointly with the International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO).              la recherche, Werner Mauch, spécialiste de recherche, Louise Silz, Annette Hentschel et Cendrine
    The study on indicators of transition towards lifelong learning is being expanded to cover other con-                   Sebastiani qui l’ont assidûment épaulée à divers moments.
    texts. The ALADIN network is expanding its services to more documentation centres in developing coun-
    tries. The monitoring of policy changes towards adult and lifelong learning is continuing. Central and
    Eastern Africa will be covered this year (2000). UIE is now co-ordinating jointly with the Swiss Co-operation
    and the Commonwealth Secretariat, the ADEA (Association for the Development of Education in Africa)                     The generous financial support given by Member States (South Africa, Botswana, Denmark, Nigeria,
    Working Group on Nonformal Education (NFE). A synthesis of a ten country impact study on NFE is in prepa-               Norway, United Kingdom) and sponsors made it possible to secure the participation of about 30 special-
    ration. Two sub-regional programmes on adult and non-formal AIDS prevention programmes have been                        ists, activists and young people from developing countries.
    developed, focusing on the production of gender-sensitive materials. An international round table with high-
    level experts will be held in November on new challenges for lifelong learning in a globalising world.                  Thanks to a grant from the European Union, UIE was able to produce this publication and to distribute the
    Eight country studies (Brazil, Canada, Ecuador Guatemala, Mexico, Norway, The Philippines and Russia)                   Learning Festivals Guide prepared by NIACE (National Institute of Adult and Continuing Education) in the
    carried out in the framework of an International Survey on Adult Education for Indigenous People have                   UK, in collaboration with European partners. My colleague, Marc De Maeyer, was instrumental in start-
    just been published under UIE’s Report Series. This survey was conceived as a participatory venture                     ing this initiative which he has brought to an end with much passion and imagination. It is his full merit
    involving the views and perspectives of indigenous people themselves. A network of focal points was                     and we would like to thank him for it.
    established and where possible, these were indigenous organisations themselves, where this was not
    possible, research centres close to indigenous organisations were involved as focal points. An interna-                 Several colleagues have also participated in these activities with dedication and creativity. They spared
    tional synthesis is under preparation.                                                                                  no efforts to accomplish a perfect job. They can be assured of my gratitude. I would like to give special
                                                                                                                            credit to Bettina Bochynek, the untiring coordinator of the programme as well as Madhu Singh, Senior
    The celebration of adult learners’ week is carried out by more and more countries. Some 40 countries                    Research Special, Werner Mauch, Research Specialist, Louise Silz, Annette Hentschel and Cendrine
    are world-wide organising such celebrations. The festivals are getting more and more popular, colour-                   Sebastiani who continuously supported her.
    ful and imaginative as witnessed by examples from Benin, Germany, the Russian Federation, and
    Ukraina. Learning is a joy was the motto of the “German Lernfest” celebrated in more than 200 cities of                 Adama Ouane
    the Federation. In Russia, a Friendship Train has criss-crossed the country.

    Adama Ouane, Director

                                                                                                                            Le dialogue mondial a représenté un
      "BUILDING LEARNING SOCIETIES - Knowledge, Information and Human Development" is a special issue produced and          moment crucial dans les récentes
      edited by the UNESCO Institute for Education - September 2000
                                                                                                                            activités de l’Institut et a sensiblement
      "BÂTIR LES SOCIÉTÉS ÉDUCATIVES - Savoir, information et développement humain."                                        accru sa visibilité. Preuve, si besoin
      numéro spécial produit et diffusé par l'Institut de l'Unesco pour l'éducation - Septembre 2000                        était, que l’IUE est loin d’être superflu.
      For more information concerning the activities of IUE - Pour plus d'informations relatives aux activités de l' IUE:
                                                                                                                            La presse s’en est aussi fait un large
      Feldbrunnenstrasse, 58 • 20148 Hamburg • Germany                                                                      écho, quelques grands journaux de la
      Téléphone: + 49 40 44 80 41 0 • Fax: + 49 40 410 77 23
      Mail: •
                                                                                                                            place n’hésitant pas à affirmer que le
                                                                                                                            dialogue global 7 était le premier à
      Editor: Marc De Maeyer                                                                                                véritablement sortir des sentiers battus et
      Assistant to the Editor: Cendrine Sebastiani
      Translated and edited by: Tobias Churton, Lichfield, U.K.
                                                                                                                            qu’il a non seulement abordé les vraies
      Printed by Druckerei Seemann GmbH & Co, Hamburg                                                                       questions du moment mais aussi levé le
                                                                                                                            voile sur un pan important de l’avenir.


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