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Aqueous and Organic Chemistry Aqueous

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					                                                                               Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW


                              About the SOW for Aqueous and Organic Chemistry
Each lesson is shown by a table as shown below. The lesson has a number, title and is referenced to the specification. Learning objectives
and teaching activities are included for every lesson and learning outcomes and points to note are mentioned for some activities. Key skills
are relevant for certain topics and key concepts is mainly key words. Homework generally refers to the resource pack and book reference to
the AQA textbook.

                                                                       Lesson Number – Lesson Title – section number from specification
Specification content
o
o
o   Bullet points here are taken directly from the specification and pupils can highlight these each lesson on their copy of the specification.

Learning Objectives                               Possible Teaching Activities                                 Differentiated Learning Outcomes                             Points to Note/Risk
                                                                                                                                                                            Assessment
Should be referred to and communicated to         Examples of what each lesson could contain –                 What each tier of student should attain by the end of the
students each lesson.                             suggestions to choose from and add to.                       lesson.

Key Skills                                                                                                     Key Concepts
Possible opportunities for the three key skills: Application of number; Communication and Information          This will include key words and common misconceptions which may be taken from the Examiners
Technology                                                                                                     report 2003.

Homework                                                                                                       Book reference
o
o
o  The main homework will refer to a page in the Resource Pack                                                 The main book reference is „Chemistry for AQA‟.
o
o
o  Alternative homework may be suggested.                                                                      Worksheets for practical work may be reference here.


Spiritual, moral, ethical, social, environmental, health and safety and European issues in this unit:
o
o
o    Pollution and purification of water.
o
o
o    Burning of fuels – social and environmental.
o
o
o    Hard water, cholesterol, ethanol use, uses of carboxylic acids – social and health.
o
o
o    Fertilisers and detergents – social and environmental.




G Gray September 2005                                    -1-
                                                                               Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW

                                                                                               Lesson 1 – The Water Cycle – 14.1
Specification content
o
o
o    Water is the most abundant substance on the surface of our planet and is essential for all life.
o
o
o    Water in rivers, lakes and the oceans is evaporated by the heat of the Sun. The water vapour formed rises into the atmosphere and forms clouds. The clouds cool as they rise further and produce rain. This is
     known as the water cycle.
o
o
o    Water is an important raw material and has many uses. It is used as a solvent and as a coolant. It is used in many industrial processes including the manufacture of sulphuric acid.
o
o
o    Drinking water is treated by passing water through filter beds to remove solid particles and then chlorine is added to kill bacteria.
o
o
o    The use of artificial fertilisers results in many natural waters being contaminated with dissolved nitrate and ammonium ions. Dissolved nitrate ions can have harmful effects on babies and so the levels of
     nitrate are carefully monitored.
Learning Objectives           Possible Teaching Activities                                                                                              Differentiated Learning               Points to Note/Risk
Introduction                                                                                                                                            Outcomes                              Assessment
The Water Cycle.             o
                             oo     Meaning of Aqueous and Organic; Specification; Spider diagram.
                             o
                             oo     Brainstorm and use a video sequence to revise and check on understanding of the water cycle, including the          F/H - the water cycle.
                                    common uses of water and aspects of water pollution covered in KS3.
                             o
                             oo     Introduce students to the methods of water treatment. The Water Boards produce some good statistics and
Effect of fertilisers on            worksheets. Students could analyse these using ICT if time allows.                                                  F/H - how water is treated to make
natural water.               o
                             oo     Data relating nitrate concentration of drinking water to „bluebabies‟ – not in textbook?                            it suitable for drinking.


Key Skills                                                                                                                                          Key Concepts
Communication – Group work on data analysis                                                                                                         Aqueous, Precipitation
Information Technology – Use of Internet for research into the origin and hardness of local water
Homework                                                                                                                                            Book reference
o
o
o    Page 176 in Resource Pack                                                                                                                      Chemistry for AQA p.186 and 187
o
o
o    Research into nitrate concentration and „blue babies‟.


                                                                                           Lesson 2 – Hard Water – 14.1
Specification content
o
o
o   Many compounds dissolve in water. Some of these make the water hard. Most hard water contains dissolved calcium or magnesium compounds. The hard water is formed when natural waters flow over
    ground or rocks containing calcium or magnesium compounds.
o
o
o   Soft water readily forms a lather with soap. Hard water does not easily form lather with soap. Hard water contains dissolved compounds that react with soap to form scum. Using hard water can increase
    costs because more soap is needed and hard water often leads to deposits (scale) forming in heating systems and kettles.
o
o
o   Hard water can be made soft by removing the dissolved calcium and magnesium ions. The addition of sodium carbonate solution precipitates out calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate. Ion exchange
    columns contain hydrogen ions or sodium ions which replace calcium and magnesium ions when hard water passes down the column.
o
o
o   Hard water contains dissolved compounds that are good for health. Hard water often provides calcium compounds that help the development of strong bones and teeth and help to reduce heart illnesses.
Learning             Possible Teaching Activities                                                                                             Differentiated Learning            Points to Note/Risk
Objectives                                                                                                                                    Outcomes                           Assessment

Hard water and its   o
                     o
                     o     Practical circus: Test a sample of distilled water and a sample of hard water with soap and detergent to see the    F/H - the meaning of „hard          Use of acids when testing the
properties.                difference in lather production; Test prepared samples of calcium sulphate and calcium hydrogen carbonate           water‟ with its advantages and      samples of hard water:
                           solutions by boiling and adding calcium carbonate to see if it softens the water; Flame tests to test for calcium   disadvantages.                      corrosive; eye protection.
                           ions. Also test the solutions for carbonate and sulphate ions.
                     o
                     o
                     o     Introduce ideas of an ion exchange column and the water softeners in dishwashers.
                     o
                     o
                     o     Discussion “Does Hard Water Mean Healthy Hearts?” Info in resource pack – page 237.




G Gray September 2005                                    -2-
                                                                                Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW
Key Skills                                                                                                       Key Concepts
Communication – Group work in practical work                                                                     Hardness
Homework                                                                                                         Book reference
o
o
o   Page 177 in Resource Pack                                                                                    Chemistry for AQA p.188 and 189
o
o
o   Writing up practical work.                                                                                   Practical worksheet: p.47 in Resource Pack
o
o
o   Info in resource pack – page 237 – answer questions                                                          Info in resource pack – page 237


                                                                                          Lesson 3 – Solubility in Water – 14.2
Specification content
o
o
o    Many gases are soluble in water. The solubility increases as the temperature decreases and as the pressure increases.
o
o
o    Carbonated water is produced by dissolving carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is released the gas bubbles out of the solution. Carbonated water is used in fizzy drinks.
o
o
o    Dissolved oxygen is essential for aquatic life. Hot water from power stations may be discharged into rivers or lakes. This discharge reduces the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water and this can damage
     aquatic life.
o
o
o    Chlorine water is made by dissolving chlorine gas in water. Chlorine water is used to bleach materials and kill bacteria.
Learning Objectives                                 Possible Teaching Activities                                                                 Differentiated Learning            Points to Note/Risk
                                                                                                                                                 Outcomes                           Assessment
Many gases dissolve in water, for example           Introduce solubility of gases using bottles of carbonated drinks, showing the bleaching      F/H - some applications of         Use of chlorine water
carbon dioxide, chlorine and oxygen (slightly).     action of chlorine water and also using an oxygen sensor to test for dissolved oxygen in     dissolved gases.                   – Teacher demonstration.
Solubility of gases decreases with                  water. Heat fizzy water and Universal Indicator gently. Over some time the pH rises as the
temperature and increases with pressure.            carbon dioxide escapes.

Most ionic compounds are soluble in water
and most organic solids are insoluble.            Brainstorm the type of everyday substances which dissolve in water and those which do        F/H - how to determine the
                                                  not. Link these ideas back to bonding.                                                       solubility of an ionic solid.
Key Skills                                                                                                             Key Concepts
Communication – presentation of Sc1 investigation – homework and next lesson.                                          Solute, Solvent, Solution, Saturated solution, Dissolve, Solubility
Homework                                                                                                               Book reference
o
o
o   Write a method for an investigation into solubility: see next lesson.                                              DO NOT use Chemistry for AQA p.190 yet.


                                                                                    Lesson 4 – An investigation into Solubility – 14.2
Specification content
Most ionic compounds are soluble in water. Most covalent compounds are insoluble in water. The solubility of a solute in water, or any other solvent, is usually given in grams of solute per 100 grams of water (or
solvent) at that temperature. The solubility of most solutes increases as the temp increases.
Learning              Possible Teaching Activities                                                                                 Differentiated Learning Outcomes           Points to Note/Risk
Objectives                                                                                                                         FT/HT – complete all parts of an           Assessment
Temperature           Investigation into how temperature affects solubility for different salts. Each group can complete a curve   investigation                              Make safety sheets available for each
affects solubility of for different salts.                                                                                         HT – plot solubility curve for the salts   compound and check students include
compounds             5 salts: Potassium nitrate; Potassium chloride; Potassium sulphide; Sodium chloride and Sodium nitrate                                                  safety notes in their plan.
Key Skills Communication – group work during practical and presentation of Sc1 investigation                                       Key Concepts Conducting and writing up an investigation
Homework Completing the write up of the investigation                                                                              Book reference Compare curves to those on p.190/191 textbook


                                                                                           Lesson 5 – Crystallisation – 14.2
Specification content
o
o
o    A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve at that temperature. When a hot saturated solution cools some of the solute will separate from the solution.
o
o
o    Candidates should be able to interpret solubility curves and use solubility curves to explain crystallisation.
Learning Objectives                     Possible Teaching Activities                                                                             Differentiated Learning Outcomes                   Risk
Crystallisation                         Crystallize salt from hot saturated solution cooling (set up at beginning)                               More able students at FT and all HT should         Assessment
Interpreting solubility curves.         Give students results for substances and ask them to use a spreadsheet to plot the solubility curves     be able to plot and interpret solubility curves.


G Gray September 2005                                     -3-
                                                                                 Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW
                                        and interpret them in terms of when crystallisation would occur.
                                        Give students the results for sodium chloride at different temperatures as well as substances which
                                        become less soluble such as calcium hydroxide and ask them to interpret the graphs.
Key Skills                                                                                             Key Concepts
                                                                                                       Crystallisation; Check on understanding of types of bonding linked to properties
Homework                                                                                               Book reference
Solubility in Water p.178 in Resource pack.                                                            Chemistry for AQA p.190 and 191


                                                                                     Lesson 6 – Water, Acids and Bases – 14.3
Specification content
Water must normally be present for a substance to act as an acid or as a base. Acids, in aqueous solution, produce H + ions. The H+ ion is a proton. In water this proton is hydrated and is represented as H+(aq).
An acid can be defined as a proton donor.
Alkalis, in aqueous solution, produce OH - ions. A base can be defined as a proton acceptor.
Learning Objectives                                      Possible Teaching Activities                                    Differentiated Learning Outcomes                                          Points to
Starter                                                  Test 5 different household acids with indicator                                                                                           Note/Risk
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Assessment
                                                         Brainstorm ideas on acids and alkalis previously covered
Some compounds react with water to produce acidic        and complete a spider diagram.                                  F/H - know examples of compounds which dissolve in water to form
and alkaline solutions.                                  Teacher demonstration of dry hydrogen chloride gas not          acidic and alkaline solutions.
                                                         reacting with universal indicator paper but bubbled into        F/H - be able to use the pH scale to determine the strength of a
Acids in water produce hydrogen ions.                    water will give an acidic reaction.                             solution and link this to numbers of ions present.                        Preparation of
Alkalis produce hydroxide ions.                          Introduce students to proton donors and acceptors as a                                                                                    hydrogen chloride
                                                         classification of acids and alkalis.                                                                                                      in a fume
                                                                                                                                                                                                   cupboard.
The hydrogen ion is a proton and acids and alkalis
can be defined as proton donors or acceptors.
Key Skills                                                                                                               Key Concepts
Communication – Producing visual summaries such as spider diagrams                                                       An alkali is a soluble base; show formulas of common acids and alkalis – they contain
                                                                                                                         H+/HO– , ions, proton, indicators
Homework                                                                                                                 Book reference
Research the work of Arrhenius, Lowry and Bronsted (see resources) for lesson 8                                          Chemistry for AQA p.192 first part – but not very useful



                                                                                           Lesson 7 – Strength of Solutions – 14.3
Specification content
o
o
o     Acids and alkalis are classified by the extent of their ionisation in water. A strong acid or alkali is one that is 100% ionised in water.
o
o
o     Examples of strong acids are hydrochloric, sulphuric and nitric acids. Examples of strong alkalis are sodium and potassium hydroxide.
o
o
o     A weak acid or alkali is only partially ionised in water. Examples of weak acids are ethanoic, citric and carbonic acids. An example of a weak alkali is ammonia solution.
o
o
o     Candidates should be able to describe how to distinguish between strong and weak acids of the same concentration by using the pH scale or the rate of reaction with metals.
Learning               Possible Teaching Activities                                                                  Differentiated Learning Outcomes                             Points to Note/Risk
Objectives             Demonstrate the dilution of a sample of sulphuric acid until the pH changes to that           F/H - know examples of strong acids and alkalis.             Assessment
Determining the        of a weak acid. Link the idea to less ions in weaker solutions. pH meters or the pH           More able students will define an acid as a proton donor and Concentrated acid corrosive – Staff
strength of            probe and dataloggers could be used here if only indicators had been used at Key              an alkali as a proton acceptor.                              demonstration.
solutions.             Stage 3.                                                                                      F/H - explain acid base behaviour.                           Dilute acids: corrosive; eye protection.
                       Add magnesium or zinc to samples of weak and strong acids to see rate of the
                       reaction.




G Gray September 2005                                      -4-
                                                                      Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW
 Key Skills                                                                            Key Concepts
Information Technology – use of dataloggers                                            Acid, Base, Proton, Ionic, Ionisation
Homework                                                                               Book reference
Research the work of Arrhenius, Lowry and Bronsted for presentation




G Gray September 2005                                 -5-
                                                                              Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW

                                                                                Lesson 8 – Arrhenius, Lowry and Bronsted – 14.3
Specification content
Candidates should be able to:
o
o
o   describe the contributions of Arrhenius, Lowry and Brønsted to our understanding of acid-base behaviour;
o
o
o   explain why the work of Arrhenius took much longer to be accepted than the work of Lowry and Brønsted.
Learning Objectives                                     Possible Teaching Activities                                               Differentiated Learning Outcomes                Points to Note/Risk
The work of Arrhenius, Lowry and Bronsted.              Students present their research. Use digital video camera to                                                               Assessment
                                                        evaluate.
                                                        Resource pack has information on Arrhenius – page 236 – could use
                                                        as part of a discussion or info to make a written essay.
Key Skills                                                                                              Key Concepts
Communication – Presentation of research finding                                                        Acid, Base, Proton, Ionic, Ionisation
Homework                                                                                                Book reference
o
o
o   Resource pack p.179                                                                                 Chemistry for AQA p.192 and 193 but pupils should use extra resources
                                                                                                        Resource pack has information on Arrhenius – page 236

                                                                                         Lesson 9 – Making Salts – 14.4
Specification content
o
o
o   There are several general methods of producing salts:
              o    reaction of a metal with an acid;
              o    reaction of an insoluble base with an acid;
              o    reaction of a soluble base with an acid;
              o    by mixing two solutions to form an insoluble salt (precipitation)
              o    by direct combination of the elements to form anhydrous salts; limited to the chlorides of aluminium and iron.
o
o
o   Candidates should be able to give practical details of salt preparations based on each of these methods.
Learning Objectives                  Possible Teaching Activities                                                              Differentiated Learning Outcomes                 Points to Note/Risk
                                                                                                                                                                                Assessment
Five methods of producing salts.    Give students opportunities to prepare salts and practice crystallisation techniques.   F/H - be able to describe a practical technique     Use of acids and alkalis: corrosive;
                                    Examples which might be appropriate are:-                                               for preparing a soluble or insoluble salt.          eye protection.
See or prepare a sample of salt     o
                                    o
                                    o    Magnesium or zinc with sulphuric acid.
by all of the methods.              o
                                    o
                                    o    Copper oxide with sulphuric acid.                                                                                                      Teacher demonstration in a fume
                                    o
                                    o
                                    o    Sodium hydroxide with hydrochloric acid.                                                                                               cupboard of iron and chlorine
                                    o
                                    o
                                    o    Barium chloride and sodium sulphate solutions to make barium sulphate.                                                                 reacting.
                                    o
                                    o
                                    o    Staff demonstration of the burning of iron wool in chlorine gas to show the
                                         formation of iron (III) chloride.
Key Skills                                                                                                                  Key Concepts
                                                                                                                            Emphasise naming and common examples – starter/plenary.
Homework                                                                                                                    Book reference
Resource pack p.180                                                                                                         Chemistry for AQA p.194 and 195
                                                                                                                            Practical worksheet p.49 in Resource pack




G Gray September 2005                                   -6-
                                                                                 Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW

                                                                                           Lesson 10 – Titration – 14.4
Specification content
The volume of acid and alkali solutions which neutralise each other can be measured by titration using a suitable indicator.
Candidates should be able to describe how a titration is carried out.
Learning Objectives                Possible Teaching Activities                                                                                     Differentiated Learning                 Points to Note/Risk
Naming Salts                       Starter – use the self assessment sheet from the resource pack (Chapter 7 Page 220).                             Outcomes                                Assessment

Use a titration method to           Students should be taught the titration techniques and use strong alkali/strong acid reactions.                 HT – be able to describe how a          Use of acids and alkalis:
produce a salt.                     If time allows students could be asked to plot a pH curve to show the change in pH during a titration if this   titration can be used to prepare a      corrosive; eye protection.
                                    has not already been done in Module 5.                                                                          soluble salt.

                                    The data from this experiment will be used in 2 lessons time so save results.

                                    Students could be asked to research the uses that well known salts such as nitrates, phosphates etc
                                    have. They could use labels on bottles of medicines and in the kitchen at home to look for well known
                                    salts such as carbonates, chlorides etc.
Key Skills                                                                                                                                          Key Concepts
                                                                                                                                                    Titration
Homework                                                                                                                                            Book reference
o
o
o  Resource pack p.181                                                                                                                              Chemistry for AQA p.196 and 197
o
o
o  Research as detailed above                                                                                                                       Practical worksheet p.51 Resource pack
                                                                                                                                                    Self Assessment p220


                                                                                     Lesson 11 – The Mole and calculations – 14.5
Specification content
o
o
o    The relative atomic mass of an element or the relative formula mass of a compound in grams is called one mole of that substance.
o
o
o    Candidates should be able to:
                o    calculate the number of moles of a substance using given formula and relative atomic or formula masses;
                o    calculate the mass of a substance in a given mole quantity of that substance.
o
o
o    The concentration of an aqueous solution is usually expressed in terms of mole per cubic decimetre (mol dm -3).
                o    calculate the number of moles or mass of substance in an aqueous solution of given volume and concentration;
                o    calculate the concentration of an aqueous solution given the amount of substance and volume of water.
o
o
o    Titrations can be used to find the concentration of an acid or alkali from the relative volumes used and the concentration of one of the two reactants.
Learning Objectives                                        Possible Teaching Activities                                          Differentiated Learning Outcomes                             Points to Note/Risk
The relative atomic mass of an element or the relative     Students could weigh out molar measures of some elements and          H – know how to calculate the mole of a substance            Assessment
formulae mass of a compound in grams is equal to a         compounds.                                                            given the relative atomic masses of the elements.
mole.
                                                                                                                                 H – most students will be able to interpret or calculate
Concentration is measured in moles per cubic               The principles of the different types of calculation.                 the concentrations of solutions.
decimeter, mol dm–3.                                       Moles=Mass/RAM
                                                           Conc=Moles/Vol

Calculate the number of moles of a substance, in           Make sure this is linked to the titration work in the last section so
solution and involved in a titration.                      that students see the relevance of the calculations.
                                                           If time allows students could be asked to make up their own                                                                        #Uses of acids and alkalis
                                                           solutions for one experiment to practice the calculations of                                                                       in titration: corrosive; eye
                                                           concentrations of solutions.                                                                                                       protection.




G Gray September 2005                                     -7-
                                                                            Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW
Key Skills                                                                                                           Key Concepts
Application of number – Calculation of the number of moles; Adding relative atomic masses to find formulae masses.   Mole, RAM, Ar, RMM, RFM, Mr, Molar Mass, Units, rearranging formulas – use
                                                                                                                     definitions as a starter
Homework                                                                                                             Book reference
o
o
o  Resource pack p.                                                                                                  Chemistry for AQA p.28 and 29
o
o
o  Practice questions




G Gray September 2005                                  -8-
                                                                               Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW

                                                                                        Lesson 12 – Moles in a reaction – 14.5
Specification content
o
o
o    Candidates should be able to carry out calculations involving neutralisation reactions in aqueous solution (the balanced equation will be given).
Learning Objectives                                  Possible Teaching Activities                                                       Differentiated Learning Outcomes        Points to Note/Risk
Given concentrations and volumes, calculate the      As students become more used to the calculations they could be asked to            H – the most able students will be able Assessment
number of moles involved in a solution or in a       predict how much acid would neutralise a certain volume and concentration of       to carry out calculations involving     Uses of acids and alkalis in
neutralisation reaction.                             alkali to make a salt. They could then check this out using a titration.           neutralisation reactions.               titration: corrosive; eye protection.
Key Skills                                                                                                                     Key Concepts
Application of number – Ratios and substitution in formulae to find concentrations of solution and calculations from           Mole, RAM, Ar, RMM, RFM, Mr, Molar Mass, Units, rearranging formulas – use
neutralisation reactions.                                                                                                      definitions as a starter
Homework Practice questions                                                                                                    Book reference


                                                                                          Lesson 13 – Organic Chemistry – 14.6
Specification content
o
o
o     Coal, crude oil, natural gas and wood contain organic compounds. Organic compounds all contain carbon.
o
o
o     When organic compounds are burned in a plentiful supply of air the carbon is oxidised to carbon dioxide and the hydrogen is oxidised to water. In a limited supply of air incomplete combustion occurs forming
      carbon monoxide and/or carbon. Carbon monoxide is poisonous because it reduces the capacity of blood to carry oxygen.
o
o
o     Plastics (and other organic compounds) which contain chlorine and nitrogen produce poisonous fumes when burnt (hydrogen chloride and hydrogen cyanide respectively) especially where there is a limited
      supply of air. The combustion products of carbon and hydrogen are also formed.
o
o
o     Candidates should be able to use given data to compare the cost, efficiency and cleanliness of burning different fossil fuels.
Learning Objectives                  Possible Teaching Activities                                                                          Differentiated Learning Outcomes              Points to Note/Risk
Examples of organic                  Review the ideas of fuels and establish coal, oil, gas and wood as organic compounds containing       F/H - organic compounds contain carbon.       Assessment
compounds which are fuels.           carbon.                                                                                               F/H - the products of complete and            Burning of fuels:
The products of complete and         Place starch, sugar or gelatine as examples of organic compounds with copper oxide in a tube and incomplete combustion.                             eye protection.
incomplete combustion.               heat strongly bubbling the gas which comes off through limewater. Copper remains in the test          F/H - the danger of carbon monoxide.
                                     tube.
                                     Test the products of a burning candle as an alternative to the above practical.
Know the dangers of burning          Encourage students to think of the products when air is limited as in the car engine. The dangers
plastics containing chlorine and of carbon monoxide poisoning to be covered.
nitrogen.                            Cover the ideas of burning plastics containing chlorine and nitrogen and their poisonous products.    H - the danger of burning plastics.
Comparison of different fossil       Use spirit burners with fuels soaked on to rock wool to burn liquid fuels to see the temperature rise F/H - make a comparison given data as to      Burning of fuels:
fuels                                and make a comparison between them. (This may have been covered in Module 07.)                        the best fuel                                 eye protection.

Key Skills                                                                                           Key Concepts Organic, Combustion, Oxidation, Reversible, Irreversible, Physical, Chemical, Cost, Efficiency,
                                                                                                     Cleanliness
Homework Resource pack p.160                                                                         Book reference Chemistry for AQA p.150 and 151
Resource folder p.161                                                                                Chemistry for AQA p.152 and 153


                                                                                  Lesson 14 – Homologous Series – 14.7
Specification content
o
o
o   An homologous series is a family of compounds which have a general formula and have similar chemical properties.
o
o
o   The saturated hydrocarbons form an homologous series called alkanes with a general formula CnH2n+2.
o
o
o   The unsaturated hydrocarbons form an homologous series called alkenes with a general formula CnH2n.
o
o
o   Candidates should be able to represent and interpret alkane and alkene molecules in a full displayed form.
Learning Objectives                                    Possible Teaching Activities                                   Differentiated Learning Outcomes                            Points to Note/Risk
Organic compounds fit into homologous series which     Students could make the first few members of the alkane series H – how organic compounds are placed in                     Assessment
have similar properties.                               using models. They should then draw them and predict a general series.
Know a general formula for each series.                formula for the series.                                        H - properties and formulae for the alkane and
The difference between saturated alkanes and                                                                          alkene series.

G Gray September 2005                                    -9-
                                                                               Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW
unsaturated alkenes.                                     Introduce saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons using models.
                                                         Unsaturation should be linked with vegetable oils and
                                                         unsaturated fats.
Key Skills                                                                                                                    Key Concepts
                                                                                                                              Homologous, unsaturated, hydrocarbon, alkanes, alkenes, covalent
Homework                                                                                                                      Book reference
o
o
o  DO NOT Use Resource folder p.162 yet                                                                                       Chemistry for AQA p.154


                                                                                    Lesson 15 – Isomers and Boiling Points – 14.7
Specification content
o
o
o     Isomerism occurs when two or more compounds have the same chemical formula but have different structures.
o
o
o     Candidates should be able to draw the isomers of butane and pentane.
o
o
o     Candidates should be able to show an understanding of isomerism by predicting some of the structures of the isomers of given higher alkanes.
o
o
o     Isomers have different physical properties which depend upon the strength of the intermolecular forces. For isomers the strength of intermolecular forces increases as the carbon chain length increases and
      decreases as the amount of chain branching increases.
o
o
o     Candidates should be able to predict and explain the differences in the boiling points of isomers of alkanes in terms of intermolecular forces arising from the ability of the molecules to pack closely.
Learning Objectives                                       Possible Teaching Activities                                            Differentiated Learning Outcomes                       Points to Note/Risk
Draw the isomers of alkanes and link their structure to   Isomerism to be introduced using butane model.                          H – examples of isomers and their properties.          Assessment
their properties.                                         Give students data such as boiling points for the first few alkanes
                                                          and their isomers and ask them to predict the properties for the
                                                          higher alkanes.
Key Skills                                                                                                                        Key Concepts
                                                                                                                                  Isomers, fractional distillation, intermolecular forces, branching
Homework                                                                                                                          Book reference
o
o
o     Resource folder p.163                                                                                                       Chemistry for AQA p.156 and 157
o
o
o     Practice drawing isomers for a given formula – can do as a starter/plenary


                                                                                       Lesson 16 – Addition Reactions – 14.7
Specification content
o
o
o    Alkanes and alkenes undergo combustion reactions.
o
o
o    The alkenes are more reactive than alkanes because of the presence of the carbon carbon double bond. The alkenes undergo addition reactions in which one of the bonds in the carbon carbon double bonds
     breaks allowing each carbon atom to form a covalent bond with another atom.
o
o
o    Examples of addition reactions are:
               o    with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst to form an alkane;
               o    with bromine when it decolourises bromine water.
o
o
o    Vegetable oils contain unsaturated fats and can be hardened to form margarine by adding hydrogen on to some of the carbon carbon double bonds.
Learning Objectives                                      Possible Teaching Activities                                       Differentiated Learning Outcomes                Points to Note/Risk
                                                                                                                            H – the test for unsaturation.                  Assessment
Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes.                  Test liquid paraffin and a liquid alkene by shaking with bromine                                                   Bromine water should be of a low
The products of the alkenes addition reactions.          water.                                                             H – how margarine is formed from vegetable      concentration.
                                                         Explain that alkenes undergo addition reaching across the carbon oil.                                              Asthmatics should be aware.
                                                         carbon double bond:
                                                        oo
                                                         o    with hydrogen to form alkanes;
                                                        oo
                                                         o    with bromine to decolourise bromine water.
                                                         Compare with the hardening of vegetable oils to form margarine.
Key Skills                                                                                                                  Key Concepts

Homework                                                                                                                      Book reference
o
o
o  Resource folder p.162                                                                                                      Chemistry for AQA p.155


G Gray September 2005                                   - 10 -
                                                                              Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW

                                                                                                Lesson 17 – Ethanol – 14.8
Specification content
o
o
o    Ethanol is used as a solvent, as a fuel and is present in alcoholic drinks.
o
o
o    Ethanol can be produced by fermentation of sugars. The raw materials are mixed with water and yeast at just above room temperature. The yeast contains enzymes which are biological catalysts. The sugars
     react to form ethanol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide is allowed to escape and air is prevented from entering the reaction vessel. When the reaction is over the ethanol is separated from the reaction
     mixture by fractional distillation.
o
o
o    Ethanol can be produced by the reaction of steam and ethene in the presence of a strong acid catalyst (phosphoric acid). The reaction is carried out at a moderately high temperature and a high pressure.
o
o
o    Candidates should be able to evaluate the two different methods of producing ethanol in terms of:
                o    rate of reaction;
                o    quality of product;
                o    the use of finite resources;
                o    a batch process versus a continuous process.
Learning Objectives                                       Possible Teaching Activities                                                                                 Differentiated            Points to
Ethanol is a solvent, fuel, and present in alcoholic      Examples of the uses of ethanol, e.g. as a solvent for toiletries and printing inks, as a mixture of ethanol Learning Outcomes         Note/Risk
drinks.                                                   and petrol for car engines etc.                                                                                                        Assessment
The process of fermentation to prepare ethanol.           Cover the production of ethanol by fermentation in detail.
Ethanol from the hydration of ethene.                     Introduce students to the industrial process of making ethanol from ethene and steam.
                                                          Compare the two methods of making ethanol in terms of
                                                          o
                                                          o
                                                          o      Rate of reaction, quality of products,
                                                          o
                                                          o
                                                          o      Use of finite resources
                                                          o
                                                          o
                                                          o      Batch versus continuous process.
Key Skills                                                                                                       Key Concepts
Communication – Evaluating different methods of production                                                       Ethanol, fermentation
Homework                                                                                                         Book reference
o
o
o    Complete detailed evaluation of the two methods                                                             Chemistry for AQA p.158, 159, 160, 161
o
o
o    Resource folder p.164




G Gray September 2005                                   - 11 -
                                                                              Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW

                                                                                                Lesson 18 – Alcohols – 14.8
Specification content
o
o
o    The alcohols form an homologous series with the functional group –OH. It is the presence of this functional group that gives alcohols their characteristic properties.
o
o
o    Candidates should be able to draw the structures of methanol and ethanol.
o
o
o    Alcohols react, reversibly, with carboxylic acids to form esters and water.
o
o
o    Ethyl ethanoate is formed by the reaction of ethanoic acid with ethanol.
o
o
o    Alcohols react with sodium to form hydrogen.
o
o
o    Ethanol can be oxidised to form ethanoic acid. It is this oxidation of ethanol that results in alcoholic drinks turning sour.
o
o
o    The steroid, cholesterol, contains the alcohol group –OH. Cholesterol is an essential steroid to humans but if too much is produced it can cause heart disease.
Learning Objectives                                          Possible Teaching Activities                                                                                 Differentiated      Points to
The properties of the alcohol series.                        Introduce alcohols as an homologous series with the function group –OH. Students should be able to           Learning Outcomes   Note/Risk
                                                             draw the structure of ethanol and methanol.                                                                                      Assessment
                                                             Students can be shown the difference between the –OH in a hydroxide solution and in ethanol solution
                                                             using Universal Indicator.
Ethanol oxidises to ethanoic acid.                           Investigate what happens to wine when it is left open to the air.
                                                             Show students the reaction of ethanol with heated acidified potassium dichromate solution to speed up
                                                             the oxidation process to form ethanoic acid.
Cholesterol contains the –OH group. Link structure to        Cholesterol is essential in humans but can cause heart disease.
alcohols.
Key Skills                                                                           Key Concepts Homologous Series, Alcohols, Carboxylic Acid, Ethanoic Acid, Naming organic compounds
Homework                                                                             Book reference
o
o
o    Resource folder p.166                                                           Chemistry for AQA p.160 first part (structure, series and naming), p.162 and 163
o
o
o    Resource folder p.168                                                           Worksheet for practical p.43 Resource folder
                                                                                     Chemistry for AQA p.166 and 167


                                                                                             Lesson 19 – Carboxlic Acids – 14.9
Specification content
o
o
o    The acids that we find in fruits and in vinegar belong to a homologous series called carboxylic acids. Polymers don‟t form a homologous series but they are all organic compounds having very long molecules.
o
o
o    Carboxylic acids form an homologous series and have the functional group –COOH.
o
o
o    Candidates should be able to draw the structures of methanoic, ethanoic and propanoic acid.
                o    Vinegar contains ethanoic acid. Ethanoic acid is used in the manufacture of the fibre, acetate rayon.
                o    Oranges, lemons and many soft drinks contain a carboxylic acid, citric acid.
                o    Aspirin is a carboxylic acid. Aspirin is a drug used for pain relief and is taken regularly by those at risk from heart attacks.
                o    Ascorbic acid (vitamin C) is another carboxylic acid and is present in fresh fruit and vegetables.
o
o
o    Carboxylic acids are weak acids. They are neutralised by alkalis and they react with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to produce carboxylic acid salts, carbon dioxide and water.
Learning Objectives                                          Possible Teaching Activities                                             Differentiated Learning Outcomes           Points to Note/Risk
The properties and structure of the                          Introduce students to the carboxylic acid series and the functional                                                 Assessment
carboxylic acid series.                                      group –COOH.
The uses of common carboxylic acids                          Brainstorm and make a summary or spider diagram of all that              H – the structure, properties and uses of  Use of acids and alkalis:
                                                             they already know about ethanoic acid.                                   common carboxylic acid.                    corrosive; eye protection.
                                                             If weak acid and alkali reactions were not covered in Module 05
                                                             students could use a titration to make sodium ethanoate.
Key Skills                                                                                                                            Key Concepts
Communication - Producing visual summaries such as spider diagrams.
Homework                                                                                                                              Book reference
o
o
o    Resource folder p.167                                                                                                            Chemistry for AQA p.164 and 165


                                                                                            Lesson 20 – Esters – 14.9
Specification content


G Gray September 2005                                  - 12 -
                                                                               Aqueous and Organic Chemistry SOW
o
o
o    Carboxylic acids react with alcohols in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid to form esters. Concentrated sulphuric acid acts as a catalyst in this reaction.
o
o
o    Esters are widely used as fragrances and food flavourings.
Learning Objectives                                       Possible Teaching Activities                                         Differentiated Learning Outcomes                Points to Note/Risk
                                                                                                                               H - esters are widely used in fragrances and    Assessment
Esterification.                                           Demonstrate that when ethanoic acid and ethanol are warmed           food flavourings.                               Teacher demonstrations only, use
                                                          with concentrated sulphuric acid ethyl ethanoate forms.                                                              eye protection.

                                                          Use of ethanoic acid as a means to assess knowledge of
                                                          neutralisation and titration reactions, homologous series formulae
                                                          and properties, fermentation and methods of preparation of
                                                          ethanoic acid.
Key Skills                                                                                                                     Key Concepts
                                                                                                                               Esters
Homework                                                                                                                       Book reference
o
o
o  Resource folder                                                                                                             Chemistry for AQA
o
o
o  Research the uses of carboxylic acids and esters in everyday life.


                                                                                            Lesson 21 – Polymers – 14.9
Specification content
Most polymers (plastics) are made from compounds containing the –C=C– bond by addition polymerisation. Poly(chloroethene) is made from chloroethene, CH2=CHCl but the polymer is generally called
polyvinylchloride, PVC.
Polymers (plastics) consist of a tangled mass of very long molecules in which the atoms are joined by strong covalent bonds to form long chains. In a thermosoftening plastic the forces between the chains are
weak so the plastic softens when heated and hardens again when cooled. When a thermosetting plastic is first heated covalent bonds are formed between adjacent chains. These strong cross-linkages prevent
thermosetting plastics from being softened and therefore from being re-moulded.
Poly(ethene), poly(propene) and PVC are examples of thermosoftening polymers. Melamine (used in furniture) and many glues are examples of thermosetting polymers.
Learning Objectives                                       Possible Teaching Activities                                        Differentiated Learning Outcomes                    Points to Note/Risk
The process of polymerisation.                            Use models of ethene to introduce the ideas of monomers and                                                             Assessment
                                                          polymers to make addition polymers.
                                                          Students place small samples of thermoplastics in hot water to
The structure, properties and uses of thermoplastic       see what happens to them.
and thermosetting plastics.                               Introduce students to the structures, properties and uses of the
                                                          two types of plastics.
Key Skills                                                                                                                    Key Concepts
                                                                                                                              Monomer, Polymer, Polymerisation, Thermoplastics, Thermosetting Plastics
Homework                                                                                                                      Book reference
o
o
o    Resource folder p.169                                                                                                    Chemistry for AQA p.168 and 169

                                                                                                    End of Unit
                                                                                                      Revision
                                                                                                    Mock Exam
                                                                                                       Review
                                                                                 Target set individual pupils based on their results




G Gray September 2005                                   - 13 -