UNH Cooperative Extension Briefing Book by pfm20968

VIEWS: 169 PAGES: 71

									UNH Cooperative Extension
     Briefing Book
October 2002

TO:    Deans’ Council
       Associate Directors
       Department Chairs
       Invited Directors, Faculty and Staff

I’m happy to provide this briefing book in preparation for two upcoming Cooperative Extension outreach
presentations to which you have been invited:

Monday, November 4
Youth, Family & Community Development
Alumni Center 1925 Room
9:00 AM - 3:15 PM

Wednesday, December 18
Agriculture & Natural Resources
MUB Room 338-340
9:00 AM - 3:00 PM

These sessions provide an opportunity for you to become more familiar with the impact of Cooperative
Extension outreach education conducted across the state. Presenters will also describe their collaborative
work with faculty and other campus units in extending UNH research and resources to the residents of
New Hampshire. With outreach and engagement identified as one of four Academic Plan themes, these
sessions also provide an opportunity to develop new campus partnerships and revitalize UNH engagement
through the integration of teaching, research and outreach.

A detailed schedule for each day is attached. We look forward to your participation in these outreach
presentations and discussions, and expect them to be mutually beneficial. Please contact Cooperative
Extension at 862-1520 if you have questions or would like more information about any of the programs
listed.

Sincerely,




John E. Pike
Dean and Director
                               Table of Contents
                                                                                   Page
Monday, November 4 Agenda --------------------------------------------------1
Strengthening Families in New Hampshire ----------------------------------------3
Community and Economic Development Outreach ------------------------------- 5
Strengthening New Hampshire Communities-------------------------------------- 7
Celebrating 33 Years of Nutrition Education for At-Risk Families--------------- 9
Nutrition’s Role in Health and Well-Being-----------------------------------------11
Food Safety - A Shared Responsibility------------------------------------------------13
NH 4-H Camps: A Positive Youth Development Delivery System -----------------15
4-H - 100 Years of Youth Development Using Science and Technology----------- 17
The Teen Assessment Project----------------------------------------------------------19
Increasing the Financial Literacy of New Hampshire Residents------------------21
Designing Effective Programs for At-Risk Children, Youth, and Families ------ 23

Wednesday, December 18 Agenda --------------------------------------------- 25
Community Conservation Assistance Program - 2002 -----------------------------27
Increasing the Capacities of Natural Resource Professionals ----------------------29
Coastal Communities and Environmental Technology---------------------------- 31
Geospatial Technologies--------------------------------------------------------------- 33
Conserving the Biodiversity of the Granite State ----------------------------------- 35
The New Hampshire Lakes Lay Monitoring Program -----------------------------37
Aquaculture: A Growing Industry in New England ------------------------------ 39
Conserving and Using the Nation’s Fisheries Resources---------------------------- 41
Wildlife Education Through Faculty Collaboration------------------------------- 43
Marine Science Education----------------------------------------------------------- 45
NH’s Forest Industry: Sustaining Rural Communities ---------------------------- 47
Climate Modified Strawberry Production------------------------------------------ 49
Integrated Pest Management-------------------------------------------------------- 51
Plant Health Program ---------------------------------------------------------------- 53
Enhancing Agricultural Profitability -----------------------------------------------55
Ag-Biz---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 57
Dairy Business Management & Marketing-----------------------------------------59
Applied Dairy Cattle Nutrition ----------------------------------------------------- 61
Agroecology Collaborations------------------------------------------------------------ 63
Applied Research and Extension Programs for the Green Industry ------------- 65
Helping Communities with Their Recreational Turf Needs----------------------- 67
Turf and Ornamental Integrated Pest Management Program------------------ 69
   Youth, Family &
Community Development
                  Monday, November 4 Agenda
            Youth, Family & Community Development
           Alumni Center 1925 Room (lunch provided)

9:00    Welcome
        - John Pike, David Hiley, and Don Sundberg
        Program Overview
        - Charlene Baxter, Program Leader, Family Development
           and Community Development
        - Wendy Brock, Program Leader, 4-H Youth Development
9:35    Community Development
        - Charlie French, Extension Specialist, Community & Economic Develoment
        - Judy Bush, Extension Educator & Strengthening New Hampshire
          Communities Coordinator
10:15   Communities and Youth at Risk
        Paula Gregory, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development
10:45   - Val Long, Extension Specialist, Food & Nutrition
11:15   - Colette Janson-Sand, Extension Specialist, Food & Nutrition
11:45   - Catherine Violette, Extension Specialist, Food & Nutrition
12:15   Lunch (provided)
1:15    - Ann Dolloff, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development & NH 4-H Camps
1:45    Science & Technology
        - Lisa Townson, Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development
2:15    Teen Assessment Project & Adolescents
        - Charlotte Cross, Extension Specialist, Youth Development
2:45    - Suzann Knight, Extension Specialist, Family Resource Management
3:15    Adjourn




                                                                                    1
Strengthening Families in
New Hampshire
     Families are the cornerstone of our nation. Strong families raise children to
become responsible, productive and caring adults. Yet, many parents lack the knowl-
edge and skills to promote the healthy development of their children and protect them
from becoming involved in risky behaviors.
     Poor parental functioning is associated with child abuse and neglect, juvenile
delinquency, early sexual activity, youth substance abuse, and other child related
emotional, social and behavioral problems. In New
Hampshire, over 780 children were abused or
neglected in 2001, 33 percent of youth engaged in
binge drinking, and more than 10,000 children had
severe emotional disturbances.
     Parents need support to build strong families and
to promote the healthy development of their infants
and toddlers, preschoolers, school-age children and
teens. They need help in preventing school-age
children and teens from becoming involved in
negative and risk-taking behaviors. Through effec-
tive parenting education programs, parents improve
family communication and problem solving, under-
standing of child development, use of appropriate
ways to deal with children’s behavioral problems,
and stress management skills. New Hampshire’s
community leaders rank parent education as one of the top five solutions to help
combat the problems of children and youth.
     UNH Cooperative Extension helps parents by delivering parenting education
programs throughout the state. Parents of all ages, income and educational levels
participate, including parents who are incarcerated, transitioning from welfare to
work, or referred by the courts. Extension has the capacity to reach large numbers of
parents, and to deliver programs in communities where parenting education isn’t
usually offered. Parenting education is delivered through one-on-one interventions,
seminars, workshop series, newsletter series, fact sheets, UNH Cooperative
Extension’s web site, and the media.

The Family Connections Project
    In the year 2000, almost two million people in the United States were incarerated
in our country’s jails and prisons. Another 4.5 million were on probation or parole.
Drug and alcohol abuse and addiction are implicated in the incarceration of approxi-
mately 80% of today’s inmates. Research shows children with incarcerated parents
suffer both emotional and behavioral difficulties due to their parents’ incarceration.
They need support to reduce the likelihood of intergenerational criminal behavior.
Evidence, however, shows family support for inmates during incarceration promotes
positive behavior and reduces the likelihood of recidivism. Further, frequent parent-
child visitations, in child-friendly environments, appear to reduce the negative
outcomes of parental incarceration on children.
    UNH Cooperative Extension, the UNH Dept. of Family Studies, and the NH
Dept. of Corrections formed a partnership to establish the Family Connections
Project. The project’s goal is to increase protective factors and decrease risk factors
associated with delinquent behavior and the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs
                                                                                          3
in children with incarcerated parents. The Family Connections Project targets parents
incarcerated at the Lakes Region Correctional Facility in Laconia, and the children
and spouses/partners of these parents who reside in towns throughout New Hamp-
shire.
    Family Connections Project activities have included:
    • an assessment of the needs of the incarcerated parents
    • training staff to conduct parenting support and education programs
    • renovation of a wing of the facility by inmates to create a family resource
        center where parent-child visitations take place in a play room for younger
        children and a recreation room for youth
    • establishing a library in the family resource center containing parenting
        resources and children’s books
    • hiring a family resource center program administrator.
                                                                                         UNH Coopera-
     In 2000, Extension received a grant for three years from the NH Division of
Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention and Recovery. Funds helped implement a                 tive Extension
parenting education program at the Lakes Region Correctional Facility, conduct           helps parents
support groups for incarcerated parents at the prison, provide training for project
staff, supervise and observe parent-child interactions. Plans are in place to train      by delivering
students in the Dept. of Family Studies to participate in parenting support and educa-
tional program delivery, program evaluation, and research.
                                                                                         parenting
     The Family Connections Project provides an innovative example of how the            education
University of New Hampshire’s family professionals can collaborate with other
community and state institutions to enhance the lives of children and families. From     programs
professional relationship building through the development of a comprehensive
evaluation plan, this project models a strategy for linking theory, research, and
                                                                                         throughout the
practice. Program evaluation and research on incarcerated fathers promises to make       state. Parents
an important contribution to our understanding of incarcerated parents and their
families, and how we can effectively support them. Family Connections was recently       of all ages,
feature on NH Public Television’s NH OUTLOOK. The segment can be viewed at               income and
www.nhptv.org/outlook/search.asp – type in the date 9/26 – “Prison Parents.”
                                                                                         educational
Informal Adults Caregivers in New Hampshire
     The NH Institute for Health Policy and Practice is conducting a study for the NH    levels partici-
Dept. of Health & Human Services Division of Elderly and Adult Services. The study       pate, includ-
is assessing the problems, barriers, and assistance needs of informal caregivers
throughout the state through a series of focus groups and interviews. This approach is   ing parents
yielding a rich source of perceptions from the caregivers themselves, allowing for the
discussion of similarities and differences experienced in different regions of New
                                                                                         who are incar-
Hampshire.                                                                               cerated,
     Cooperative Extension regional staff are conducting the face-to-face interviews
with the informal caregivers. Edgar Helms, Director of the Institute; Andrew Smith,      transitioning
Ph.D., Director of the UNH Survey Center; Raelene Shippee-Rice, RN and faculty at
UNH; Janice Foust, Ph.D., faculty at UNH; and Charlene Baxter, Program Leader
                                                                                         from welfare
and Judy Bush, Extension Educator, UNH Cooperative Extension are collaborating           to work, or
on this project.
                                                                                         referred by the
Contact:                                                                                 courts.
Charlene Baxter
Program Leader, Family Development
59 College Road, Taylor Hall
862-2485
Email: charlene.baxter@unh.edu



4
Community and
Economic Development Outreach
     One popular definition of community development is the process by which communi-
ties of place and communities of interest enhance their ability to improve their economic,
social, physical and environmental well being. This definition directly compliments
Extension’s work in communities across all program areas, for it broadens community
development to include agriculture, youth, families, forestry and water resources. A
restructuring starting in August, 2002 meant a better integration of Extension’s program
areas to address the following community components:

        Civic Engagement
        Economic Vitality
        Environmental Quality
        Community Health

     Civic Engagement: The Strengthening New Hampshire
Communities initiative seeks to build community networks,
strengthen social structures, develop individual leadership
skills, and promote public dialogue in New Hampshire commu-
nities. The goal is to engage a wide range of audiences –
including youth, seniors, local leaders, concerned citizens,
public officials and grass roots organizations – in developing a
vision for their community. Selected programs (with lead staff
noted) that fall under the social component include:
     • Community Profiles (Michele Gagne, Extension staff): The Community Profile is
a two-day process that draws on the collective wisdom of community citizens to address
their problems, affirm their strengths, and collaborate to meet challenges. Over 35
communities have undergone the process since 1996. The resulting action committees
worked on issues including conserving open space, communication and historic preserva-
tion. Several UNH faculty and students provided technical assistance to community-
based action commitees.
     • Community Assessment (Judith Bush and Charlie French): This program helps
communities identify needs, understand emerging trends, prioritize agendas and develop
action plans around the following community issues: recreation, forest use, master plan,
and economic development. Resource Administration & Management Program faculty
and students provided assistance with recreation and economic development assessments.

     Economic Vitality: Extension provides education and information that helps people
and communities make better decisions about economic development issues. Programs
that fall under the economic component include:
     • Assessing and Developing Tourism Resources (Charlie French): This program
helps communities assess the economic, environmental, and social costs and benefits of
tourism. It also educates communities on how to plan and develop a viable tourism
industry – one that will help diversify the local economy. Resource Economics faculty
Rob Robertson and Alberto Manalo helped provide tourism-related information to
communities including Berlin, Newport and Londonderry.
     • Community Internship Program (Charlie French and Michele Gagne): This
program engages UNH students and faculty with New Hampshire communities. Students
provide direct assistance to communities, as well as office-based support for the Strength-
ening New Hampshire Communities Initiative. Students from the Natural Resources               5
Program, Resource Economics Program, Sociology Department, and the
Thompson School of Applied Science have served as interns and volunteers.

     Environmental Quality: The sustainability of communities largely
depends on their ability to maintain a healthy physical environment. Hence,
the goal of Cooperative Extension’s environmental programs is to strengthen
communities’ role in preserving the natural assets they most value while
addressing the subsequent growth issues that are becoming increasingly
evident in New Hampshire. Programs include:
     • Community Conservation Assistance Program (Frank Mitchell,
Amanda Stone): UNH Cooperative Extension helps NH communities with
land and water conservation planning projects. A team of Extension Educators
and UNH faculty provides direct assistance to selected projects at no cost to      One Cooperative
the communities. Assistance to communities includes helping groups establish
goals and priorities, providing guidance in formulating a work plan and            Extension goal is
training to volunteers. Natural Resource Department faculty are integral to        to strengthen
providing education, training and assistance to communities.
                                                                                   the skills of
     Community Health and Well-Being: Community wellness is a reflection
of the physical, social and emotional health of its citizens. One Cooperative
                                                                                   families, indi-
Extension goal is to strengthen the skills of families, individuals and youth to   viduals and
make decisions that promote their physical, social and emotional well being.
These goals are reflected in several programs, including:                          youth to make
     • Livable Walkable Communities (Judith Bush and Charlie French):
Livable Walkable Communities, an initiative lead by New Hampshire Cel-
                                                                                   decisions that
ebrates Wellness, is a collaborative effort between more than 40 state agencies    promote their
and organizations. The initiative is designed to provide education and out-
reach to help New Hampshire communities enhance public health, reduce              physical, social
driving, promote downtown business, and create a healthy environment.              and emotional
Faculty from the Dept. of Recreation Management and Policy are collaborat-
ing with members of the Initiative team to provide educational and informa-        well being.
tional resources to communities. Charlie French and Judith Bush both serve on
the Initiative’s steering committee.

Contact:
Charlie French
Extension Specialist, Community and Economic Development
318 James Hall
862-0316
Email: charlie.french@unh.edu




6
Strengthening New Hampshire
Communities
     The Strengthening New Hampshire Communities program helps build an engaged
citizenry through the planning and delivery of public forums, meetings and strategic
planning sessions. In addition, training opportunities are provided in leadership develop-
ment, volunteer recruitment and conflict resolution. Together, these programs help build
the foundation for strengthening our New Hampshire communities.

Civic Engagement
     Facilitation: Cooperative Extension helps community groups and organizations by
facilitating purposeful meetings and public dialogues. In addition, training and support
are provided to community leaders and agency/organization professionals in areas such
as:
     • Facilitating public forums
     • Strategic planning processes
     • Building coalitions of local institutions and organizations
     • Engaging citizens in community projects
     This engagement of citizens allows a community to create the future it desires. The
process directs not only what they do but also how they do it. That involvement and
connectedness are the difference between a democracy that succeeds and a democracy
that declines. This engagement strengthens the community, creates opportunities for
leaders to emerge and results in an attitudinal change about the value of involvement and
diversity of people and opinions. It results in increasing the amount and quality of public
dialogue and influences the actions of the citizenry involved.

    Cooperative Extension’s support of New Hampshire communities in a variety of
facilitative roles has enabled communities to build capacity and reach their goals and
objectives. Facilitation support includes working with committees to:
    • plan and develop clear objectives,
    • write discussion and facilitation guides,
    • create agendas that will accomplish the group’s goals,
    • train discussion leaders,
    • facilitate the multiple steps of such a process.
    • provide a year-long facilitation skills class to Extension Educators and
          professionals in New Hampshire organizations
    This list shows a sampling of the groups, organizations and communities Extension
educators have worked with in the last year using their facilitative roles:

Belknap Cty. Citizens Council                      NH Bureau of Health Promotion
        on Children & Families                     NH Celebrates Wellness
Town of Candia                                     NH Office of State Planning
Children of Sullivan County                        NH Rural Development Council
Town of Colebrook                                  NH US Forest Service
Colonel Town Recreation Org., Lancaster            Partnership for Drug Free Concord
Concord YMCA Child Care Center                     Randolph Forest Commission
Town of Hooksett                                   Stonewall Farm in Keene
Town of Londonderry                                UNH-Office of Sponsored Research
New London Early Learning Center
                                                                                              7
UNH Engagement

    Social Capital: SNHC Coordinator Judy Bush participated on the steering
committee for the 2002 Social Capital Learning Circle sponsored by UNH and the
NH Charitable Foundation. The Learning Circle introduces participants to the prin-
ciples and practices of social capital. The circle provided the opportunity for indi-
viduals to develop networks of social capital between participants and to study social
capital as it applies to their own organizations and the communities in which they
reside. Thirty prominent New Hampshire leaders participated. UNH faculty that
participated either on the steering committee or in the 2002 learning circle were
Bruce Mallory, James McCarthy, Sheila McNamee, Pam McPhee, Dennis Meadows,
Jan Nisbet, David Watters and Judy Bush.
    Bush chairs the steering committee for the 2003 Learning Circle. This committee         Whether it’s a
consists of faculty David Watters, Sheila McNamee, Thad Gulbrandsen, Dennis
Meadows, and Rachael Stuart from the NH Charitable Foundation. This second tier             small commu-
circle is focused on citizens who work in grassroots situations in New Hampshire.           nity group or a
Examples might be leaders in communities, leaders of non-profit organizations, and
school leaders. This learning circle will select participants through an application        statewide
process and will meet for six monthly seminars. The purpose is to develop and pilot a
model that can be replicated in future years and introduce participants to social
                                                                                            organization,
capital principles through readings, case studies and guided discussion.                    New Hamp-
     Leadership Initiative: In New Hampshire, a state particularly dependent on             shire is built on
direct involvement by its citizens, effective leadership is crucial. Whether it’s a small
community group or a statewide organization, New Hampshire is built on volunteers
                                                                                            volunteers who
who are called on to be leaders. Cooperative Extension has long been involved in            are called on to
training volunteers to be leaders around a variety of interests and disciplines.
     Community leadership is no different and our NH communities are in need of             be leaders.
skilled and effective leaders. A Community Leadership Training Series called People         Cooperative
Power has been developed. It is available as a series and as single sessions where
those who are, or desire to be, active in their communities can learn and practice the      Extension has
skills that will prepare them to be more effective leaders.
     On another level, the University leadership under the direction of Associate Vice      long been
President Julie Williams has been in dialogue for about a year regarding the role the       involved in
University has in leadership development, both on campus and in the state. The
faculty and personnel involved are Ned Helms, Charlene Baxter, Candace Corvey,              training
Bruce Mallory, Julie Williams, Jim Varn, Pam McPhee, David Butler, Kate Hanson,
Steven Bernstein and Judy Bush.
                                                                                            voalunteers to
                                                                                            be leaders
Contact:
Judith Bush, Project Coordinator                                                            around a vari-
Strengthening New Hampshire Communities
315 Daniel Webster Highway
                                                                                            ety of interests
Boscawen, NH 03303                                                                          and disci-
(603) 225-5505/796-2151 ext. 14
Email: Judy.Bush@unh.edu                                                                    plines.




8
Celebrating 33 Years of Nutrition
Education for At-Risk Families
    The goal of the Nutrition Connections Program is to improve the health and
nutritional status of limited resource families and individuals in New Hampshire.
UNH Cooperative Extension has a 33-year track record of delivering nutrition educa-
tion to clients in need through the Nutrition Connections Program, which encompasses
the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program and
Food Stamp Nutrition Education Program.

The Need
    There are more than 19,000 households that receive
food stamps in New Hampshire, or more than 43,000
people living at or below the poverty level. With food
security at risk, there’s a critical need for families to
receive education to help them have a better chance for
good health through their choice and use of foods.

The Response
     Nutrition Connections staff teach both adults and
youth the essentials of good nutrition, budgeting and
managing available resources, including food stamps,
planning and preparing low-cost meals, proper food storage, safety, and preparation.
Families and individuals are provided comprehensive nutrition education in a home
visit, small group learning experience, home study, or through the media using social
marketing.

The Impact
Families at Risk
• This year, 828 families participated in a comprehensive series of
   nutrition lessons, and successfully completed required objectives.
• Through the use of pre and post 24-hour dietary recalls and
   behavior change checklists, the program tracks behavior change.
   This year, 80% showed improvement in one or more nutrition
   practices, 71% showed improvements in one or more food
   resource management practices, and 56% showed improvement
   in one or more food safety practices.
• And, 362 volunteers contributed 10,000 hours to extend the
   resources of adult and youth programming efforts with a real
   dollar value of $100,000.

Youth at Risk
• 4,111 youth were enrolled in the Nutrition Connections Program
   this past year, completing a series of nutrition lessons at schools,
   housing projects, camps and recreation areas.
• Evaluation of impact using a pre and post-behavior change
   survey revealed that 86% increased knowledge of the essentials
   of nutrition and eat a larger variety of foods, and 88% improved food safety and
   preparation practices.

                                                                                        9
Innovative Projects
    Smart Choices Social Marketing Campaign - Reaching out to food stamp recipi-
ents with critical food and nutrition education is at the core of Nutrition Connections.
Our social marketing campaign reached 19,100 food stamp households this year with
three newsletters specifically designed for food stamp recipients, for a total of 57,300
contacts with food stamp households. In addition, three 30-second nutrition commer-
cials were developed and aired on television stations throughout the state, reaching
residents in August and September.
    Youth Gardening - Our youth gardening projects promote agriculture and nutri-
tion in a fun and interactive way. Teaching children about agriculture is essential to
understanding food as a valuable resource. The garden is a “learning laboratory”
where children explore environmental sciences, nutrition, literature, math and many
other subjects. Working with master gardener volunteers and UNH students, 367              The garden is a
children participated in youth garden projects this year.
     Great Beginnings - Outcomes for study participants were compared to a control         “learning labo-
group of 65 pregnant adolescents in Massachusetts who didn’t participate in the            ratory” where
“Great Beginnings” program and to published national norms for teen childbearing.
The study design also included two additional control groups: a group of 50 non-           children explore
pregnant high school students who received the “Great Beginnings” intervention, and
a group of 50 non-pregnant high school students who did not receive the intervention.
                                                                                           environmental
                                                                                           sciences, nutri-
University Engagement....The USNH Connection
     Engagement comes in many forms. Teaching NUTR 720/820 Principles of                   tion, literature,
Community Nutrition brings expertise from UNH Cooperative Extension program-
ming (both statewide and national) into the classroom for students at UNH. With an
                                                                                           math and many
average class size of 25, students conduct community needs assessments, write              other subjects.
nutrition articles for the media, and write a grant as their final project.
     In addition to teaching, working with faculty from the UNH Depts. of Animal,
Nutritional and Medical Laboratory Sciences, Kinesiology, and Health Management
and Policy, Nutrition Connections provides hands-on learning opportunities for
undergraduate and graduate students as well as dietetic interns.
     This past year, four undergraduate students, one graduate student, and two
dietetic interns from UNH participated in youth garden projects and school nutrition
education programs. Four Thompson School students completed a community
nutrition rotation with staff in the field and six Plymouth State College students
taught nutrition in the Bristol school system. A Keene State College dietetic intern
completed a community nutrition rotation with Nutrition Connections, gaining real-
life experience in the field working with UNH Cooperative Extension.

Contact:
Valerie Long, M.O.E., R.D.
Extension Specialist, Food and Nutrition
220 Kendall Hall
Phone: 862-2465
Email: val.long@unh.edu




10
Nutrition’s Role in
Health and Well-Being
     Consumers have come to recognize the importance of nutrition to overall health.
UNH Cooperative Extension programs translate nutrition research and education into
practical and understandable recommendations. This enables the public to gain an
awareness of what constitutes good nutrition and how to translate that knowledge
into healthy food choices. Poor diet and lack of exercise have resulted in an obesity
epidemic.
     Obesity is a major risk factor for heart disease, certain can-
cers, stroke and diabetes, the four leading causes of death in the
United States. Nutrition programming not only promotes good
nutrition, it also enhances the skills of individuals and families,
helping them improve and maintain lifestyles that promote good
health. Programs are designed for youth and adult audiences, and
for whole communities looking to make a difference in their
health and well being.
     Making Lifestyle Changes and Healthier Choices is a
program developed by Extension Educator Barbara Hunter along
with Extension Educator Gail Kennedy and Dr. Colette Janson-
Sand. This program has been marketed to work sites, senior
centers, and community groups. It was also adapted for the Weight
Management Program offered to UNH faculty and staff by the Center for Health
Enhancement. Anthony Tagliaferro (Dept. of Animal and Nutritional Sciences) and
Colette Janson-Sand provide direction for the Center, with assistance from students in
the Dietetic Internship Program and the undergraduate and graduate nutrition pro-
grams.
     It helps individuals learn what they need to do to eat better and become more
active. It also helps them understand the reasons why they aren’t doing these things
and challenges them to make small changes which can result in
better health and are more apt to be maintained over time.
     Fueling Your Active Lifestyle is a program geared to busy
individuals who want to eat healthy while on the run. Participants
learn the art of grazing and how to select easy to procure foods
that need minimal preparation. It has been well received at work
sites, professional groups, parent groups and retirement groups.
Today both young and old lead busy and full lives. UNH Coopera-
tive Extension can help them do this and still meet their nutritional
needs.
     The Family Home and Garden Education Center is located at
UNH Manchester and provides practical solutions to every day
questions for the citizens of New Hampshire through a toll-free
phone number. Fact sheets and answers to consumer questions on
food and nutrition issues are available through their hotline. General nutrition ques-
tions are handled at the center, nutrition specialists respond to more complex con-
sumer questions and also make appropriate referrals to health care professionals
when the nutrition concerns are medical in nature.
                                                                                         11
     Childhood Obesity, a Community Concern is a program that helps communities
understand the factors responsible for the current obesity epidemic among our young
people. It also offers possible solutions which communities can consider to help
children and their families reverse this trend.
     Youth Programming – 4-H is a program for children in grades K-12 who
participate in a variety of projects and educational experiences including those related
to food and nutrition. Some emphasize the Food Guide Pyramid and present food
preparation skills where youth learn to prepare healthy meals and snacks. Projects
can also incorporate how food is produced, explaining how it moves from farmer to
processor to grocery store and finally to the consumer. Food buying skills and
nutrition label reading may be introduced to older children along with food as part of
our culture and heritage.
                                                                                           The NH Nutri-
Partnerships throughout the state
    Team Nutrition: To get schools to better coordinate nutrition initiatives with their   tion Education
communities, Cooperative Extension participates in the Team Nutrition Summer               Center’s mission
Institute – XP, a USDA Child Nutrition Program with funds from the NH Dept. of
Education. This initiative promotes nutrition, health and exercise to school children,     is to identify
their parents and members of the community.
    Team Nutrition provides a comprehensive approach to education through curricu-
                                                                                           nutritional
lum materials for use in the classroom and by community partners to improve school         concerns in New
meals. Teachers, school nurses, food service personnel and administrators attend the
two-week program and return to their schools where they work with their local              Hampshire and
community to bring about changes which will improve the nutritional health of
children in their schools.
                                                                                           develop educa-
    The NH Nutrition Education Coalition: Valerie Long and Colette Janson-Sand             tional programs
are both members of this group of healthcare professional. Their mission is to
identify nutritional concerns in New Hampshire and develop educational programs            for professionals
for professionals who can in turn provide education and services to members of their       who can in turn
community. Currently, the group’s efforts have been directed towards childhood
obesity and the development of a resource kit for physicians to help them better           provide educa-
educate families on how to deal with this serious health risk.
                                                                                           tion and services
Contact:                                                                                   to members of
Colette Janson-Sand, Ph.D., R.D.
Extension Specialist, Food and Nutrition                                                   their
Associate Professor of Nutrition
Poultry Building/Human Nutrition Center
                                                                                           community.
862-1723
Email: chjs@cisunix.unh.edu




12
Food Safety-A Shared Responsibility
    Food safety is a shared responsibility of all sectors of the food system – from
production and processing to retail food service and the preparation of food at home.
UNH Cooperative Extension works collaboratively with local and regional partners
to provide food safety and sanitation programs to each sector of the food system.
    Each year, foodborne diseases cause approximately 76 million illnesses, 325,000
hospitalizations, and 5,000 deaths in the U.S. Of the more than 200 known diseases
transmitted by food, viruses cause 67 percent, bacteria, 30 percent, and parasites,
three percent.

UNH Cooperative Extension Food Safety Programming
Food Producers
    The safety of fresh fruits and vegetables produced regionally is critical for this
vital sector of the food system. New England’s small, family-owned
farms are an icon of sustainable, local agriculture. Increasing
numbers of foodborne illness outbreaks attributable to fresh fruits
and vegetables pose a threat to New England’s fruit and vegetable
growers. As a region, much of the produce grown locally is mar-
keted directly to consumers through farmer’s markets and farm
stands.
    To address this regional issue, Cooperative Extension Food
Safety Specialists from all six New England states are collaborating
on a three-year, USDA/CSREES funded project ($472,926) to
enhance the safety of locally grown fruits and vegetables. Its
purpose is to develop and test three educational approaches to
disseminate food safety Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) recom-
mendations to growers. To date, GAP accomplishments include:
• 296 New England fruit and vegetables growers completed a
    survey to assess awareness of GAP recommendations and
    current food safety practices.
• A consumer survey was administered to assess fresh produce food safety con-
    cerns.
• Produce samples were collected throughout New England and analyzed to
    establish baseline levels of three pathogens.
• Development and implementation of GAP educational programs continues in all
    six states.
     An external project advisory committee including growers, regulators and
Joanne Curran-Celentano, a UNH Animal and Nutritional Sciences faculty member,
provides expert guidance to implementation within the state.

Foodservice Managers and Food Workers – Safety Awareness in the Food
Environment (SAFE)
    As consumers increasingly rely on others to prepare their food, the importance of
a knowledgeable and skilled work force for all food outlets such as restaurants,
grocery stores, schools, hospitals and nursing homes is critical in preventing
foodborne illnesses. The SAFE program is a two-hour workshop focusing on per-
sonal hygiene, cross contamination and basic food handling principles. In FY 2002,
32 programs were conducted reaching 544 food workers. In FY ’01 36 programs
reached 633 food workers across the state.

                                                                                         13
The New Hampshire Safe Food Alliance
     This unique, statewide alliance was co-founded in 1997 by Joyce Welch, NH
Bureau of Food Protection administrator, and Catherine Violette to assess and address
food safety needs in New Hampshire. Comprised of food-related industry representa-
tives, local and state regulators, state agencies, and Extension, the alliance mission is
to ensure the safest food possible for the residents of New Hampshire.
     The group has received two grants from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration
to fund yearly statewide meetings. The alliance has planned and implemented two
highly successful statewide food safety meetings. The alliance has co-sponsored
legislation with the NH Grocer’s Association and the NH Lodging and Restaurant
Association to promote food safety and sanitation training for food managers
throughout the state.
                                                                                            As a member of
Teaching
   As a member of the Animal, Nutritional, and Medical Laboratory Sciences                  the Animal,
Department, Dr. Violette works with UNH undergraduate and graduate students in a            Nutritional, and
number of ways.
• For Nutrition Education and Counseling (Nutr 510), Dr. Violette teaches 30-60             Medical Labora-
   students how to assess the nutrition and food safety educational needs of varied
   target audiences and develop, implement, and evaluate programs to address those
                                                                                            tory Sciences
   needs.                                                                                   Department, Dr.
• Nutr 510 students learn the program planning process employed by Extension to
   address critical needs. In 2001, students participated in a service learning project     Catherine
   to produce a notebook of nutrition fact sheets for three area food pantries and
   three area after school programs.
                                                                                            Violette works
• As preceptor for one UNH Dietetic Intern each semester, students work on a                with UNH un-
   variety of food safety projects, including:
   - Adapting the SAFE program to web-based learning modules.                               dergraduate and
   - Writing food safety articles for consumers which are distributed to all print          graduate stu -
       media in the state. Sample topics included food preparation for winter storm
       emergencies and food safety for caregivers of older adults.                          dents in a num-
Research                                                                                    ber of ways.
    To design effective nutrition and food safety behavior change programs, we must         These activities
understand how consumers think about and use the complex array of information
available to them. Dr. Violette’s research focuses on identifying food cognition            provide a unique
heuristics and schemata utilized by novices and experts to execute everyday food-
related tasks such as grocery shopping. Study results were incorporated into a grocery
                                                                                            interface be-
shopping education program for older teens and their caregiver designed by a UNH            tween Coopera-
non-thesis Master’s student.
                                                                                            tive Extension,
Contact:
Catherine Violette, Ph.D., R.D.
                                                                                            students, and
Extension Specialist, Food and Nutrition                                                    faculty to ad-
219 Kendall Hall
862-2496                                                                                    dress nutrition
Email: catherine.violette@unh.edu                                                           and food safety
                                                                                            educational
                                                                                            needs of NH
                                                                                            residents.

14
New Hampshire 4-H Camps: A Positive Youth
Development Delivery System
     According to the American Camping Association, there are over 2,200 day and
residential camps in the United States, with over nine million youth attending them
each summer. NH 4-H Camps, an outreach of UNH Cooperative Extension, are
dedicated to providing quality experiences that have a direct and positive impact on
each camper’s development.
     Each summer, 850 youth, ages 6-17, participate in Bear Hill 4-H and Barry
Conservation Camps. Fifty young adults, ages 17-25, learn and grow as camp coun-
selors and program staff. The impact on both groups of adolescents is profound and
long lasting.
     NH 4-H Camps are fortunate to have the resources of the University to support
its efforts. For faculty, staff and students, this relationship can be viewed in three
different realms: Student Opportunities, Faculty Opportunities and Program Opportu-
nities.

Student Opportunities
     Over the past three years, NH 4-H Camps have increased employment of UNH
students significantly, from two students in 1999 to 10 undergraduate and graduate
students the past two summers. Departments across all colleges have been repre-
sented over the years: outdoor education, recreation program administration, thera-
peutic recreation, secondary education, and studio art! Recruitment efforts have
greatly increased on campus, with displays in the MUB, participation in campus job
fairs, and outreach through academic courses and departments.
     Ample opportunities exist to complete special projects, practicums and intern-
ships with NH 4-H Camps. For summer 2003, Danielle Parker, a
therapeutic recreation curriculum undergraduate in the Dept. of
Recreation Management and Policy, will complete her practicum
experience at Bear Hill 4-H Camp. Will Richards, a junior in the
program administration option of the same department, is
designing his senior internship at Bear Hill 4-H Camp for next
summer.
     This past summer, Kristi Reardon, a junior in the therapeutic
recreation program, received the Steelman Award from the
School of Health and Human Services. This award supported
Kristi at Bear Hill 4-H Camp in a position which otherwise
wouldn’t have been funded by NH 4-H Camps. Kristi mentored
with the camp behavior specialist, helping staff and supporting
campers and their families, as youth of all abilities are included
into daily camp life. For two camp sessions, Kristi worked
directly with two different campers with specific disabilities who needed additional
support for their successful experiences at camp. As part of her experience, Kristi
developed a manual for successful inclusion of youth at-risk and with disabilities in
NH 4-H Camps.
     Beginning in October 2002, Taras Ferencevych, a graduate student in the outdoor
education program in the Dept. of Kinesiology, begins his graduate assistantship with
NH 4-H Camps and 4-H Youth Development. Taras will provide statewide training in
the experiential education model and its application to 4-H youth development, for
staff and volunteers. This collaboration with Dr. Mike Gass is ensuring an excepinto
daily camp life. She actively participated in staff training and provided on-going
support during the summer program, while children are at camp.                           15
 Faculty Opportunities
     This year celebrates the centennial birthday of 4-H as a youth development
organization. In January of 2002, representatives from various youth agencies,
parents, youth, volunteers and 4-H staff participated in a statewide meeting. From
this meeting, a New Hampshire agenda for youth development was forwarded to
Washington, DC. The day was initiated by the inspirational words of Dr. Jason
Bocarro, faculty in the Dept. of Recreation Management and Policy. Dr. Bocarro ‘s
words reminded us that relationships are the foundation of positive youth develop-
ment, and caring adults are the most important component in youth development.
          Cathy Apfel, Educational Behavioral Specialist at the UNH Institute on
Disability, worked at Bear Hill 4-H Camp as a behavior specialist during summers
2001 and 2002. In her role, she helped summer camp staff as they facilitate the
inclusion of youth with social, emotional, behavioral, physical and developmental         Over the past
disabilities into daily camp life. She actively participated in staff training and pro-
vided on-going support during the summer program, while children are at camp.             three years, NH
     Cathy is an advocate for fragile and at-risk youth, and has worked with camp         4-H Camps have
staff to support them as they include all youth in NH 4-H Camps. Cathy has also
provided a series of school year and summer in-service education sessions for             increased em-
Extension staff and volunteers, outlining strategies for working successfully with
youth who have challenging behaviors. Cathy presented, with Ann Dolloff, Extension
                                                                                          ployment of
Specialist, and Sheila Fabrizio, Camp Director, at the national Children, Youth and       UNH students
Families At-Risk conference in New Orleans, May 2002 and at the American Camp-
ing Association New England Conference in March 2002.                                     significantly,
     Several faculty from all academic departments and institutions on campus serve
on the NH 4-H Camps Advisory Board, helping NH 4-H Camps expand its resources
                                                                                          from two stu -
and program development.                                                                  dents in 1999 to
Program Opportunities                                                                     10 undergradu-
     NH 4-H Camps is named as a collaborating agency in the PARTNERS (Promot-             ate and gradu-
ing Accessible Recreation Through Networking, Education, Resources and Service)
grant, funded by the US Dept. of Education, recently awarded to RMP and Northeast         ate students the
Passage. NH 4-H Camps will develop leadership and vocational training opportuni-
ties for teens with disabilities.                                                         past two sum-
     The NH 4-H Camps specialist is currently consulting with a non-profit group,         mers.
New England Sports Camps (NESC). NESC wants to develop an overnight camping
program in extreme sports (BMX, in-line skating and skateboarding) at the Rye
Airfield in Rye, NH. Ann Dolloff is providing the administrative expertise in camp
management, working with Dr. Bob Barcelona in the Dept. of Recreation Manage-
ment and Policy on this project.
     NH 4-H Camps staff is providing the primary leadership for the development of a
graduate course in camp administration for the Dept. of Recreation Management and
Policy. This collaborative effort will provide future graduate and undergraduate
students a unique and applicable experience, by learning from and working with an
existing program of the university.
     NH 4-H Camps has collaborated with the Department of Kinesiology, outdoor
education program, to coordinate the annual student summer employment fair, held in
each February. This is the second year the fair was offered between the two programs.

Contact:
Ann E. Dolloff, C.T.R.S., M.Ed.
Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development & NH 4-H Camps
Moiles House,
603-862-2198
Email: ann.dolloff@unh.edu
16
4-H - 100 Years of Youth Development
Using Science and Technology
    The 4-H Youth Development program has been successful for 100 years in
developing youth into caring, responsible adults ready to take on whatever life has to
offer. The successful model of using engaging subject matter as a vehicle to teach
youth life and work skills has been duplicated in several different ways all over the
world.
    The first 4-H clubs were designed to teach young boys about new technology:
hybrid corn seeds. Today’s 4-H program in New Hampshire has changed over the
past 100 years, but we’re still dedicated to teaching youth about new technology and
fostering an interest in science as a means to develop life skills such as problem
solving, team work and responsibility.

Up, Up and Away with 4-H Space Day!
    The University of New Hampshire is unique in its designation as a Land, Sea and
Space Grant institution. While UNH Cooperative Extension has traditionally main-
tained a strong relationship with the Land and Sea Grant status of the University,
outreach programs in the area of space education have often occurred separately.
    More than 70 4-H youth and adults visited the UNH Space Science Center in
March 2002 to learn about space and see, first hand, some of the
fascinating research projects at UNH. Space Science faculty and
graduate students collaborated with 4-H youth development staff to
present three different workshops on gamma rays, mapping and
solar surface research. 4-H members and their families learned
about some of the UNH research projects that have traveled on
Space Shuttle missions and participated in a simulated Space
Shuttle mission that required team work, effective communication
and knowledge about space to successfully complete.
    Parents who completed a follow up survey were very pleased
with the opportunity to visit the UNH campus with their children
and learn about science in a very hands-on manner. One parent said,
“I greatly appreciate the opportunity to expose my children to ‘real
science’.” All participants said they learned something new about space and about
what it means for UNH to be a Space Grant University.
    When asked to share one thing they had learned during the day, youth responded
very thoughtfully. They cited things like how to make a digital map, how a gamma
ray telescope works and that it isn’t easy to do something in an astronaut suit!
    A parent took the time to send an email two days after the event to say, “…I think
we’ll find that the information they (her children) learned planted seeds that will
show for many years to come. We’ve already discussed much of what we saw and
they’ve been on the web looking for more information.”
    One faculty presenter shared that he enjoyed talking to the youth as he felt it
forced him to think about the work he does in a different, more practical manner.
Presenters were impressed with the thoughtful questions the youth asked as well.
    The success of this program has strengthened UNH Cooperative Extension’s
relationship with the Space Science Center’s outreach program and future collabora-
tions are already being discussed.
                                                                                         17
4-H Science Exploration Days
     Another 125 youth and adults came to UNH campus in March, 2000 to attend
workshops in Entomology, Electricity, Small Engines, Aerospace and Photography.
Faculty from the Thompson School, the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans &
Space (EOS), Engineering, and Plant Biology worked with youth development staff
to facilitate hands-on workshops. The objective of exposing youth and their parents
to the University and to give them an opportunity to learn about science was achieved
as youth indicated at the end of the day they had learned a lot about science and the
resources UNH offered.

4-H JASON Project
    The JASON Project is a written, school-based curriculum that is technology-
based and designed to excite and engage students in science and technology. New         Faculty from the
Hampshire 4-H and JASON have worked intermittently over the past several years to
offer opportunities for 4-H members to participate in the JASON Project. 4-H staff      Thompson
have teamed up with JASON and NH Public Television to train new volunteers (from        School, the
after school programs, 4-H clubs, teachers and home school providers) on how to use
the JASON curriculum to teach science and technology as well as develop life skills     Institute for the
in youth. The theme for the 2002-2003 school year is “From Shore to Sea.” This
presents an opportunity to work with marine science and water resources staff to
                                                                                        Study of Earth,
localize the national curriculum so 4-H members may study streams, lakes and the        Oceans & Space
ocean in New Hampshire as they work through the JASON activities.
                                                                                        (EOS), Engineer-
Animal Science
     New Hampshire 4-H Youth Development programs continue to provide a variety
                                                                                        ing, and Plant
of high quality educational events and activities for youth interested in animal        Biology worked
science. Faculty members from Animal and Nutritional Sciences and Thompson
School have presented numerous workshops for 4-H youth on various topics such as        with youth
equine anatomy and physiology, dairy reproduction, animal nutrition and health.         development
     Each year the New Hampshire 4-H program invites hundreds of youth to the
UNH campus for various events and activities. For many, these 4-H events offer a        staff to facilitate
first-time opportunity to visit a college campus and learn about UNH. Members who
have returned to campus as students have cited their familiarity with the campus as a   hands-on work-
reason for their decision to attend UNH.                                                shops.
Possibilities…
    Although only a few programs are mentioned here, there are many other 4-H
programs involving UNH and science offered throughout New Hampshire. With local
educators and a strong network of volunteers in all 10 counties, 4-H youth develop-
ment is uniquely situated to act as a vehicle for almost any UNH outreach program
targeting youth as an audience.

Contact:
Lisa Townson
Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development
Equine Center
Phone: 862-1031
Email: lisa.townson@unh.edu




18
The Teen Assessment Project
     The Teen Assessment Project (TAP) is a collaborative, ecological model of commu-
nity-based research, education and action conducted in partnership with UNH Coopera-
tive Extension. TAP was developed to promote positive youth development at the
individual, family and community level. Primary goals are to increase community
awareness and knowledge of teen issues and encourage community-
wide collaboration to reduce risk factors and enhance protective
factors in the lives of New Hampshire youth. The TAP process in-
volves six distinct phases:

•   community coalition development and/or enhancement
•   youth survey development and implementation
•   analysis, interpretation and dissemination of survey results
•   youth, parent, school, and community educational efforts through
    local forums, a community report and a six-part parent newsletter
    series containing local survey results
•   community strategic plan development and implementation to
    address adolescent issues
•   project impact evaluation

     Recognizing youth develop in ever-widening environments, the
TAP process is accomplished through the framework of the Ecological
Model of Youth Development. This model serves as a guide for coalition membership,
survey development, educational strategies and programming efforts.
     TAP survey results provide a vehicle for education and action. They serve as a
catalyst for change by stimulating program and policy development; leading to changes
in attitude and behavior at the youth, family, school and community level; aiding in the
procurement of funding for local initiatives; and strengthening community linkages.
TAP Results
     TAP has reached 23,634 youth, the parents of 18,750 youth, and 10,000 others in 21
different school districts/regions representing 88 communities. Public presentations were
made in the communities at school assemblies and parent/teen forums reaching approxi-
mately 6,500 youth and 1,500 adults. As a result, middle and high school parents report
they are more aware of youth issues in their community.
     To date, over $8 million has been received in the form of grants and awards to local
communities. Examples include a teen health center, suicide prevention work, additional
school personnel, after-school programs, teen centers, increased youth supports, educa-
tional efforts, coalition development and the establishment of two multi-community
databases.
     TAP has stimulated changes in programs and policies throughout the communities it
has served. For example, schools used the results in classrooms to encourage discussion,
make curriculum revisions, create additional positions and establish new school policies.
Organizations and agencies have also used the results for new youth programs and
centers as well as youth service staff positions.
     Parents reported the TAP newsletter series increased parent-teen communication
about adolescent issues. Telephone survey results revealed parents felt encouraged to
share their own opinions about risky behaviors with their children, increased monitoring
of their teens and wanted to become involved with others in the community to address
youth issues.
     TAP has both developed and expanded local collaborative efforts as well as connec-
tions between state level agencies and organizations and UNH departments. These
collaborations mobilized resources to help build protective factors and reduce risk factors
at the youth, family and community levels.                                                    19
University Connections
     UNH students have been involved with TAP, at both the undergraduate and gradu-
ate level and on completion of degree work. TAP presentations have been made in
Family Studies, Health, Management and Policy; Psychology, Recreation, Manage-
ment and Policy; Social Work, and Sociology classes. TAP staff have collaborated with
the following UNH department/units:
     Counseling Center: David Cross - local Durham TAP coalition member and strong
collaborator on general TAP issues and education related to youth suicide.
     Education Dept.: Grant Cioffi - TAP Institutional Review Board issues advisor.
     Family Studies: Kristine Baber - collaborator on educational efforts and establish-
ment of a statewide Adolescent Health Consortium (AHC). AHC resulted in a two-day
statewide Adolescent Health Institute and an Adolescent Resource Center under her
direction. Both Kristine Baber and Corinna Tucker were partners in the development of          To date, over
a $1.5 million CDC grant proposal in which they would be involved in the develop-
ment of a TAP parent survey and media literacy project.                                    $8 million has
     Health, Management and Policy: Marc Hiller - Dover TAP coalition member and           been received in
an active consultant on project issues. Michele Solloway - a partner in planning and
securing funding for the Adolescent Institute. Both Marc Hiller and Michele Solloway       the form of
were partners in the development of a $1.5 million CDC grant proposal and are
interested in the adolescent social norms and asset mapping aspects of TAP.
                                                                                           grants and
     Health Services: Kathleen Grace-Bishop - Durham TAP collaborative member and          awards. Ex-
colleague in adolescent health issues, working with TAP on the issue of social
norming.                                                                                   amples include
     NH Institute for Health, Policy and Practice: Ned Helms worked in partnership
with Family Studies and TAP on development of a statewide Adolescent Health
                                                                                           a teen health
Consortium and resulting efforts to further the understanding and positive development     center, suicide
of adolescents in NH.
     Psychology: Vicki Banyard is using TAP data to examine issues related to teen         prevention work,
dating violence and sexual harassment. Ellen Cohn is a consultant on statistics as         additional
needed. Carolyn Mebert is examining teen sexuality issues with TAP data resulting in a
professional paper and presentation at a national adolescence research conference.         school personnel,
Rebecca Warner is a current consultant on TAP multi-community statewide data report
and partner in the development of a $1.5 million CDC grant proposal. One psychology        after-school
student used TAP data for a Masters thesis.                                                programs, teen
     Recreation, Management and Policy: Discussions have been held with Jason
Bocarro regarding collaboration on research, grants and the community youth develop-       centers, in-
ment components of TAP.
     Sociology: Mil Duncan has left UNH but is mentioned here as she was instrumen-
                                                                                           creased youth
tal in getting a graduate assistant assigned to TAP. One sociology student used TAP        supports, and
data for a Masters thesis.
     UNH United Campus Ministry: Larry Brickner-Wood acts in an advisory and               educational
educational role in many TAP issues as did Mary Westfall before him.
                                                                                           efforts.
Contact:
Charlotte Cross,
Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development
Project Director, TAP
Nesmith Hall G05C
862-2495
Email: Charlotte.Cross@unh.edu




20
Increasing the Financial Literacy of
New Hampshire Residents
     Family resource management education increases New Hampshire residents’ skills so
they are better able to reach their financial goals. These goals include decreasing debt,
paying off bills, saving for college, buying a house, and saving for retirement. Targeted
audiences for financial management education are young people with limited financial
skills, individuals who lack confidence in their ability to solve financial problems, indebted
individuals, and recipients of Temporary Aid to Needy Families and food stamps assistance
who are managing limited resources.
Increasing New Hampshire’s Adults’ Financial Literacy
     UNH Cooperative Extension conducts a variety of educational programs for individuals
of all ages and income levels. An advisory group comprised of Dr. Elizabeth Dolan, Dept.
of Family Studies, and several Extension educators provides guidance to the family re-
source management specialist. Collaborations have been developed with UNH faculty,
students, NH Public Television and the UNH Foundation in a variety of family resource
management educational activities.
     Extension sponsors workshop series for adults throughout New Hampshire with either
“Taking Charge of Your Finances” or “Making Money Work for You.” This education has
changed New Hampshire adults’ financial practices. Participants decreased debt and paid
off bills, increased savings, and increased their confidence about making money decisions.
These educational programs are evaluated using assessment tools that include a pretest, a
post-test, and a six-month follow-up. Work-study students trained in SPSS code input the
data. These students gain research skills for use in their college studies as well as skills for
future employment.
      Dr. Elizabeth Dolan, Dept. of Family Studies, uses the curricula “Making Money Work
For You,” “Planning Ahead…Staying Ahead” and “Taking Charge of Your Finances” in the
undergraduate course “Personal and Family Finance.” She acquaints students with these
resources to aid them in understanding curriculum design and to give them skills in analyz-
ing such curricula.
Increasing New Hampshire’s Youth Financial Literacy
     The High School Financial Planning Program, sponsored by Extension since 1990 and
the National Endowment for Financial Education, provides basic financial planning skills
for teens. In 2001, a group of New Hampshire agencies including Extension formed the
NH Jump$tart Coalition, a state affiliate of the national non-profit Jump$tart Coalition for
Personal Financial Literacy. NH Jump$tart’s mission is to improve the personal financial
literacy of young adults.
     The NH Jump$tart Coalition sponsored a conference for teachers titled “Money
Smarts” in 2002. The conference goal: teachers would increase their knowledge about
personal finance. NH Public Television aired segments on “NH Outlook” with additional
in-studio guests added to the videotaped segments.
     As a result of working with NH Jump$tart the number of students reached increased
178% (2,037 students in years 2000-2001 to 5,671 in years 2001-2002.)
     A second effort was to sponsor a 2002 Money Matters Career Exploration Field Trip to
help educate students and adults about careers in finance. Sites visited included the Federal
Reserve Bank of Boston, the Boston Stock Exchange and Fidelity Investment Corp. Gregg
Cerveny, UNH Foundation, made arrangements through a UNH graduate employed at
Fidelity for a tour of their state of the art facility for learning about new technologies that
benefit Fidelity’s business.                                                                       21
UNH Project C.A.S.H. - Creating A Savings Habit
     The mission of UNH Project C.A.S.H. is to provide essential money management
skills to college students to help them build a foundation for future financial security.
This is a collaboration between Extension, UNH Health Services, Residential Life
and UNH Parents Association. Four Extension Educators in Family Development
have provided two comprehensive money management trainings to students from the
Whittemore School of Business. These students, acting as Peer Educators through
UNH Health Services, provided workshops through Residential Life, built displays
on money and credit for the MUB, wrote articles for The New Hampshire, and other
related activities. In addition, an Extension Educator provided information to parents
during Orientation and Parents Weekend, reaching over 365, as well as trainings for
Hall Directors and Resident Assistants. Currently a website is being developed to
provide resources to all students online.                                                   The mission of
Welfare Reform and Its Impact on NH’s TANF Population
     A research project titled “Rural Low-Income Families: Tracking Their Well-             UNH Project
Being and Functioning in the Context of Welfare Reform” is a multistate longitudinal        C.A.S.H. is to
study. New Hampshire is one of 16 participating states. Participants were food stamp
or WIC eligible at the time they were first interviewed and had at least one child          provide essen-
under the age of 13.
     Graduate students from the UNH Marriage and Family Therapy Program provide
                                                                                            tial money
assistance on this project. The UNH Agricultural Experiment Station funds this              management
project.
     The NH Dept. of Health and Human Services, Division of Family Assistance               skills to college
contracts for Extension’s Family Lifeskills Program. This program provides skills to
TANF recipients to aid them in their transition from public assistance to employment.
                                                                                            students to help
Curricula used are LEAP (Lifeskills for Employment, Achievement and Purpose)                them build a
and LIFT (Lifeskills Impacting Families Today.) Several Dept. of Social Work
faculty have been on the evaluation team including Martha Byam, Elizabeth Forshay,          foundation for
Mary Anne Wichroski and Sharyn Zunz. Interns from the Dept. of Family Studies               future financial
work in the Family Lifeskills Program and gain a realistic understanding of the
challenges faced by those on public assistance.                                             security.
Contact:
Suzann Enzian Knight, M.O.E., M.S., CFP
Extension Specialist, Family Resource Management
308 Pettee Hall
862-0092
Email: suzann.knight@unh.edu




22
Designing Effective Programs For At-Risk
Children, Youth, and Families
   “If we really care about youth, really want them to succeed, we must reorganize
around them.”                             - National 4-H Strategic Plan, October 2001

    UNH Cooperative Extension works in partnership with faculty, students and
communities to strengthen the capacity of local citizens to create a future where all
children and youth live in families and communities which promote their positive
development.
    UNH Cooperative Extension received $1.4 million (1991-96, 1998-03) through a
national Children, Youth and Families At-Risk (CYFAR) initiative of the U.S. Dept.
of Agriculture, Cooperative State Research, Education and Extension System
(CSREES). Funds support the development of new community-based models for
intensive intervention and prevention programs to improve outcomes for youth and
families living in poverty.

Out of School Programs – Creating Safe Havens for School-Age Youth
     Across America, a majority of working parents wants their school-age children to
have safe places to go after school – places where they can make friends, try new
things, have fun, and get help with homework. Such opportunities rarely exist in our
more isolated rural communities.
     Through a five-year USDA grant (1998-2003), community-based after school
programs have begun in Boscawen, Haverhill and Claremont. Over 65% of partici-
pants live in families that qualify for public assistance, and over 50% live in families
with one parent. All programs offer a mix of homework assistance, community
service learning, computer literacy, and experiential activities designed to enhance
basic life skills. A similar program, Manchester’s Youth Opportunities Unlimited
(Y.O.U.), was started by Extension through an earlier USDA grant (1991-1996) and
serves as a national model for school-based after school programs.
     Over 695 youth and 376 parents have participated in after school programs,
parent education, and family activities through these four programs started by Exten-
sion. Each site offers a minimum of 225 contact hours per child, and a staff to child
ratio of 1:5 to ensure program quality and impacts. All sites aim to improve academic
achievement, social skills, and increased resiliency.
     A team of USNH faculty, Extension Educators, and graduate students have
worked with local schools, parents and community leaders to design and evaluate
these programs with a goal of creating high quality, sustainable programs. Faculty
and student team members have included:
• Mary Banach, M.S.W., D.S.W., Associate Professor, Dept. of Social Work
• Sharyn Zunz, M.S.W., Ph.D., Associate Professor, Dept. of Social Work
• Suzanne McMurphy, Ph.D., Affiliate Assistant Professor, Dept. of Social Work
• Mary Temke, Ph.D., Extension Specialist & faculty, Dept. of Family Studies
• Scott Meyer, Ph.D., Professor, Dept. of Social Work, Plymouth State College
• Graduate students: Whit Inzer, Nicole Bock, Stephanie Halter

    Annual assessments at each site include pre and post-interviews with youth,
surveys of parents, parent focus groups and interviews with a variety of stakeholders
(school personnel, and advisory committee members). Among the results:
• 25% of youth report the thing they like most about the program is getting help
    with their homework because it helps them do better academically.                      23
•    75% of youth believe the program helps them learn to respect others, make
     friends and resolve conflicts.
•    87% of youth believe the program helps them with relationships with their family
     at home.
•    Parents report program benefits for their child include improvements in self-
     responsibility, social skills, homework completion, self-discipline, teamwork, and
     getting along with others.
•    School personnel support the findings from youth and parents, and report seeing
     improvements in educational aspirations, pride in academic performance, conflict
     resolution skills, homework completion, and leadership participation.
•    Local school districts have successfully secured grant funding to adopt and
     expand the after school programs district-wide at two of the three current sites.
                                                                                          A team of USNH
Workforce Preparedness - Engaging Youth Through Entrepreneurship
    In a state where the economy is heavily dependent on entrepreneurs, it makes          faculty, Exten-
sense to help young people gain practical experience and understanding of the world       sion Educators,
of work. Thus, the 4-H Youth Development program of UNH Cooperative Extension
became part of a Mini-Society® program partnership (1999-2003) between the E. W.          and graduate
Kauffman Foundation’s Center for Entrepreneurial Leadership, the national 4-H
program, and the six New England land grant universities.
                                                                                          students have
    The Mini-Society® program inspires 8-12 year old entrepreneurs to apply their         worked with
own creativity in forming a self-organizing economic society, finding alternative
solutions to problems of scarcity arising within the society. Through a 30-hour           local schools,
experiential Mini-Society® program, held in eight out-of-school programs, over 100
New Hampshire youth created their own mini-businesses, and engaged in lively
                                                                                          parents and
“town meetings” where they wrestled with a variety of economic, social, political,        community
and ethical issues that spontaneously arose. Using an observation checklist, program
facilitators reported:                                                                    leaders to design
• 97% of youth showed improvement in making decisions, resolving conflicts,               and evaluate
    taking on leadership roles, and communicating wants and needs verbally.
• 93% learned important economic and civic lessons, including the value of town           these programs
    meetings to solve community problems, costs of starting a business, and concepts
    of scarcity, inflation, taxation, and market mechanisms.                              with a goal of
                                                                                          creating high
     AmeriCorps VISTA staff and UNH students (Liberal Arts, Education) helped
facilitate programs. Although funding for the Mini-Society® program is ending due         quality, sus-
to a change in mission of the Kauffman Foundation, it’s evident many of New
Hampshire’s 3rd-8th graders are eager to channel their creative ideas and energies into
                                                                                          tainable pro-
productive, real-world experiences.                                                       grams.

Contact:
Paula J. Gregory, M.O.E.
Extension Specialist, 4-H Youth Development
Moiles House
862-2909
Email: paula.gregory@unh.edu




24
 Agriculture and
Natural Resources
                 Wednesday, December 18 Agenda
                Agriculture and Natural Resources
                       MUB Room 338-340
8:30    Refreshments
9:00    Welcome
        - John Pike, David Hiley, and Don Sundberg
9:15    Community Conservation Assistance program
        - Frank Mitchell, Extension Specialist, Land & Water Conservation
        - Karen Bennett, Extension Specialist, Forest Resources
        - Julia Peterson, Extension Specialist, Water Resources
        - Nancy Lambert, Extension Specialist, Natural Resources
10:00 Fisheries, Wildlife & Biodiversity
        - Ellen Snyder, Extension Specialist, Biodiversity
        - Jeff Schloss, Extension Specialist, Water Resources
        - J-J Newman, Extension Specialist, Aquaculture
        - Pingguo He, Extension Specialist, Fishing Gear Technology
        - Darrel Covell, Extension Specialist, Wildlife
        - Sharon Meeker, Extension Specialist, Marine Education
        - Sarah Smith, Extension Specialist, Forest Industry
11:00 Fruit, Vegetables & Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
        - Bill Lord, Extension Specialist, Fruit
        - Alan Eaton, Extension Specialist, Entomology
        - Cheryl Smith, Extension Specialist, Plant Health
        - Mike Sciabarrasi, Extension Specialist, Farm Business Management
12:00 : Lunch (provided)
1:15    Dairy & Livestock
        - John Porter, Extension Specialist, Dairy
        - Michal Lunak, Extension Specialist, Dairy
        - Peter Erickson, Extension Speciatist, Dairy
        - Stefan Seiter, Extension Specialist, Agroecology
2:00    Ornamental Horticulture
        - Cathy Neal, Extension Specialist, Ornamental Horticulture
        - John Roberts, Extension Specialist, Turf
        - Stan Swier, Extension Specialist, Entomology
        - Mary Tebo, Extension Educator, Community Forestry
3:00    Adjourn


                                                                             25
Community Conservation
Assistance Program-2002
      UNH Cooperative Extension actively helps New Hampshire communities deal
with growth pressures that threaten their natural resources, economies and character.
The Community Conservation Assistance Program (CCAP) is one of the principal
ways we do this.
      In the Community Conservation Assistance Program, we help New Hampshire
communities and private conservation groups with land and water
conservation planning projects. Communities receive help from a
team of Extension staff for local conservation projects communities
have identified. This assistance is offered free to the communities
they serve.
      Typically, Extension staff provides assistance to these groups
in the form of:
      • Help to establish goals, priorities, and a work plan for
          conservation planning
      • Training and information needed by the community groups
          to complete specific project tasks
      • Assistance in addressing issues in specialized areas, such as
          wildlife habitat or wetlands conservation
      • Continuing consultation throughout the duration of a            Learning about natural resource protection
          project.

      Examples of projects Extension provides help include:
      • Creating natural resources inventories, including the use of geographic
         information systems (GIS) technology
      • Preparing and implementing conservation plans
      • Assessing wildlife habitats
      • Evaluating wetlands and other water resources
      • Implementing land protection projects
      • Building public support for land and water conservation
         projects.
      In 2002, CCAP has provided direct assistance to 25 communi-
ties and conservation groups.

Program Partnerships and Results:
         In addition to direct education and assistance to communi-
ties and conservation groups, Extension’s CCAP delivers program-
ming through several partnerships:
      In New Hampshire’s coastal region, CCAP is part of the           Ratings of UNH Cooperative Extension
Natural Resources Outreach Coalition (NROC), a collaborative                        assistance
effort by several organizations, including the Office of State Plan-
ning, NH Coastal Program, NH Dept. of Environmental Services,
Strafford and Rockingham Planning Commissions, NH Fish & Game Dept. and the
Great Bay Research Reserve. Currently, we help Dover, Exeter, Newfields,
Newmarket and Stratham with community conservation planning and action through
the NROC.

                                                                                                                27
      CCAP is also the principal outreach component of the Center for Land Conser-
vation Assistance, formed in 2001 to support land conservation organizations,
including municipalities, in the state.
      The UNH Senior Projects Course, a partnership between the UNH Natural
Resources Dept. and Extension, involves student teams in conservation projects
requested by New Hampshire communities. Extension staff trains and advises the
Senior Project Teams. In the past year, we have completed 13 community projects
and are engaged in seven more in the fall, 2002 semester. Faculty partners include
Paul Johnson and William Mautz.
      CCAP sponsors educational events in cooperation with other organizations. An
example is a four-part workshop series on land conservation techniques held in
summer, 2002. It was co-sponsored by the Center for Land Conservation Assistance,
three land trusts, another private conservation group, the Rockingham Planning               The UNH
Commission and the Rockingham Conservation District. Seventy-five people prereg-
istered and each session averaged approximately 50 people. People from 28 commu-            Senior Projects
nities, five land trusts, four conservation organizations, the NH Dept. of Environmen-      Course, a part-
tal Services, one conservation district and Extension attended the series.
      Another example is the successful 2002 NH Land Conservation Conference, co-           nership between
sponsored by the Center for Land Conservation Assistance and Extension’s CCAP
and attended by about 200 people.
                                                                                            the UNH
                                                                                            Natural
      Measuring Results:
      The UNH Cooperative Extension Community Conservation Assistance Program               Resources Dept.
evaluated program impacts with a survey sent to all members of community client
groups in the fall of 2000. Respondents reported a fairly high degree of behavioral
                                                                                            and
change associated with the project. Increasing knowledge, informing others, seeking         Extension,
more information and using what was learned were all reported at high levels, with
decreasing scores as listed.                                                                involves student
      The Protecting Natural Resources category had a surprisingly high response rate       teams in conser-
at the more advanced end -prioritizing conservation actions and protecting land (fig. 1)
      Respondents (fig. 2) rated all aspects of UNHCE’s assistance relatively high          vation projects
      Conclusions drawn from the evaluation showed the value of UNH Cooperative
Extension assistance was consistently rated highly by clientele. It also showed that        requested by
direct contact with Extension staff was strongly correlated with using what was learned     New Hampshire
and the view that Extension contributed substantially to the groups’ progress. It appears
to encourage application of learning, contact with Extension staff is important. This       communities.
indicates the CCAP approach of “going to them,” offering specific, sometimes custom-
ized, training sessions and being there to support group over an extended time period
will yield our greatest successes. Direct contact translates into program impacts.


Contact:
Frank Mitchell
Extension Specialist, Land & Water Conservation
220 Nesmith Hall
862-1067
Email: Frank.Mitchell@unh.edu




28
Increasing the Capacities of
Natural Resource Professionals

    With a landscape 83% covered by forests, we depend on the care we
give our forests for clean air and water, a healthy economy, and a high
quality of life. Since private landowners own 80% of that forest, they are
key to keeping New Hampshire green.
    Few landowners have the time or skills to manage their land to
maximize its stewardship and financial values. Well-trained, committed
professionals fill this need. Providing opportunities for land managers to
improve their skills and knowledge through professional development
workshops and printed materials is a core method used by UNH Coop-
erative Extension’s Forestry and Wildlife Program to ensure forest
stewardship.
    Foresters and loggers have been target audiences for professional
development programs for many years. Many New Hampshire foresters
are self-employed. Continued professional improvement makes good
business sense for them.                                                      Silviculturist, Bill Leak (2nd from left) shares
    Recently, we have expanded professional development offerings to          the importance of soil/ site relations and
                                                                              forest growth with the first Coverts Coopera-
other groups of natural resource professionals such as soil and wetland
                                                                              tors class in 1995. Seven years later, 190
scientists. In 1999, we conducted an educational needs assessment             volunteers extend the learning and research
survey for arborists, and the results are being used by our Community         of the University through volunteer activities
Forestry program to conduct workshops for that audience.

The Community Connection
    Extension work is about relationship building. Because of our
county-based delivery system (an Extension Educator in Forest Re-
sources in every county), we know, and are known by, the landowners,
foresters, community leaders and other stakeholders who own and
manage the land. We are partners with them and they are receptive to,
and seek the education and information we provide. While we use
formal surveys and assessments to develop programs that meet their
needs and the needs of the state, this informal connection is powerful
and productive.

The University Connection
     Through workshops and printed materials, Extension connects
researchers to the land managers who can apply the results from their
research in real life situations. Department of Natural Resources Profes-
sors Drs. Kim Babbitt, Mark Ducey, Tom Lee, John Litvaitis, and Jim
Taylor; Faye Rubin from Complex Systems; and Thomson School of
Applied Science Professors Don Quigley and John Bozak have regu-
larly been involved, as have adjunct faculty from the USDA-Forest            Thompson School of Applied Sciences
Service (Rich Hallett, Bill Leak, Jeff Gove, Wally Shortle, Kevin Smith,     Professor Don Quigley talks about value
and Mariko Yamaski).                                                         aspect of trees and logs at the Tree Investment
                                                                             Workshops on October 15 and 29, 1999. 150
                                                                             foresters attended.
                                                                                                                          29
     Though not all of them are geared to natural resources professionals, Extension
offers an average of 300 workshops a year. One example illustrates how Extension
facilitates the exchange between researchers and practitioners.
     In 2001, Professors Bozak and Ducey joined other noted researchers in the field
of forest biometrics in a series of workshops entitled, “Forest Measurements for
Natural Resource Professionals.” Using a combination of formal inside lectures and
outside field explorations, they delivered the latest thinking in proper field tech-
niques, pre-cruise planning, and coarse woody material (CWM). CWM is a forest
attribute recently seeing attention with little information available to practitioners.
These presentations combined the rigor of a researcher with the practical needs of
attendees. Workshop proceedings were developed and continue to be in demand as
other professionals learn of them.
                                                                                          Through work-
Contact:
Karen P. Bennett                                                                          shops and
Extension Specialist, Forest Resources                                                    printed materi-
212 Nesmith Hall
862-4861                                                                                  als, Extension
Email: karen.bennett@unh.edu
                                                                                          connects
                                                                                          researchers to
                                                                                          the land
                                                                                          managers who
                                                                                          can apply the
                                                                                          results from
                                                                                          their research in
                                                                                          real life situa-
                                                                                          tions.




30
Coastal Communities and
Environmental Technology
    Marine and estuarine environments are subject to unprecedented pressure as devel-
opment in coastal regions intensifies. Along with the growth in industrial, commercial
and residential development come increasing threats to coastal waters from anthropo-
genic sources of pollution. While enforcement of the Clean Water Act over the last 30
years has done much to reduce pollution from industrial sources, the number one threat
to coastal waters is now polluted runoff from diffuse sources. Preventing and
remediating pollution becomes the complex job of not only industrial managers, but
municipal officials, natural resource managers, business owners and residents.
    Over the last year, several Extension projects brought scientific information about
preventing and remediating pollution in coastal waters to resource managers, land use
decision makers and watershed residents.

Science for Natural Resource Managers in Coastal Areas
     With support from the UNH/NOAA Cooperative Institute for Coastal and Estuarine
Environmental Technology (CICEET), Extension staff brought scientists, natural re-
source managers and outreach professionals together to create specific, project-based
strategies to help move CICEET supported technologies forward toward application.
Teams of CICEET researchers, “end users” and outreach professionals representing
projects in New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Massachusetts participated in an outcome-
based approach that required each team to produce a mini-strategic plan detailing how
the research product or technology would be put into use.
     As a result of this initiative, three strategic plans were developed for transferring
CICEET technologies forward and over 90% of the participants expected to follow
through on one or more action items from the plan within the next 6 months.
     The next step in this project is to evaluate how each team has progressed. UNH staff
and faculty included Richard Langan and Dwight Trueblood, co-directors of the UNH/
NOAA CICEET; Kalle Matso, CICEET; Robert Dalton and Dimitri Stamos of UNH
Intellectual Property; Nancy Kinner of UNH Civil Engineering; Fay Rubin of UNH
Complex Systems Research Center; Rollie Barnaby and Jeff Schloss of UNH Coopera-
tive Extension.

Science for Land Use Decision Makers in Coastal Areas
    Conventional development is associated with increased water pollution through an
increase in impervious surfaces and a loss of the hydrologic functions served by natural
lands. Local officials such as planning board members, conservation commission mem-
bers, board of appeals, and council members are responsible for making decisions about
how land in New Hampshire towns is used. These officials are typically civic minded
volunteers who may or may not be educated about natural systems, yet they are respon-
sible for making decisions that impact the natural environment.
    In 1997, a group of staff members from various natural resource based agencies and
organizations including UNH Cooperative Extension came together to offer technical
expertise, education and support to decision makers needing science based information
to help guide community decisions about land use. The Natural Resources Outreach

                                                                                             31
Coalition (NROC) helps coastal communities to understand their existing natural
resources using GIS data; tools for helping to protect their most important ones; and
facilitation to help them develop priorities and an action plan.
    Examples of results from towns which have worked with NROC:
    Barrington, Newmarket and Newfields have developed Open Space Plans.
    Six towns in the Moose Mountain region are digitizing maps for future decision
    making.
    Exeter, Newfields and Stratham are communicating about natural resource
    protection.
    Dover held an educational workshop series about various land and water quality
    protection issues..
    Dover is researching zoning ordinance changes and developing an evaluation tool
    to prioritize conservation lands.                                                     In 1997, a group
    NRC partners include NH Sea Grant, UNH Cooperative Extension, NH Dept. of
Environmental Services, NH Office of State Planning, NH Coastal Program, NH               of staff members
Estuaries Project, Great Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Rockingham              from various
Planning Commission, Strafford Regional Planning Commission, and the National
NEMO Network.                                                                             natural resource
Science for Citizens in Coastal Areas
                                                                                          based agencies
      Residents and visitors to coastal New Hampshire are quick to notice its working     and organiza-
waterfront, recreational appeal, historical significance and role in community iden-
tity. What they are less likely to immediately notice is that the Seacoast is home to a   tions including
significant living laboratory for estuarine scientists – the Great Bay Estuary and
National Estuarine Research Reserve. Since 1997, residents and visitors to the coast
                                                                                          UNH Coopera-
have been invited aboard UNH’s research vessel, the Gulf Challenger, for an educa-        tive Extension
tional cruise into the Great Bay Estuary – a Discovery Cruise.
      These five-hour long Discovery Cruises help participants to learn more about the    came together to
estuary’s characteristics, its importance, the research going on there, inspiring the     offer technical
public to become more interested and better stewards of New Hampshire’s coastal
environments. In addition to participating in hands-on activities, participants are       expertise, edu -
introduced to the concept of nonpoint source pollution, human impacts on water
quality, and functional values of estuaries. A significant portion of the cruise is       cation and sup-
dedicated to introducing participants to various research projects underway in the        port to decision
estuary by viewing and discussing the equipment, field sites and laboratory work-
stations of CICEET scientists based at UNH.                                               makers needing
      Over the last five years, participants overwhelmingly reported gained knowledge
about the estuary, and especially about the research going on there. The majority of
                                                                                          science based
participants also reported an increase in interest, concern and curiosity about the       information to
estuary.
      Cruises have introduced participants to the research of various UNH researchers     help guide com-
including Franz Anderson, David Burdick, Ray Grizzle, Steve Jones, Rob Swift and
Win Watson.
                                                                                          munity decisions
                                                                                          about land use.
Contact:
Julia Peterson
Extension Specialist, Water Resources
Sea Grant Extension/Kingman Farm
603/749-1565
Email: julia.peterson@unh.edu




32
Geospatial Technologies
     Geospatial technologies (GSTs) are being used throughout New Hampshire and the
region to describe, analyze and manage our increasingly complex environment. These
technologies are employed by state and regional agencies to support environmental re-
views, plan for transportation improvements, help with land use planning, map and protect
groundwater and prioritize land protection activities, and address issues related to home-
land security.
     At the local level, they support and coordinate all levels of the municipal enterprise,
including assessing, planning, police, fire, water and sewer. In the private sector, industry is
increasingly reliant on these tools to develop marketing and distribution strategies and
improve their decision-making.
     UNH Cooperative Extension training programs focus on Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) and Global Positioning Systems (GPS). GIS is a computer-based technology
that allows users to create, map, manage, analyze and manipulate any type of information
with a spatial component. GPS uses satellite technology to provide accurate locational data,
which can be incorporated into a GIS.
     New Hampshire organizations, communities, and citizens
need access to GSTs to expand their capacity to address issues
and concerns facing the state. They need information about how
these technologies can be applied in their operational areas, the
hands-on skills to apply these tools to their decision-making
activities, and an understanding of the data available to support
their analyses. The current demand for information and training is
large and will continue to expand.

UNH Cooperative Extension’s Response:
    GIS for Community Decision Makers / Community Mapping:
These two courses combine learning about natural resources
planning and protection with developing skills using GIS software. They target town
employees and volunteers, educators and natural resources professionals. Below is a sample
of impacts that participants reported:

    Many participating communities used GIS in their natural resources planning. Ex-
    amples include Manchester, Somersworth, Seabrook, Hampton, Candia, Durham,
    Hollis, Milford, Farmington, and Northwood.
    Many participating teachers used GIS in their classrooms. At least three teachers
    offered GIS demonstrations and training to other teachers.
    Two New England College professors started a GIS course; another participant became
    the GIS instructor for Antioch New England Graduate School and one other teaches
    workshops for Extension.
    Two participants decided to study GIS in graduate school; one is enrolled at UNH, the
    other at Boston University.

    GPS for GIS Training and Loan Program: Participants learn how to use GPS receivers
to collect GIS data. After they participate in a workshop, they may borrow Extension’s
$10,000 GPS receivers for non-profit projects. In the last year, these GPS receivers were
used for:
    Natural resources inventories for Shaker Village, New Boston, and Barrington.
    Trail mapping in Raymond, Amherst, Farmington, Lebanon, Moose Mountains Re-
    gional Greenways region and NH Audubon sanctuaries in Antrim, Marlborough and
    Moultonborough
                                                                                                   33
     Mapping milfoil for Northwood Lake and Lake Wentworth Associations; non-
     point pollution sources on the Merrimack and Piscataquog Rivers; and Great Bay
     Coast Watch and Lakes Lay Monitoring water quality monitoring sites.
     Asset mapping in Conway and Belmont; stormwater management/utilities
     mapping in Somersworth.
     In addition to town and state employees and volunteers, these receivers were
     used by students at UNH (graduate and undergraduate students), Colby-Sawyer
     College, New England College, McKelvie Middle School (Bedford) and
     Souhegan High School (Amherst).

     UNH Cooperative Extension, Space Grant, and Sea Grant Programs and Com-
plex Systems Research Center, along with other agencies, institutions, and private
sector supporters, are collaborating in an effort to develop a geospatial technology     The Dept. of
training and resources center. The mission of this center is to “enhance and expand
access to geospatial technologies, for the benefit of NH citizens and the larger         Natural
region.” The Center will be led by Extension and Complex Systems Research Center,        Resources, in
and will provide training in geospatial technologies specific to natural resources,
municipalities, safety and justice, K-12 education, and health and wellness.             addition to being
     Assistance provided to UNH departments by Extension includes:
• Training manuals developed by Extension provided to the Technology Transfer
                                                                                         a partner in the
     Center for use in their GIS education program.                                      Senior Projects
• GIS and GPS training for UNH Natural Resources Dept. Senior Projects course.
• GIS consultation with Dimond Library faculty.                                          course, supports
• GPS loan to UNH Facilities for its GIS development.
• Upcoming faculty institute on geospatial technologies (January 2003).
                                                                                         the program by
                                                                                         providing access
     Fay Rubin at Complex Systems Research Center has been our primary partner in
development and implementation of the GIS education programs and the proposed            to their
training center. The Dept. of Natural Resources, in addition to being a partner in the   computer lab
Senior Projects course, supports the program by providing access to their computer
lab and by contributing to the purchase of two mapping-quality GPS receivers made        and by
available on-loan for student projects and for projects throughout the state. (The
UNH Undesignated Gifts program and the Pardoe Foundation also contributed to the         contributing to
purchase of the receivers.)                                                              the purchase of
     The NH Space Grant Consortium and the UNH/NOAA Cooperative Institute for
Coastal and Estuarine Technologies (CICEET) provide considerable financial support       two mapping-
for Extension’s geospatial technology training programs. Several faculty and staff
serve on the Advisory Committee for the proposed training center including:
                                                                                         quality GPS
• Fay Rubin, Michael Routhier, Steve Frolking - Complex Systems Research                 receivers made
     Center
• Larry Mayer - Center for Coastal & Ocean Mapping                                       available on-
• David Bartlett - NH Space Grant
• Rich Langan - UNH/NOAA CICEET
                                                                                         loan for student
• Bob Moynihan – Thompson School                                                         projects and for
• Thelma Thompson – Dimond Library
• Terri Winters – CIS Academic Technology                                                projects
• Russ Congalton – Natural Resources Dept.                                               throughout the
Contact:                                                                                 state.
Nancy Lambert
Extension Specialist, Natural Resources
219 Nesmith Hall,
(603) 862-4343
Email: Nancy.Lambert@unh.edu
34
Conserving the Biodiversity
of the Granite State
    New Hampshire is the fastest growing state in New England. The impacts on
quality of life, drinking water, working farms and forests, wildlife habitat, and
ecological health from this land use change galvanized New Hampshire citizens,
communities, and state legislature to support new land conservation programs and
funding. The NH Legislature created the Land and Community Heritage Investment
Program (LCHIP) in May 2000.
    In 2002, New Hampshire communities approved more than $20 million for open
space conservation.
A recent survey of the state’s land conservation community identified one of the
greatest needs as better guidance on which lands were specifically most important for
biodiversity and wildlife habitat.
    UNH Cooperative Extension Biodiversity Specialist Ellen Synder
leads the Living Legacy Project, a public-private partnership working
with land trusts, communities, landowners, researchers, agencies and
organizations to guide protection of critical wildlife habitats, outstanding
natural plant communities, lakes and ponds, rare plants and animals, and
other ecologically significant lands and waters. The goal is to integrate
these ecological values into land and water conservation, land use plan-
ning, and resource management decisions at the state, regional and
community level.
    The Biodiversity Specialist facilitates a core team of staff from the
Fish and Game Department, Division of Forests and Lands, Dept. of
Environmental Services, Society for the Protection of NH Forests,
Audubon Society of New Hampshire, The Nature Conservancy, and UNH
faculty members.

Links With University Faculty and Departments
    UNH faculty bring to the Living Legacy Project their New Hamp-
shire-based research, critical thinking skills, and scientific rigor. Drs. Tom
Lee and Jim Taylor serve on the Project’s core team and bring insight to
the Project’s Scientific Advisory Group (SAG), on which they serve along
with Drs. Bob Eckert, Kim Babbitt, Jim Haney, and John Litvaitis. Fay
Rubin, UNH Complex Systems Research Center, provides essential
natural resource data and mapping information through GRANIT to the
Living Legacy Project.
    Drs. Jim Taylor and Tom Lee edited (along with Laura Falk McCarthy) the
publication, New Hampshire’s Living Legacy: The Biodiversity of the Granite State, a
biodiversity primer and an important foundation for the Living Legacy Project. The
Biodiversity Specialist wrote the first chapter.
    The Biodiversity Specialist gave a lecture and student project on conservation
biology principles in Dr. Kim Babbitt’s Conservation Biology class. The Biodiversity
Specialist participates in the Office of Sustainability Biodiversity Education Initiative
Working Group, making connections between biodiversity issues from around New
Hampshire and the campus community. The Specialist provides critical review and
facilitation for some sustainability programs.                                              35
New Hampshire Public Television
    Thanks to NH Public Television (NHPTV), the 1998 award-winning video, NH’s
Living Legacy: the Biodiversity of the Granite State is available at http://
www.nhptv.org/kn/wildnh/wild1.htm. The 22-minute video was produced by Ellen
Snyder and Maryann Mroczka (UNH Video Services) with funding from The Nature
Conservancy of NH and the McCabe Environmental Fund of the NH Charitable
Foundation. The video is available as part of “Wild New Hampshire,” a series of
workshops on the state’s wildlife and their habitats for K-12 educators, coordinated
by the NH Fish and Game Dept. Teachers join the monthly workshops from one of
several sites around the state, connected through the Granite State Distance Learning
Network. For the second year, the Biodiversity Specialist presented the first work-
shop on New Hampshire’s Biodiversity to more than 20 teachers from four sites.
                                                                                           Teachers join
Significant Outcomes of the Living Legacy Partnership
• The 171,500 acres recently protected in the Connecticut Lakes region included a
                                                                                           the monthly
25,000-acre natural area. The location of the natural area was determined using the        workshops from
ecological criteria developed through the Living Legacy Project and brought into the
decision-making by several project partners.                                               one of several
• The Land and Community Heritage Investment Program (LCHIP) was created in
part because of the science-based information brought to state legislators by Living
                                                                                           sites around the
Legacy Project partners. Data showed the development pressure and corresponding            state, connected
impacts on natural habitat and open space. The Living Legacy ecological criteria are
included in the list of criteria used by the LCHIP board to decide on land protection      through the
projects.                                                                                  Granite State
• The Living Legacy Project ecological criteria and expertise are used in several
current conservation planning projects including an assessment of significant wildlife     Distance Learn-
habitat in the Lower Lamprey and Piscassic Rivers, an Office of State Planning
initiative to identify wetland mitigation sites in the seacoast, and land trust partner-   ing Network.
ships in the Piscataquog and Ammonoosuc Watersheds to identify ecologically                For the second
significant lands.
• Science-based resource materials developed by project staff and partners are used        year the
and referred to repeatedly by conservation groups and initiatives in New Hampshire
and beyond. The documents provide the foundation for many land conservation
                                                                                           Biodiversity
projects in the state.                                                                     Specialist pre-
Contact:                                                                                   sented the first
Ellen J. Snyder
Extension Specialist, Biodiversity
                                                                                           workshop on
214 Nesmith Hall                                                                           New
603-862-4277
Email: ellen.snyder@unh.edu                                                                Hampshire’s
                                                                                           Biodiversity to
                                                                                           more than 20
                                                                                           teachers from
                                                                                           four sites.




36
The New Hampshire Lakes Lay
Monitoring Program
     UNH Cooperative Extension, in collaboration with the UNH Center for Freshwa-
ter Biology (UNH CFB) administers the NH Lakes Lay Monitoring Program (NH
LLMP), a grass-roots based effort of citizen volunteers, faculty and students. Their
mission is to empower local communities with the training, equipment and support
that allows them to monitor their local water resources, assess their condition, report
locally on their status and provide unbiased information to
allow for the intelligent stewardship and management of
those resources.
     Initiated as a UNH class project in 1978 on Lake
Chocorua and formally established in 1979 on the Squam
Lakes, the NH Lakes Lay Monitoring Program represents a
successful partnership between citizens concerned about
their local water resources, UNH faculty, Extension educa-
tors and students. Today, over 500 volunteers in the NH
LLMP monitor and report on the water quality of over 130
lakes statewide (over 290 lake sites) and 286 streams on a
weekly or bi-weekly basis throughout the summer season.
Members of each lake association or community group (93
lake, watershed or community associations currently partici-
pate) are trained by Extension scientists to make water
quality measurements and take and preserve water samples
sent to the EPA certified NH LLMP water quality lab for
analysis.
     The LLMP has many success stories of community empowerment and informed
decision-making throughout its 24 year history. These include sewer bonds passed for
lake protection, best management practices incorporated to prevent pollution and
protect prime farmlands, forest lands, wetlands and other critical lands coming under
protection, and volunteer participants empowered to
become local leaders and community stewards.
     Recently, the NH LLMP data allowed for Chocorua
Lake to be put on the state Critical Watershed listing and
receive EPA Non-point Source Pollution mitigation fund-
ing.
     The Chocorua Lake Project is a great example of how
the NH LLMP empowers local community volunteers to
take action. Through efforts of Chocorua Lake Association
volunteers, the NH Conservation Partnership was formed.
NHCP is a collaboration between seven federal, regional
and state agencies, Extension, UNH faculty and local
community groups. NH LLMP data was used to perform a
nutrient /water budget for the watershed to justify EPA, NH
Dept. of Environmental Services and NH Dept. of Trans-
portation funding towards mitigation of Rte. 16 runoff into
the lake.
     Two summers of post-mitigation monitoring has indicated an 87-92 percent
decrease in nutrient loading into the lake. The Chocorua Project, used as a model

                                                                                          37
program by the regional EPA office, was highlighted as an EPA NPS program success
story has received a Technical Merit Award from the North American Lake Manage-
ment Society and was featured as the lead story in the Summer 2002 issue of The
Volunteer Monitor Newsletter.
     The NH LLMP has actively involved UNH faculty and their students in not only
meeting the educational needs of the citizens of New Hampshire but also their
applied research needs. “Participatory research,” an innovative approach, has been
used, where research faculty and graduate students guide volunteer monitors in
collecting the measurements necessary to provide the data their communities need the
answers to and information on.
     In recent years, over 19 faculty members and their students from Plant Biology,
Zoology, Natural Resources, Water Resources, Civil Engineering, Hydrology and
Resource Economics have used the NH LLMP as a bridge to the local lake constitu-         The NH Lakes
encies of New Hampshire for a variety of projects. These have ranged from trend
analysis, fish condition, blue green “algae” toxins, use of mussels as bio-indicators,   Lay Monitoring
watercraft impacts, remote sensing of inland waters, landscape level watershed           Program repre-
analysis, and the economic value/loss of water clarity and non-native species intro-
duction.                                                                                 sents a successful
     Re-occurring guest lectures by Extension educators on LLMP projects and results
are provided for four Water Resources classes/labs, two Plant Biology/ Zoology
                                                                                         partnership
classes/labs and one Community Planning class. Also, LLMP data has been incorpo-         between citizens
rated for use in the following classes:
         Zoology/Plant Biology Field Limnology - Drs. Alan Baker and James Haney-        concerned about
Students visit and sample a suite of NH LLMP participating lakes and prepare
comparative reports that are also submitted to the respective lake associations and
                                                                                         their local water
volunteers as well as linked to the Center for Freshwater Biology web site.              resources, UNH
         Biology/Zoology - Interdisciplinary Lake Management - Drs. Alan Baker,
James Haney and Robert Robertson (Resource Economics and Development)- NH                faculty, Exten-
LLMP volunteers and their lake association officers present to students during the       sion educators
course. Students work with these lake associations and NH LLMP participants using
existing data and performing GIS analyses to formulate a Lake and Watershed              and students.
Resources Inventory and the provide the outline of a lake management plan that is
presented to the respective association.                                                 Today, over 500
         Biology - Project Lakewatch- Drs. Richard Blakemore, Janet Campbell and         volunteers in the
Alan Baker- An experimental hybrid course blending Limnology, Microbiology, and
Geospatial Technology. Students will work for two years taking a combination of          NH LLMP moni-
summer courses and fall and spring seminars while working with volunteer monitors
from two NH LLMP lakes per two person student team..
                                                                                         tor and report on
         Water Resources Management - Watershed Hydrology- Dr. Carl Bolster              the water qual-
(Natural Resources)- Students get hands-on experience at determining water budgets
for selected NH LLMP lakes and provide back that information to each lake associa-       ity of over 130
tion. Plans are underway to continue these projects as part of a newly developed
Watershed Modeling course.
                                                                                         lakes statewide
                                                                                         (over 290 lake
Contact:
Jeff Schloss                                                                             sites) and 286
Extension Specialist, Water Resources – LLMP                                             streams.
224 Nesmith Hall
862-3848
Email: jeff.schloss@unh.edu




38
Aquaculture: A Growing Industry
in New England
     Over the last two decades, aquaculture has been one of the fastest growing
sectors of U.S. agriculture, jumping over 20 percent in just one year, from $807
million in 1997 to nearly $1 billion in 1998. The decline of the world’s capture
fisheries, along with a growing population, has led to a growing demand for farm-
raised fish and shellfish. In addition to supplying a growing portion of the world’s
seafood, aquaculture has tremendous potential right here in New England as an
alternative enterprise in rural areas, a farm diversification option, and even as a new
use for abandoned mills and warehouses in urban areas.
     While interest in aquaculture is high throughout the country, it’s particularly so
here in New England. Small, family-sized farms primarily dominate this region’s
agriculture. Many of these farmers are interested in aquaculture
to supplement income. Some have existing ponds they would
like to use in a profitable manner, while others wish to diversify
farm enterprises and are interested in building small-scale
aquaculture facilities.
     Since 1997, the UNH Cooperative Extension freshwater
aquaculture extension program has worked with existing and
prospective fish farmers in an effort to increase family income,
family access to fresh, high-quality fish for the table and farm
diversity, while reducing risk and finding new uses for unpro-
ductive land and old buildings.
     Educational programs focus on using existing farm ponds
and overcoming associated harvesting challenges, developing
techniques for rearing “new” species that appear to have greater
economic potential, teaching basic fish culture skills to prospective aquaculturists, as
well as teachers and other interested citizens, and assisting current fish farmers with
collecting information needed for business development. Some program examples
follow:

      Aquaculture in Farm Ponds and Other Small Water Bodies
      Since 1998, Extension has worked with farmers in an on-farm research/demon-
stration project to grow fish in cages in farm ponds. During the first growing season,
caged fish were reared in two ponds at UNH’s Kingman Farm and a field day and
workshop were held to introduce people to the project.
      In the second year, three farmers participated with one cage each in their own
ponds. The third year, five farmers participated, and we tested a deeper style of cage
to examine the effect on fish survival in warm weather. At this time, seven farmers
are growing caged fish for sale to restaurants, at farmers’ markets and for their own
home use.
      Until now, the project has concentrated on rearing trout, but this can be some-
what difficult due to warm water temperatures during the summer, and relatively low
market value. The number of participants has been kept small because of this; we are
still in the learning stage. The next step is to investigate species that will do better
throughout the summer, and have higher market value. We will be looking at hybrid
striped bass in summer 2003. When species appropriate for farm-pond cage-culture in

                                                                                           39
New England have been determined, this program will be greatly expanded. The
now-experienced farmers will also participate by demonstrating and teaching others.

    Smelt Aquaculture
    The Extension smelt project began with a farmer’s request for information and
assistance. In 2000, two New Hampshire farmers, Extension, David Berlinsky,
Assistant Professor in Zoology at UNH and NH Fish & Game Dept. (NHF&G) began
collaborating to develop techniques for raising rainbow smelt to market size for use
as bait fish. Demand for bait smelt far exceeds supply, with a dozen smelt retailing
for $5-12/dozen ($73-1000/kg) or more.
    In the spring of 2001, brood fish were obtained, spawned, the eggs hatched, and
the fry reared for over two weeks at UNH’s Kingman Farm. In 2002, Berlinsky’s
aquaculture class spawned the fish, and incubation and fry rearing were carried out             New Hamp-
both by the class and at the Kingman Farm.
    During both years, our success was far greater than expected. We have now been         shire also has
approved for grant funding to conduct larger-scale studies starting in spring 2003.        many K-12
Berlinsky and his graduate students will conduct several laboratory experiments, and
Extension will work with two New Hampshire farmers and one Maine farmer to                 teachers inter-
conduct replicated, on-farm, pond-based trials.
                                                                                           ested in using
    Aquaculture “Down Cellar”                                                              small aquacul-
    This program was designed to teach people the basics of raising fish in small,
indoor systems. Many prospective fish farmers with whom Extension works have               ture systems to
very little experience in either rearing fish or in designing and maintaining fish
culture systems. It’s very helpful for these people to start on a small scale, and learn
                                                                                           teach math and
what they need to, without having to make a large investment. New Hampshire also           science prin-
has many K-12 teachers interested in using small aquaculture systems to teach math
and science principles. To help these people gain the skills they need, the first Aquac-   ciples. To help
ulture “Down Cellar” workshop was held in October, 1999.                                   these people
    This topic has been enormously successful, and 10 more workshops have been
held since the first, with more to come. Participants have come from all six New           gain the skills
England states, and as far away as New Jersey. Extension has even been asked to
conduct similar workshops at national Aquaculture America meetings in San Diego            they need, the
(January 2002) and Louisville, KY (February 2003), as well as at the Pennsylvania          first Aquacul-
State Aquaculture Conference in October 2002.
    Workshops include both lecture/discussion segments and hands-on segments               ture “Down
where participants actually build fish culture systems. Through anecdotal evidence,
and work with prospective fish farmers, it appears these small systems are becoming
                                                                                           Cellar” workshop
widely used, even by people who haven’t actually attended a workshop. A compre-            was held in
hensive evaluation of this program is planned.
                                                                                           October, 1999.
Contact:
J-J Newman
Extension Specialist, Aquaculture
UNH-Kingman Farm
603/749-1565
Email: jj.newman@unh.edu




40
Conserving and Using the Nation’s
Fisheries Resources
     The marine fishery in New England waters is at a critical juncture. Recovery of
overfished fish stocks requires implementation of stricter limitations on fishing gears,
fishing methods, fishing time and fishing grounds. Balancing
conservation of the resource and commercial exploration by
the fishing industry requires understanding of the fish, the
fishing gear, and the fishery ecosystem, as well as upgraded
knowledge and new attitude of fishing industry participants.
     UNH Cooperative Extension’s Sea Grant and Water
Resources program provides technical assistance and advice
on fishing gears through cooperative research with the fishing
industry and through technical training workshops to upgrade
knowledge of fishermen in conservation-oriented fishing gear
designs and operations.
     Since April 2001, the Sea Grant and Water Resources
Program Extension Specialist teamed up fishing industry
participants in New Hampshire, Maine and Massachusetts,
successfully obtaining substantial research grant amounts
from the Northeast Consortium and the National Marine                        Ronnie Simpson, crew of F/V “Aaron &
Fisheries Services for cooperative research to improve conser-             Melissa II”, securing the UNH underwater
vation characteristics of commercial fishing operations.                               camera on the trawl
     Projects range from reducing bycatch and discard in
northeast groundfish trawl and gillnet fisheries, evaluating
and reducing seabed impact of trawling in the Gulf of Maine,
developing alternative fishing gears and methods for harvest-
ing traditional fish and shellfish species, to understanding
selectivity conservation characteristics of trawl codends of
various mesh sizes and shapes.
     The project teams employed flume tank simulation
techniques and full-scale sea trials onboard commercial
fishing vessels owned and operated by project partners.
Sophisticated equipment, including underwater video cam-
eras and acoustic monitoring devices, have been used to
observe fish behavior near fishing gears and fishing gear
geometry during fishing operations. It is our goal to design
and test fishing gears and operation methods that are conser-
vation-oriented, economically feasible and contribute to the
                                                                         New Hampshire fishermen discussing a shrimp
sustainable use of the fisheries resource in the Gulf of Maine        selectivity grid with a workshop facilitator at the
and beyond.                                                             Newfoundland workshop in December 2001
     An industrial workshop on selectivity and conservation
during trawling was successfully organized in December,
2001 using the state-of-art flume tank facility at Memorial University of Newfound-
land in St. John’s, Newfoundland. Eight New Hampshire fishermen, two Extension
staff members and a program coordinator from the Northeast Consortium which
                                                                                                                            41
provided the funding, attended the workshop. The workshop goals were to upgrade
knowledge of the New Hampshire fishing industry participants in selectivity and
conservation during trawling, as well as to build partnerships between New Hamp-
shire fishermen and UNH Extension Specialists/Educators for future cooperative
research projects.
     The workshop covered a range of topics with flume tank demonstrations of gear
designs and selectivity devices as the main theme. Other topics included fish behav-
ior near trawls, worldwide selectivity devices and designs, otter board design, and
marine mammal issues. Site visits included a cod grow-out farm, an aquaculture
research facility, a ship bridge simulator, ship testing tanks, a fisherman’s coopera-
tive, small vessel harbors, and local fishing gear-manufacturing shops.
     Dedicated time was allocated to discuss industry-university partnership in
cooperative research and potential future projects involving participants. Very          It is our goal to
positive feedback was received from the participants. As a result, the Northeast
Consortium has funded another workshop this winter involving the fishing industry        design and test
from New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Maine, as well as federal and state fisheries      fishing gears
department and Sea Grant staff members in the three states.
     We strive to share our knowledge in conservation-oriented gear designs with the     and operation
fishing industry so those who make a living on the sea can better improve their
operations toward long term benefits of the resource. We are also making effort to
                                                                                         methods that
share our knowledge with the general public through various forums and media so          are conserva-
they can be assured the best approaches are being taken in conservation and sustain-
able utilization of the nation’s fisheries resources.                                    tion-
Contact:
                                                                                         oriented,
Pingguo He                                                                               economically
Extension Specialist, Fishing Gear Technology
137 Morse Hall                                                                           feasible and
862-3154                                                                                 contribute to
Email: Pingguo.He@unh.edu
                                                                                         the sustainable
                                                                                         use of the fisher-
                                                                                         ies resource in
                                                                                         the Gulf of
                                                                                         Maine and
                                                                                         beyond.




42
Wildlife Education Through
Faculty Collaboration
    As an extension of the University of New Hampshire, the UNH Cooperative
Extension wildlife specialist takes pride in extending the knowledge and research of
the campus natural resources community.
    He has worked closely with Dr. John Litvaitis of the UNH Dept. of Natural
Resources to develop a northeast wildlife habitat conference, transferring knowledge
to over 150 professional colleagues. Dr. Peter Pekins of the UNH Dept. of Natural
Resources and Dr. Robert Robertson of the UNH Dept. of Resource Economics and
Development, worked collaboratively with Covell on a research proposal to investi-
gate issues of public access on private lands in New Hampshire.
    The Wildlife Specialist is regularly called upon by faculty to teach UNH stu-
dents, both in the classroom and in the field. He has been a guest field lecturer for
Drs. Ted Howard, Pekins and Litvaitis.
    The role of UNH Cooperative Extension is perhaps nowhere better exemplified
than through the publication of our Habitats newsletter, disseminated to 4,500 natural
resource professionals, landowners, and practitioners in the natural resources field.
As editor of this newsletter, Covell has invited articles from UNH graduate students,
and made use of current research by UNH faculty. Bringing that research-based
knowledge and information into the homes of New Hampshire citizens is part of
UNH Cooperative Extension’s mission.

Educating and Inspiring New Hampshire Citizens
     Covell has educated and inspired citizens of New Hampshire through his work-
shops on many topics. He developed a series of workshops throughout the state on
wildlife habitat management, showing landowners how they can manage lands for
wild animals. Workshops for foresters and loggers on a variety of wildlife topics have
motivated them to think about wildlife in their planning and everyday work. And in
the developing landscape, Covell collaborated with others to develop a program for
environmental consultants working on development projects. Through workshops, he
provided them with information about wildlife habitat priorities and a “Site Specific
Wildlife Habitat Assessment” form for them to use in the field.
     One workshop, “Coverts,” stands out as the highlight of each year. The Coverts
Volunteer Program is a collaborative effort that helps New Hampshire landowners
and community leaders become good stewards of the land and our ambassadors of
good stewardship. Every September, a new group of 25 people convenes at a 3-day
training session. They receive materials, classroom instruction and field experience
in wildlife and forest stewardship and land conservation. Now numbering 190
people, these “Coverts Cooperators” are our active “volunteers working for wildlife”
in their communities.
     Communities are often the focal point of natural resource conservation work.
Covell joined with others to provide workshops and technical assistance to communi-
ties through a series of eight workshops on “Planning for Wildlife and Other Natural
Resources.” These workshops extended to communities ideas in the New Hampshire
Fish and Game Department’s publication, “Identifying and Protecting New


                                                                                         43
Hampshire’s Significant Wildlife Habitat: A Guide for Towns and Conservation
Groups,” and UNH Cooperative Extension’s publication, “Natural Resource Invento-
ries: A Guide for Communities and Conservation Groups.”
     Writing articles and brochures has been an important way for the wildlife special-
ist to get his message out. He wrote articles in the Habitats newsletter (mentioned
above) on wildlife and water, wildlife habitat in the White Mountain National Forest,
and wildlife and invasive plants, among others. Another article that Covell wrote on
wildlife habitat and forest management first appeared in the regional newsletter of a
northeastern United States forestry company. The parent company out of Great
Britain then picked up the story and printed it in their international magazine. Covell
wrote a brochure on deer feeding and an article on woodcock for NH Fish and
Game’s magazine, New Hampshire Wildlife Journal.
     Covell used additional media to spread the word about wildlife and habitat            The Coverts
management. He appeared on New Hampshire Public Radio’s The Exchange with
Steve Weber, Chief of NH Fish and Game’s Wildlife Division. This one-hour, call-in         Volunteer
show engaged New Hampshire citizens in a discussion about wildlife management in           Program is a
our state. Covell has been interviewed and quoted in newspaper articles, including
most recently in a Manchester Union Leader Sunday News column on creating                  collaborative
backyard wildlife habitat.
                                                                                           effort that helps
Shaping Our Conservation Policies                                                          New Hampshire
    As a member of the larger conservation community, Covell has been an exem-
plary representative of Extension. Gov. Jeanne Shaheen and U.S. Sen. Judd Gregg            landowners and
appointed him to the Technical Committee for the Connecticut Lakes Headwaters
Partnership Task Force. Gov. Shaheen and Sen. Gregg recognized him for his contri-
                                                                                           community
butions to the protection of 171,500 acres in northern New Hampshire.                      leaders
    Covell also serves on many committees that shape the face of conservation in
New Hampshire and the northeast. He has become a member of the Environmental               become good
Policy Committee for the Audubon Society of New Hampshire, and represents                  stewards of the
wildlife interests on NH’s Forest Stewardship Committee. Most recently, he became
active in the Northeast Upland Habitat Technical Committee and is coordinating a           land and our
New Hampshire-hosted annual meeting of the group.
                                                                                           ambassadors of
Collaborating with Partners                                                                good
     As with any Extension staff, none of Covell’s work would be possible without
the cooperation of and collaboration with many individuals of state agencies, non-         stewardship.
profit organizations, companies, communities and New Hampshire citizens. The
Extension Wildlife Specialist works in partnership with NH Fish and Game Dept.,
and Covell is an integral part of that state agency. Additionally, he has worked closely
with the Division of Forests and Lands, UNH Complex Systems, the Office of State
Planning, the Society for the Protection of NH Forests, Audubon Society of New
Hampshire, the Ruffed Grouse Society, Fountain Forestry, many foresters, landown-
ers, conservation commission members, and a host of others.

Contact:
Darrel Covell
Extension Specialist, Wildlife
216 Nesmith Hall
862-3594
Email: darrel.covell@unh.edu




44
Marine Science Education
    The UNH Marine Docents are 150 educated volunteers who deliver outreach and
marine education programs to pre-school through high school students, educators,
clubs and organizations and the general public throughout New Hampshire and
northern New England.
     These programs include boat-based experiences such as the Discovery Cruises to
the Isles of Shoals and Great Bay aboard the University’s RV Gulf Challenger,
Floating Lab programs, and year-round programs for schools that feature short talks
and activities designed to inform and motivate students to learn more about the
marine and coastal environment.
    Docents also serve as instructors and committee members at the Seacoast Science
Center in Rye and the Great Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve’s Sandy Point
Discovery Center. The UNH Marine Docent program is a nationally recognized
program and received the prestigious Gulf of Maine Council’s Visionary Award in
2000. The Docents donate thousands of hours of their time and travel, about 75,000
miles each year, bringing a window on the sea to more than 15,000 people.
     UNH faculty members from the Depts. of Earth Sciences, Zoology, Ocean
Engineering, Natural Resources and other members of the Marine Program, and
researchers from Jackson Estuarine Laboratory and the Northeast Consortium, help
with Docent training. Faculty and researchers at Jackson Lab also educate a small
cadre of docents about the facility and research projects there so Docents can conduct
tours for groups through the Lab. In this way, Docents help bridge the gap between
research and the public.
    As a way to broaden their students’ education, several faculty members encour-
age them to participate as instructors in various marine science programs such as the
UNH Coastal Floating Lab to gain teaching experience with middle and high school
students.

The M & M Program
    For 10 years, faculty from Jackson Estuarine Laboratory, the Mathematics Dept.,
and the Computer Science Dept., collaborated with Extension staff to offer the Math
and Marine (M & M) Science program for 9th graders. This 4-week program included
three weeks of residency at the University and five Saturday meetings during the
following school year in which students participated in an integrated program of
marine science, applied mathematics and computer technology. Supported by the
National Science Foundation, UNH Cooperative Extension and Maine/New Hamp-
shire Sea Grant, the program served as a prototype for the present Project Smart.
    In a survey of former M & M students, these impacts were noted:
    • 82% percent enrolled in additional mathematics, science and computer
        courses in high school,
    • 95% felt the Math and Marine Science Program increased their knowledge of
        careers in those fields,
    • Almost 100% of the students enrolled in mathematics and science-related
        courses in college expected to get bachelor degrees in those areas and 72% of
        them expected
        to have careers in those fields in the future,
    • Almost all students reported more self-confidence in taking courses in
        mathematics, marine science and computer technology, but girls, in particu
        lar, indicated a strong increase in confidence.
                                                                                         45
     Teacher education has always been a priority for our outreach efforts and faculty
have participated in every major teacher workshop and course that has been offered
over the years. The northeast region part of the national Pathfinder 3-week, graduate
course for middle and high school teachers is one example of faculty involvement.
     Professors Larry Harris, Zoology, Ted Loder, Earth Sciences, Loren Meeker and
Ernst Linder, Mathematics, Associate Professor David Burdick, Natural Resources,
all contributed lectures and demonstrations for the Pathfinder program.


    The Sea Grant Educators Network produced an extensive Global Environmental
Change “train the trainer” program for educators and held workshops nationally in
seven regions in the 1990’s. Faculty participants included Dr.Berrian Moore III,
Director of EOS, Dr. Cameron Wake, Dr. Loren Meeker, Dr. Paul Mayewski and Dr.           Almost all
Barry Rock. Informal educators from the Northeast who participated in those work-
shops are continuing to present programs and exhibits on global environmental            students
change, today. An example of this in New Hampshire is the Seacoast Science               reported more
Center’s involvement with the current AIRMAP (Atmospheric Investigation, Re-
search, Modeling and Prediction) project at EOS.                                         self-confidence
Contact:
                                                                                         in taking courses
Sharon Meeker                                                                            in mathematics,
Extension Specialist, Marine Education
Kingman Farm/UNH                                                                         marine science
749-1565
Email: sharon.meeker@unh.edu
                                                                                         and computer
                                                                                         technology, but
                                                                                         girls, in particu -
                                                                                         lar, indicated a
                                                                                         strong increase
                                                                                         in confidence.




46
New Hampshire’s Forest Industry:
Sustaining Rural Communities

     For over three centuries, the manufacturing of wood products has been a contin-
ued presence in many New Hampshire communities. The state’s forest industry
represents a $1.5 billion dollar industry and when combined with forest-based
recreation and tourism, the figure exceeds $2 billion.
     In a state that is 84% forested, the forest is critically impor-
tant not only to the forest industry, but to rural communities as
well. A working forest, one that provides an economic return to its
owner, is far more likely to remain a forest - the green backdrop
that contributes to the state’s quality of life.
     The UNH Cooperative Extension Specialist, Forest Industry,
is actively involved in providing information and education to the
many sectors of the forest industry. This assistance is delivered
through direct business visits, workshops, responding to requests,
and dissemination of information. The specialist also takes
advantage of industry networking opportunities, such as industry
association meetings, to engage the industry, assess needs, and
further deliver timely information.
     By using the vast resources at UNH, the land grant college
system, USDA, and industry publications; the specialist is able to
contribute a balance of information and a clarification of issues with which individu-
als and companies can make informed decisions.
     In addition, because the forest industry is complex, the forest industry specialist
works closely with economic development specialists throughout the state to under-
stand the needs of the industry, such as species mix (what kind of trees) and fluctuat-
ing lumber markets.

Loggers come together to improve image
    Loggers have a direct impact on New Hampshire’s forests and in recent years,
worked hard to improve their professionalism. UNH Cooperative Extension has
traditionally provided educational opportunities for the logging community. In 1993,
in cooperation with the UNH Thompson School of Applied Science and the NH
Timberland Owners Association (NHTOA), Extension held a series of listening
sessions for loggers, resulting in the formation of the NH Timber Harvesting Council.
    The council, with its partners at UNH and NHTOA, designed a series of work-
shops - The Professional Logger Program - which provides a certificate of comple-
tion to participants. Over 700 New Hampshire loggers have completed the program
and continue to participate in continuing education programs. Workshops include
First Aid/CPR, Safe Felling, Fundamentals of Forestry, and Timber Harvesting Law.


                                                                                           47
New Hampshire’s sawmills improve utilization
     Today, New Hampshire has far fewer sawmills than it did 40 years ago. Despite
this decrease, the mills produce more lumber through improved efficiency. As New
Hampshire’s sawmills become more efficient, they reduce the amount of wood or
logs consumed. While much of this improvement is due to technology, including
computerization, many more efficiencies can be accomplished through information
dissemination and education of the workforce.
     UNH Cooperative Extension’s forest industry specialist works to identify these
key educational opportunities and to provide information. For example, a hardwood
sawmill producing 5 million board feet per year (a mid-sized sawmill) was spending
$40 per thousand board feet to have their lumber graded. UNH Cooperative Exten-
sion was able to train a lumber grader, saving the company approximately $200,000
in grading fees. In addition, the mill was able to produce better lumber, thereby         The UNH Dept.
increasing the value of each board sawn.
     Another sawmill was having difficulty with logs produced from drought stricken       of Natural
trees. After a call to UNH, the specialist was able to access current research through    Resources and
the UNH database system, enabling the mill to make quick decisions that saved both
money and resource.                                                                       UNH Coopera-
New opportunity to connect UNH with NH Forest Industry
                                                                                          tive Extension
    The UNH Dept. of Natural Resources and UNH Cooperative Extension have                 have worked
worked together to use the strong connection that Extension has with NH’s industry
to provide opportunities for forestry students to engage with NH’s forest industry.       together to use
    The Extension Specialist, forest industry will begin teaching the Wood Products
and Utilization course, NR 754, in the spring of 2003. This course will also provide
                                                                                          the strong con-
the state’s forest-based industry with the opportunity to further tap the resources of    nection that
the university by challenging students to assist with problems. It is hoped this stron-
ger linkage will spark greater interaction between the University and one of New          Extension has
Hampshire’s largest manufacturing industries.                                             with NH’s indus-
Contact:                                                                                  try to provide
Sarah S. Smith
Extension Specialist, Forest Industry                                                     opportunities for
210 Nesmith Hall                                                                          forestry students
862-2647
Email: sarah.smith@unh.edu                                                                to engage with
                                                                                          NH’s forest
                                                                                          industry.




48
Climate Modified
Strawberry Production
     Strawberry growers in New Hampshire produce up to 2.5 million pounds of field
ripe berries annually on 275 acres, bringing in more than $2.5 million in farm in-
come. Strawberries are an important crop on mixed commodity farms, offering the
advantage of early season income and consumer traffic at farm stands. Direct market-
ing via the U-Pick and roadside stand market is the primary sales outlet for New
Hampshire-grown fruit.
     Strawberries in New Hampshire have traditionally been grown
in the matted row system of culture. In this system, dormant plants
are set in May of Year 1 and the first fruit are harvested in a short
two to three weeks from mid-June into early July the following
year. In this system, weed management, in particular, is extremely
expensive, requiring a combination of herbicide tools with erratic
weed control at best and mechanical and hand cultivation.
     The objective has been to develop a system of culture that
extends the marketing season for New Hampshire strawberries
outside the normal harvest period and requires fewer weed manage-
ment inputs. To achieve this, a climate modified production system
was developed based in part on the plasticulture system in use in
the major strawberry production areas in California and Florida.

Research at Woodman Farm
     Research at the UNH Woodman Research Farm provided the basis for develop-
ment of this system for New Hampshire growers. That research has involved Bill
Lord, Extension Fruit Specialist in the Plant Biology Department, Brent Loy, Profes-
sor of Plant Biology, and Otho Wells, retired Professor of Plant Biology and Exten-
sion Vegetable Specialist. Two graduate students, Charles Bornt and Nicholas
Karakoudas, conducted research that helped identify appropriate planting and winter
protection strategies for the northern climate.
     Live plants grown in standard greenhouse plug culture are set into black plastic
raised beds about Sept. 1. A trickle tube provides needed water and nutrients under
the black plastic cover. The field is covered with floating row cover fabric in early
October. Harvest is the following June, generally beginning two weeks or more ahead
of traditional matted row fields and lasting up to a month or more.
     This system modifies the environment significantly. The black plastic raised beds
warm quickly from the sun’s rays, promoting vigorous plant growth in the weeks post
planting. The floating row cover applied in early October creates a warm, growing
environment for plants, one that often lasts into December, long past the time when
plants in the matted row system are dormant and covered with straw for the winter.
And as soon as winter’s snows melt away, exposing the cover, it warms again,
allowing plants to grow and develop several weeks early.
     Two undergraduate students, Bridgid Carroll and Jenna Dube, working under the
guidance of Lord, conducted independent research projects that help explain how
floating row covers affect strawberry plant growth and development and carbohy-
drate storage and utilization during the dormant season.
                                                                                         49
    Using this system, yields in excess of 10,000 pounds per acre are typical just a
short fall, winter, and spring after planting. This compares favorably to the state
average of about 8,500 pounds per acre for matted row production. Fruit size is
exceptional and insect and disease pressure are minimal, thanks to the clean, airy
environment the plastic covered raised beds offer and the fact that bloom and berry
development is ahead of the major pests.

System Use Growing
     Use of this system is growing. A dozen farms in New Hampshire now use this
system on more than 20 acres and interest is growing. The interest is spurred in part
by the early and long harvest season, but the key issues driving this system adoption
are pest management (especially weeds) and efficiency of land use. Elimination of a
non-productive year in the strawberry production cycle allows increased crop produc-     Strawberries are
tion.
     Many major strawberry operations in New England are using this system, but it’s     an important
perhaps organic growers who have seized on this system with the greatest enthusi-        crop on mixed
asm. It offers them a viable and predictable production system that can be managed
using organic techniques.                                                                commodity
     One such grower is Caroline Robinson in Stratham. Caroline and her husband,
Buck, own and operate an organic small fruit farm specializing in strawberries,
                                                                                         farms, offering
blueberries and raspberries. Managing strawberries organically requires special          the advantage of
attention to weed and other pest management, chores that can be extremely labor-
intensive without synthetic herbicides and other pesticides.                             early season
     The first trial planting at the Robinsons’ farm was an on-farm demonstration
planting conducted in cooperation with UNH Cooperative Extension. The system
                                                                                         income and
performed well and the Robinsons are now relying on this system for the majority of      consumer traffic
their production. Caroline is an avid promoter of the usefulness of this system,
saying, “We are totally convinced that this system solves the weed management            at farm stands.
problem which for organic growers is so major. Yields just keep coming and harvest
just lasts and lasts.” Her husband, Buck enthuses that “there is no non-producing year
in the system,” allowing more efficient use of a limited land resource. “Just look out
the window, the difference between systems is just incredible,” he concludes.
     Further work on this system is underway. Jim Pollard, Professor of Plant Biology
and graduate student Victoria Davidson are working with Lord to identify more
precisely how floral initiation is controlled by environment. Using this information,
they hope to develop a management system for farmers that allow production of very
large, high quality fruits for the specialty market.

Contact:
Bill Lord
Extension Specialist, Fruit
137 Spaulding Hall
862-3203
william.lord@unh.edu




50
Integrated Pest Management
     UNH Cooperative Extension’s Integrated Pest Management (IPM) efforts assist
commercial agriculture people (orchardists, greenhouse managers, farmers, etc) in
improving the way they manage pest problems.
     The program aims to reduce the over-dependence on chemical pesticides, maintain
or improve crop quality and yield, and save growers money. Since “pest” can mean
insect, pathogen, weed, vertebrate, or other organism, we collaborate with researchers at
UNH and other institutions in the Northeastern United States and Canada.
     IPM work involves a whole team. Among recent collaborators are UNH researchers
Paul Fisher and Bill MacHardy (Plant Biology,) and Agriculture
Canada researcher Charles Vincent. We have instructional workshops,
grower meetings, newsletters, telephone pest updates, and numerous
publications.
     The most recent effort involves introducing a European insect
(parasite of a pest) to New Hampshire. It follows successful introduc-
tion of a predator mite from New York that resulted in the reduction
of miticide use here. Dr MacHardy’s recent grants have focused on
sanitation as a tool to manage apple scab and other pests. The impacts
of his work go far beyond New Hampshire orchards.
         In greenhouse work, Alan Eaton and Paul Fisher and his
students are collaborating on research to reduce fungus gnat problems
in greenhouses. We are studying the effect of barriers in the pots,
which turn out to be effective and easy to use. This may improve
plant quality, reduce losses, reduce spraying, and save money. We are now applying for
grants to further the work.
Impacts
     The IPM program began in 1978. Even though the commodities of emphasis have
changed, apple work has continued every year. Comparison of the incidence of fruit
injury and the amount of pesticide use today with that from 22-24 years ago shows a
50-60 percent reduction in pest injury to apples, and a 40-45 percent reduction in the
number of insecticide and fungicide sprays.
     The number of pounds of pesticide used has dropped even further, although part of
this is due to a decrease in tree size over the years. In some years, these (just apple work)
resulted in a $400,000 annual savings in New Hampshire. What we can’t easily measure
are how many farms have stayed in business because of this work, or the dollar value of
the reduced risk of pesticide contamination in our lakes or groundwater.
     A potential collaboration project is the Lyme Disease risk in New Hampshire: What
is the incidence of infected ticks in New Hampshire?
     The best (simple) indicator of the risk of acquiring Lyme Disease in various parts of
New Hampshire is to measure the abundance of infected black legged ticks. Over several
years, I have completed much of the field work. With funding and a collaborator (some-
one experienced in PCR/RFLP or Imunofluoresent antibody analysis), this project could
quickly provide residents and health care professionals with local risk data, something
we still lack in New Hamshire.

Contact:
Dr. Alan T. Eaton
Extension Specialist, Integrated Pest Management
252 Spaulding Hall
862-1734
Email: alan.eaton@unh.edu
                                                                                                51
Plant Health Program
UNH Plant Diagnostic Lab

    Identification of plant health problems (pathogens and disorders)
        ~ 275 samples diagnosed (drought year = fewer samples) 55% commercial, 45%
          homeowner
        • Recommendations for management /prevention were provided with each
          diagnosis.
    Impact:
        Reduction of plant/crop loss due to diseases & disorders (both economic and
        aesthetic).
        Potential reduction of pesticide use (economic and environmental).
        • Healthy plants: producers (profits), consumers (aesthetics, environmental,
          monetary).
             * Difficult to place dollar value on UNH-PDL activities.
        • Provide diagnostics for NH Dept. of Agriculture, Markets & Food, Division of
    Plant Industry for difficult cases or when culturing or virus testing is needed.
        • On-site visits to growers for problem solving and plant health assessments

Distance Diagnosis of plant health and insect problems
    Cheryl Smith and Bill Lord were successful in obtaining funding from the NH Dept.
of Agriculture, Markets & Food (Agricultural Promotion Grant) for the purchase of
digital cameras and stereo microscopes for each County Extension office. Digital images
can be quickly shared through the Internet with experts at UNH (and thus around the
country), greatly enhancing timeliness, accuracy and efficiency of diagnosing difficult or
unusual problems. Equipment was distributed in September and the pilot system should
be fully functional before start of the next growing season (April).

Outreach Education
    • Presentations to commercial producers, homeowners, and ‘others’
         * One of the most important components of the Plant Health program. *
             • at commodity meetings for growers and twilight meetings (NH, VT, MA,
               ME)
             • at regional conference presentations (Fruit & Vegetable, Greenhouse,
               Christmas Tree)
             • Master gardener training (NH & MA), Garden Futures (urban Boston),
               Tree Stewards training
    • Additional outreach programs:
         • Turf & Grounds Maintenance Field Day, co-sponsored by UNH Cooperative
Extension and City of Nashua Parks & Recreation Dept. Cheryl Smith provided educa-
tional session on recognizing common plant problems in the landscape (90 attendees
from cities and towns throughout southern New Hampshire).
         • Rockingham Botanical Garden Open House, Cheryl Smith displayed informa-
tion about the UNH Plant Diagnostic Lab, diagnosed plant samples that people brought
with them and answered questions about plant problems and insects. (150 attendees,
most of whom were backyard gardeners)



                                                                                             53
Collaborative Programming
    • Northern New England Tri-State Greenhouse IPM Program
    This initiative began in 1995 by a pest specialist from MR, NH & VT to help
growers use integrated pest management (IPM) to produce greenhouse crops. Educa-
tion through hands-on workshops is the primary focus of the program. An advisory
group composed of pest specialists from UNH Cooperative Extension, NH Dept. of
Agriculture, Markets & Food, UMCE, UMaine, UVM, VTDA and growers from all
three states determines the educational programming content based on assessments
of grower’s needs and priorities.
    • Greenhouse IPM Workshops for producers (disease & insect ID & management).
      Over 500 growers have attended the workshops since 1999.
      97% of the growers reported they learned new techniques they planned
      to use in their greenhouse.                                                        Digital images
    • Greenhouse IPM Pocket Guide (in development, due for distribution
       Spring, 2003) The Pocket Guide will aid growers in the identification of          can be quickly
       insects, diseases & disorders; illustrate scouting techniques; and list helpful   shared through
       resources.
    • Christmas Tree Pest Management Short Course –                                      the Internet
    A two-day, intensive workshop incorporating hands-on laboratories and lectures.
Pest management specialists from Vermont and New Hampshire worked together
                                                                                         with experts at
over the last 10 years to develop, plan and present six short courses. Many growers      UNH (and thus
return for training since new information is incorporated into each course. 90 % of
the growers have used information/techniques on their plantations to improve             around the
production.
Research:
                                                                                         country), greatly
    • Mychorrizal fungi research for the nursery industry (with David Seavey,            enhancing time-
Extension Educator, Merrimack County). Use of mychorrizae to increase health,
growth, and survivability of field-grown & container stock. This four-year field study   liness, accuracy
at Kingman Research farm began in 2001, and is funded by a NH Dept. of Agricul-          and efficiency of
ture, Markets & Food IPM Grant
                                                                                         diagnosing diffi-
Teaching:
   • Integrated Pest Management (PBIO 726/826), co-taught with Extension Spe             cult or unusual
     cialist Alan Eaton spring semesters                                                 problems.
   • Lectures in PBIO courses (401, 547, 678 & 689)
   • Cheryl Smith maintains a plant disease/problem collection for use in UNH
     courses and outreach educational programs.

Plant Biology Department activities:
   • Serves on Departmental committees
   • Graduate student committees: current students Therese Thompson (Ph.D.) &
     Jennifer Clifford (just completed MS).

Contact:
Cheryl A. Smith
Extension Specialist, Plant Health
242 Spaulding Hall
862-3841
Email: cheryl.smith@unh.edu




54
Enhancing Agricultural Profitability
    Extension agricultural business management efforts have focused educational
programs on enhancing agricultural profitability and managing farm risks. Major
program objectives include:

    •   Assist agricultural producers with developing strategies to manage business
        risks.
    •   Help agricultural entrepreneurs and natural-resource firm owners develop
        sound business plans.
    •   Assist farmers with adoption of long term plans dealing with asset transfer,
        business structure and retirement planning.
    •   Enhance agricultural producers’ sales by improving their understanding of
        marketing options and customer demands.

    Program success often depends on cooperation among Extension personnel,
University research/teaching faculty, government agencies and private industry. A
few examples of recent efforts follow:

Managing Farm Risks
      Risk management recognizes a new, expansive vision for agriculture, a vision
taking into account the interdependency between family, business and community.
Risk management programs center on five themes. Production risk examines the
variability associated with yield or output. Marketing risk deals with price fluctua-
tions and target market sales. Financial risk addresses securing business equity while
meeting cash flow needs. Human resource risk focuses on the role of people in the
firm. Legal risk considers business agreements and environmental issues.
      The risk management program has incorporated New England-wide confer-
ences, research on the viability of revenue products, and intensive in state industry
and producer training. The New England conferences have served as professional
training for agricultural industry leaders with participation from university and
agency personnel.
      Research related to the Adjusted Gross Revenue program enabled the establish-
ment of a pilot program in New England and other areas of the US help maintain
farm viability in years with significant shortfall in receipts. In addition to university
researchers, the New England Vegetable and Berry Growers Association and insur-
ance and banking industry representatives participated in research activities. From the
fall of 2001 through the spring of 2002, 14 seminars/workshops focusing on one or
more of the five themes were presented across the state targeting growers as well as
agricultural professionals. Seven of the workshops were intensive daylong programs
featuring university research personnel and industry representatives.

Business Planning
     Development of a business plan is essential to the success of new firms and the
continuation of existing firms considering major changes in operations. In the last
several years, business-planning workshops have been specifically developed and
conducted for ornamental firms, loggers, aquacultural firms, dairy farms and small
family operations.



                                                                                            55
     Business planning workshops use university marketing and management
specialists as well as bankers and industry experts from across the state. In many
programs, human resource and family development experts often present material on
the human aspects of a family firm, such as identification of goals and objectives and
development of a family budget. This mix of experts provides participants with a
well-balanced and comprehensive approach to planning.

Agricultural Marketing
     Marketing efforts focus on helping firms increase profits through greater
understanding of local markets and improved marketing strategies. Seminar series
and workshops frequently emphasize direct sales of high value, locally grown
products to consumers and retail outlets. Teams incorporating extension educators
and researchers have conducted numerous marketing site evaluations for garden                Business
centers and farm stands.
     Similar teams have also helped growers throughout the state with design and
                                                                                         planning work-
evaluation of customer surveys. Current research conducted in cooperation with the       shops use univer-
Dept. of Resource Economics and Development and NHAMF involves examining
consumer-buying habits during the summer season.                                         sity marketing
                                                                                         and manage-
Contact:                                                                                 ment specialists
Michael Sciabarrasi
Extension Specialist, Agricultural Business Management                                   as well as bank-
320 James Hall                                                                           ers and industry
862-3234
Email: mike.sciabarrasi@unh.edu                                                          experts from
                                                                                         across the state.




56
Ag-Biz
     Ag-Biz is a farm management course that teaches business management skills to
agricultural producers. A multi-state effort run jointly by Cooperative Extension staff
in New Hampshire and Vermont, it generally runs one day a week, in four-hour
increments, over five consecutive weeks. Material is taught by Extension staff, as
well as guest speakers and professionals from the finance industry. Participants learn
about balance sheets, cash flow, budgeting, spread sheets and gain a better under-
standing of their farm’s finances.
     Extension Specialist John Porter worked with Michal Lunak to conduct a series
for 18 producers at the Grafton County Extension office. Mike Sciabarrasi, who holds
a teaching and Extension appointment at UNH, presented several of the course
modules. A formal evaluation was completed on the course. People were very posi-
tive about the course and expressed an increased understanding in record keeping,
managing money and how to project costs and income. One participant noted, “I
have gained confidence in my ability to run a farm business knowledgeably and
efficiently.”

    Old Barn Preservation
    There is an increased interest in New Hampshire in preserving old barns. These
structures tell the state’s agricultural history and are very much part of the rural
scenery, which attracts thousands of tourists each year. A lot of these barns are falling
into disrepair and disappearing from the landscape.
    The NH Barn Advisory Committee was established with the mission of creating
an appreciation for old barns, so their owners would decide to repair them, rather
than tear them down. As a member of the Barn Advisory Committee, I worked with
Dave Watters, who is involved with a humanities project proposal at UNH. We have
been looking at ways to use Extension as an outreach of the University’s humanities
effort and weave some of the historical significance of barns into the big picture of
gaining recognition of New Hampshire’s rich, historical heritage.
    I co-authored the book, Preserving Old Barns, with Francis Gilman, to help NH
residents learn about their barns and how to preserve them. Preserving Old Barns has
been distributed throughout the state of New Hampshire, as well as the New England
region. Nearly 4,000 copies have been sold in the first year of print. This has led to
numerous book signings, and speaking engagements, and I have spoken to over 120
people at public meetings.
    As a result of the distribution of the book, there seems to be an increased aware-
ness about barn preservation in New Hampshire. I respond to two to three barn
requests per week that come in by email or phone from throughout the northeast
region. Decision-makers have also shown an interest in barn preservation, and I’ve
been asked to appear at public hearings. A bill relating to tax relief for repairs of old
barns was passed this year.

     Agricultural Engineering Project
     A grant was supported by a UNH benefactor who made it possible to hire a
consulting agricultural engineer to work with New Hampshire producers. This grant
was put together through the efforts of Gregg Cerveny, of the UNH Foundation, who
worked out the logistics of allocating the money to the proper channels. We were able
to take the Extension approach of using research-based knowledge, exploring options
and making informed decisions to the area of building construction. There has been
                                                                                            57
no time in history that technology adoption has been so rapid in agriculture.
     In this fiscal year, 45 farms benefited from this program around the state. There
were six farms that avoided major construction errors on building projects, four
milking systems were made more efficient, five manure storage systems were im-
proved, and many producers were helped in selecting building sites. Since the
beginning of this project in March of 2001, over $145,000 has been saved for produc-
ers, with $102,500 of the savings occurring in the fiscal year.


Contact:
John C. Porter
Extension Specialist, Dairy
UNH Cooperative Extension, Merrimack County Office                                        There were six
225-5505 Ext. 22
Email: john.porter@unh.edu                                                               farms that
                                                                                         avoided major
     .                                                                                   construction
                                                                                         errors on building
                                                                                         projects, four
                                                                                         milking systems
                                                                                         were made more
                                                                                         efficient, five
                                                                                         manure storage
                                                                                         systems were
                                                                                         improved, and
                                                                                         many producers
                                                                                         were helped in
                                                                                         selecting building
                                                                                         sites.




58
Dairy Business
Management & Marketing
     The VT/NH Agricultural Business Management Course teaches producers an
understanding of business finances, communicating with lenders, setting personal and
business goals, and skills for developing financial statement.
     During the 2001/2002 year, the course was organized on two sites: St. Albans,
VT, and North Haverhill, NH, in four segments of one day per week, four hours per
day. Additionally, a special day focusing on using spreadsheets was held. The instruc-
tors were from the University of Vermont and UNH Cooperative Extension, with
guest speakers and representatives from the finance industry.
     I coordinated the course with John Porter. Eighteen producers participated at the
course held in the UNH Cooperative Extension Grafton County office. Mike
Sciabarassi (UNH Extension Specialist, Agricultural Business Management) was one
of the major instructors in the course. Emphasis was put on using computer technol-
ogy.
     To meet this goal, financial statements in the form of Excel spreadsheets were
developed. The purpose of these computerized statements was to provide a quick
assessment of a business and answer questions for ‘what if…’ scenarios. Results of
the course evaluation suggest our goals were met. People appreciated the hand-on
opportunities with laptop computers. Comments from participants were positive.

    “The Annual Dairy Cash-flow Worksheet is a benefit to our business. I have done
one in the past, but always put it aside and not pay any attention to it. So far this
year, especially with the milk prices, I have been keeping track of cash flows closely.
The spreadsheet for the monthly cash flows has been a big change in how we run the
business. Financial management has always been something that takes up a lot of
time and during busy times of the year gets pushed aside, but by taking this course; I
got ideas and tools to help make it easier.”

     “Looking back over the past 2 months and what I have learned in this course I
can say I have gained confidence in my ability to run a farm business knowledgeably
and efficiently. This is not to say that I know the material inside out, but I have the
tools and know more about the resources available to me. The material was pre-
sented in an intensive, interesting and well-organized manner. When I registered for
the course I never expected to be so engaged in and inspired by what I learned! And
the opportunity to discuss farming with the instructors and my classmates proved to
be just as valuable as the course itself. I find myself thinking more of the long term,
setting goals, writing down ideas, playing with numbers, and enjoying the whole
process! This course has proven to be a very important part of our farm and our
future.”

VT/NH Milk Marketing Study Group
    VT/NH Milk Marketing Study Group held two meetings during 2001/2002. The
effort of this study group is to inform and educate producers on milk marketing,
allow them to make better decisions, and adapt their operations to fit the changing
milk-marketing climate. Other individuals interested in studying and sharing the


                                                                                          59
latest development in milk marketing (coop leaders, milk handlers, state representa-
tives, extension educators, and other industry representatives) were present. It’s
notable that Steven Taylor, NH Commissioner of Agriculture, and VT Rep. Bernie
Sanders were in attendance. The Connecticut River Joint Commission Partnership
Program (CRJC) has supported these meetings. UNH Cooperative Extension serves
as the facilitator. High attendance (over 100 people per meeting) and positive feed-
back from producers suggest a success of this program. One producer added a note:

    “ Probably a major reason for our success and for the success of most farmers
anywhere is that we educate ourselves as much as possible and we try to keep up with
what is happening in other areas of the country. The VT/NH study group has been
extremely useful to us to bring people here that we probably would not otherwise
have contact with”.                                                                        “I find myself
UNH Ag. Student Exchange Program                                                          thinking more of
     This program helps NH producers obtain educated and relatively stable labor,         the long term,
increase visibility of UNH abroad, and provide cultural enrichment for UNH stu-
dents. A brief survey suggests that agricultural businesses are interested in such        setting goals,
programs and international students could be placed throughout all New England.
The program will include a practical training with ‘hands-on’ experience and one
                                                                                          writing down
semester of study period on campus. Students will also be offered short courses in the    ideas, playing
field.
     The team that coordinates development of this program includes Lunak, Marina         with numbers,
Markot, Ph.D., UNH Coordinator of Student Programs; Theodore Howard, Ph.D.,
UNH Director of International Office; Leila Paje-Manalo, Office of International
                                                                                          and enjoying the
Students and Scholars, Director; Drew Conroy, Ph.D., Associate Professor, Thomp-          whole process!
son School of Applied Science; Peter Erickson, Ph.D., UNH Cooperative Extension
Dairy Specialist; Robert McCaffery, Ph.D., Director Program Development, Continu-         This course has
ing Education. Currently, the team is in the process in creating an application for the   proven to be a
J-1 Exchange Student visa status for UNH.
                                                                                          very important
Contact:
Michal Lunak                                                                              part of our farm
Extension Specialist, Dairy                                                               and our future.”
UNH Cooperative Extension/Grafton County Office
787-6944
Email: michal.lunak@unh.edu




60
Applied Dairy Cattle Nutrition
    The following report describes a few outreach events I have been involved in the
past year. I am fortunate that I have a 25 percent Extension and 25 percent research
appointment. My research interests are in applied dairy cattle nutrition. The producer
usually can directly apply results of these studies.
    I have instituted a research section to our quarterly publication Dairy Briefs. I
serve as editor of this publication. Developing this section of the newsletter has
allowed me to share results from research studies we have published or are in the
process of publishing in scientific journals. An example is our study of salt applica-
tion to the top of bunker silos as a means of reducing top spoilage. Some dairy
producers have tried this with their silage. Students in my Dairy Management class
conducted this research project.
    Another experiment reviewed was our study of the milk protein lactoferrin as a
supplement to neonatal calves. This protein can be added to milk or milk replacer. It
acts like an antibiotic without the worry of antibiotic residues. It is likely this protein
will be added to commercial milk replacers around the country based on these results.
The Undergraduate Research Opportunities Program funded this study.
    Future articles will be written about other research involving lactoferrin con-
ducted at UNH. Dr. C.G. Schwab from the Dept. of Animal and Nutritional Sciences
will write an article regarding feeding cows for enhanced milk protein.

Biosecurity on the Farm
    I have attained a grant from the George Walker Milk Fund for the education of
dairy producers and veterinarians about biosecurity on the farm. Three sessions were
held in January, 2002 around New Hampshire with Dr. Roger Ellis from Cornell
Cooperative Extension. Dr. Ellis spoke about biosecurity at the UNH Dairy Teaching
and Research Center, Grafton County Farm and the Stonewall Farm. This project was
conducted with support from UNH Cooperative Extension, the NH Dept. of Agricul-
ture, Markets and Food, and the NH Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory.
    Participants included dairy producers, veterinarians, milk processors, and milk
inspectors. This grant will be used to support an educational session for veterinarians
and the purchase of equipment for the NH Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for the
determination of Johne’s disease in New Hampshire dairy herds. Johne’s is a severe
debilitating disease that plagues many herds around the country. It is difficult to
control and needs to be eradicated. Money from this grant also was used to make
laminated placards describing what dairy producers should do to avoid biosecurity
problems. These placards were shipped to every milk shipper in New Hampshire.

Feeding Cattle for Optimal Efficiency
    Presentations were given in Merrimack County and Cheshire County describing
how to feed cattle for optimal efficiency. An animal fed or treated for optimal produc-
tion uses nutrients more efficiently resulting in fewer nutrients in manure. Data from
research conducted by Dr. Schwab and his graduate students about optimizing protein
feeding of cows and heifers were shared. By practicing the methods of feeding of
protein and amino acids researched and promoted by the Schwab lab, dairy producers
will be more efficient with fewer nutrients in waste products.



                                                                                              61
    An open house at the UNH dairy center was held in the Spring. It involved the
CREAM class taught by Drs. Tom Fairchild and Drew Conroy of the Dept. of Animal
and Nutritional Sciences and the Thompson School of Applied Sciences respectively.
I was present to help the students with questions from the public.

Future Research
    Future research involves a feeding study with Forage Soy grown at the UNH
Kingman Farm. This study is a collaborative effort with Dr. Stefan Seiter. Another
study that will be completed is a silage pile experiment. Dairy producers in New
England often purchase silage from other growers. Spoilage of this silage can be a
problem resulting in poor performance. The rate of deterioration will be evaluated
and reported to producers.
    A project with Michal Lunak and the Center of International Education staff at   Future research
UNH is also underway. Lunak is leading this effort to develop a relationship with
overseas universities, UNH and New Hampshire agricultural producers for a work/
                                                                                     involves a feed-
educational exchange. This program is being modeled after one at the University of   ing study with
Minnesota.
                                                                                     Forage Soy
Contact:
Peter Erickson, Ph.D., P.A.S.
                                                                                     grown at the
Extension Specialist, Dairy                                                          UNH Kingman
Ritzman Lab
862-1909                                                                             Farm. This
Email: peter.erickson@unh.edu                                                        study is a col-
                                                                                     laborative effort
                                                                                     with Dr. Stefan
                                                                                     Seiter. Another
                                                                                     study that will
                                                                                     be completed is
                                                                                     a silage pile
                                                                                     experiment.




62
Agroecology Collaborations
    I am serving as ecological agriculture, weed management, and soil fertility
specialist for UNH Cooperative Extension. This involves providing research based
advice to educators, volunteers, and the public daily via phone and email, conducting
professional development workshop for agricultural professionals, presenting to
grower groups, and visiting agricultural enterprises across the state.

Recent collaborations with researchers and educators
     Open-pollinated field corn project. There is a renewed interest in open pollinated
(OP) corn varieties for economic reasons, specialty uses, grain and silage feed
quality, self reliance, and independence from agricultural conglomerates. Especially
organic growers and organic livestock producers are interested because they are now
required to use organically grown seed that hasn’t been genetically engineered.
     By growing OP corn, growers can control the production of their seed corn and
often gain a premium price for organically grown plants and livestock. In collabora-
tion with agronomists and plant breeders from Cornell University, I am currently
testing OP corn varieties in small plot trials and in strip trials on farms and experi-
ment stations.
     We will also conduct educational activities such as workshops on seed saving
techniques, field days, and winter meetings. In addition, we are creating educational
materials including a video, web-based materials, bulletins, news articles, and fact
sheets. The performance targets of this project is that 75 growers will plant OP
varieties over the course of this project, 60 farmers will attend field days each year,
and 500 farmers, educators and seed industry representatives will attend winter
meetings and in-service presentations.
     Nutrient management on organic farms project. Preliminary research shows
commonly applied amounts of compost and other organic amendments can cause
excessive nutrient levels on organic farms leading to eutrophication of water bodies
and groundwater contamination. This study surveys organic vegetable farms across
the Northeast by measuring soil nitrate and extractable phosphorous concentrations.
The data will provide the background to develop management practices to minimize
nutrient accumulation on organic farms.
     Involved is research and Extension faculty from UNH, University of Connecti-
cut, and University of Massachusetts, as well as technical specialists from Northeast
Organic Farming Associations in New Jersey and Maine. Over the course of this
project we will analyze soil samples from 125 organic vegetable fields from 25
different farms. Beneficiaries of this project include the 25 vegetable growers partici-
pating in this study, the 500 members of the Northeast Organic Farming Associations,
and the entire organic farming community.
     Forage soybean project: The acreage of forage soybean in New England is
expected to grow in the next few years as farmers are looking for an inexpensive,
readily available on-farm source of high protein forage. The switch from perennial
alfalfa to annual soybeans increases the risk of environmental degradation in form of
soil erosion and nutrient losses. In a collaborative project with researchers and
extension personnel from Cornell University and the Universities of Maine and
Vermont, I studied environmentally sound cropping practices for forage soybean. In
replicated small plot trials I tested a range of varieties and cultural practices such as
row spacings, fertilization methods, and cover cropping. My research showed the use


                                                                                            63
of manure as a fertility source, the application of wood ash as a lime substitute, and
undersowing of annual rye grasses for cover cropping are feasible alternatives to the
conventional practices to grow the crop successfully without compromising environ-
mental quality. Performance targets for this research included providing support for
200 dairy farmers in the Northeast who will start producing and feeding soybean as
forage, and secondly reaching 2500 dairy farmers with educational activities related
to production and feeding methods.
    Riparian Buffer research, demonstration, and education project in the Connecti-
cut River watershed: Riparian buffers are areas of trees, shrubs and herbaceous
vegetation that reduces excess amounts of sediments, organic materials, nutrients,
and pesticides in surface run-off and shallow ground water flow. Run-off from
farmland has been identified as a leading source of water quality impairments in the
Connecticut (CT) river watershed.                                                            Over the course
    With Extension personnel and research faculty we have set up on–farm experi-
ments in Coos and Grafton counties measuring sediment and nutrient run-off across a         of this project we
range of buffer vegetation types and buffer designs. In collaboration with faculty          will analyze soil
from the UNH Dept. of Civil Engineering, I have designed sediment traps to collect
suspended sediments and nutrients that flow from farmers’ fields into the CT River.         samples from
Our project will provide the research data necessary for landowners to establish
effective buffers along the river. Our goal is to offer education to growers and signifi-
                                                                                            125 organic
cantly increase the acreage planted with riparian buffer strips along the Connecticut       vegetable fields
River.
    Citizen panel on genetically modified foods project. I collaborated with the            from 25 different
University of New Hampshire Office of Sustainability Programs to convene a citizen
panel. A citizen panel is a participatory process for making decisions about the use of
                                                                                            farms. Benefi-
technology in society. It was first used in Denmark and has been widely adopted             ciaries of this
throughout the world. The New Hampshire panel consisted of a group of volunteers
of all ages and from all walks of life that participated in a five-month learning           project include
process that involved extensive reading and multi-day intensive retreats.                   the 25 vegetable
    During the learning process, I facilitated communication between numerous
experts in the fields of biotechnology, plant and animal breeding, food technology,         growers partici-
human nutrition, environmental ethics, and government regulations at UNH and
university across the US and Europe. The final event was a two-day consultation with        pating in this
experts on the subject of genetically modified foods. This event was open to the            study, the 500
public and attended by 150 UNH researchers and students, public interest groups, and
community members. It was featured both on NH Public Television and NH Public               members of the
Radio. The panel continues to present their findings at a series of public meetings
reaching an estimated 200 New Hampshire citizens.
                                                                                            Northeast Or-
                                                                                            ganic Farming
Contact:
Stefan Seiter                                                                               Associations,
Extension Specialist, Agroecology
Spaulding Hall G38
                                                                                            and the entire
862-0895                                                                                    organic farming
Email: stefan.seiter@unh.edu
                                                                                            community.




64
Applied Research and Extension
Programs for the Green Industry

    A UNH Extension Specialist for just three years, Cathy Neal is striving to build a
program of value to the state’s largest sector of agriculture - the environmental
horticulture industry. This industry, comprised of plant growers, retail garden center
operators, and landscapers, generates over $382 million in goods and services in New
Hampshire annually (New England Nursery Association, 2000) and is economically
healthy and growing.

Outreach to Growers, Retailers and Landscapers
     Under Neal’s leadership, a UNH Cooperative Extension “Ornamentals Team” is
responsible for the overall planning, implementing and evaluation of Extension
programming in ornamental horticulture. The 11-member team is comprised of key
County Extension Educators and state specialists in pertinent areas such as entomol-
ogy, plant health, turfgrass, greenhouse technology, and business management.
     In the past year, the team has implemented a number of educational seminars,
field days, and twilight meetings to offer clientele access to the unbiased information
that will help them make good decisions for their business. A successful example was
a seminar (partially funded by a state grant) entitled “Integrated Pest Management for
Landscape and Grounds Maintenance” attended by 84 commercial landscapers and
parks personnel last February.
     Fifty percent of participants said they would make changes in turf management
practices and 81 percent in landscape management practices that would result in
better environmental quality and potentially reduced pesticide use. The same con-
cepts were disseminated to 40 park departments’ personnel who attended a field day
co-sponsored by Extension and the City of Nashua Parks Dept. in July.

Working Closely with Trade Associations
    The NH Plant Growers Association and the NH Landscape Association are key
organizations in reaching commercial clientele groups. Neal serves as an advisory
member of the Board of Directors of NHPGA and serves on the Education Commit-
tee of NHLA. Several educational programs per year are held in conjunction with
these organizations, including a joint winter meeting, a spring conference, twilight
meetings, and a Retail/Garden Center seminar. A project currently under way is
development of a booklet on landscaping in New Hampshire to be distributed to
consumers through sales at retail garden centers. Through a state marketing grant,
seed money was obtained by NHPGA for production of this booklet, but Extension is
committed to providing most of the content, and will be credited as authors and co-
producers. The booklet will provide excellent visibility and credibility to our horticul-
tural expertise.




                                                                                            65
Applied Research and Application of Knowledge to Local Conditions
    The development of new knowledge through research and the application of
ideas to New Hampshire conditions are crucial to the ornamentals program. Trials at
the Woodman Horticultural Research Farm this year include:
• Nitrogen Fertilization and Application Timing for trees and shrubs – a study to
    determine when fertilizer application is most efficient so the plant response is
    greatest with the least amount of environmental release of nitrogen
• Alternative Production Systems for Small Trees – improved growth and labor
    savings can be achieved by production of woody ornamentals in “pot-in-pot” or
    the “Above Ground System”, both of which have double containers which
    moderate root zone temperatures. Plant growth is faster than field or standard
    container production and easy handling and season-long availability are advan-
    tages over field production. Although the systems are more expensive to install,       The integration
    at least five nurseries in NH have begun to use the new systems on a trial basis.
• A “No-Pinch” Chrysanthemum Trial – growers can save labor by growing new                 of applied re-
    varieties that are self-branching and adapted to NH.                                   search and Ex-
• Evaluation of Deciduous Shrubs for Cut Stem Florist Use—Cultivars of native
    winterberry, red-and yellow-twigged dogwood, and pussy willows are under               tension pro-
    evaluation for marketing as cut stems for floral use. The goal is diversification of
    farm income by growing a low-maintenance specialty crop that is harvested
                                                                                           gramming with
    during the fall/winter season when cash flow is low and labor is available.            teaching com-
Teaching                                                                                   pletes the trian-
    The integration of applied research and Extension programming with teaching
completes the triangular mission of the Land Grant University. Classes such as PBIO
                                                                                           gular mission of
678 Nursery Crop Production and PBIO 679 Landscape Management are based on                 the Land Grant
the understanding of science integrated with a realistic perspective on production
nurseries and landscape practices. Labs are often based on on-going research work,         University.
so students are involved in discovery, data collection and interpretation.

Contact:
Dr. Cathy Neal
Extension Specialist, Ornamental Horticulture
117 Spaulding Hall
862-3208
Email: cathy.neal@unh.edu




66
Helping Communities with Their
Recreational Turf Needs
     Accompanying urbanization and population growth results in a rapid increase in
the demand for recreational turf areas throughout New Hampshire. Youth participa-
tion continues to increase in various sports.
     In Nashua, for example, there are over 4,000 participants in soccer alone. Nation-
ally, there are more than 2.2 million children participating in 7,000 Little League
Baseball programs. Most New Hampshire communities have limited budgets allo-
cated for recreation and don’t have adequate space for the excessive traffic the fields
receive. Community volunteers and parent financial support are often required to
supplement existing town labor and budgets in order to provide safe playing condi-
tions for the participants.
     UNH Cooperative Extension is recognized as a valuable resource in assisting
communities with their recreational turf needs. An example is the Holman Stadium
renovation in Nashua.
     Today Holman Stadium, host of the Nashua Pride semi-professional baseball
team, is one of the finest ballparks in New England thanks in part to the assistance
provided by UNH Cooperative Extension. The Mayor (Bernard Streeter), Director of
Public Works (George Crombie), and the Manager of Parks Maintenance (Nick
Caggiano) decided to use the expertise available through Extension to completely
renovate the old ballpark.
     Over $500,000 was invested in improving the drainage and overall turf quality.
Results have been outstanding. As a small token of appreciation, UNH Cooperative
Extension is recognized in the Prides program guide in the section “Nashua’s Field of
Dreams.”
     Thousands of people will also enjoy the new Griffin Park in Windham. UNH
Cooperative Extension was instrumental in the planning phase of this site. The town
has spent $1.5 million in the development of this park. Over $300,000 was saved by
using the information provided by Extension. Recently opened for use, this park
provides walking paths, baseball, tennis, and soccer for the community to enjoy.
     UNH Cooperative Extension provided “best management plans” for a new $8
million golf course, the Baker Hill Golf Course, prior to its construction in Newbury.
In the report, specific recommendations were given to protect Lake Sunapee and
nearby brooks from silting and erosion. They spent an additional $1 million to
stabilize the slopes, and hire a full-time construction manager and project engineer to
oversee future construction.
     Winter kill of valuable turfgrasses on golf courses result in several thousands of
dollars in lost revenues. Research at UNH involving fall applied potassium and using
protective covers has provided golf course superintendents with means in which to
reduce the likelihood of winter kill.

Contact:
John Roberts,
Extension Specialist, Turf
38 College Road, Spaulding Hall
862-3202
Email: john.roberts@unh.edu
                                                                                          67
Turf and Ornamental Integrated
Pest Management Program
     Development of Integrated Pest Management Programs for Nurseries. Goldstar
Nursery (Canterbury) and Van Berkum’s Nursery (Deerfield) are partners in develop-
ing an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program that will reduce pesticide use,
improve plant quality, and increase profits.
     UNH Cooperative Extension provided weekly scouting of the nurseries and
worked to train management on how to make better pest management decisions.
Once management is trained, Extension moves on to help other growers. Several
years of data from Goldstar have shown the financial and environmental benefits of
IPM, reducing the number of sprays in half while improving plant quality.
     Research and Demonstration of Biological Pesticides for Turf. To reduce chemi-
cal pesticides, we are determining the efficacy and feasibility of using biologically-
based pesticides, such as milky spore disease, for turf insect control. These trials are
conducted on many turf sites throughout New Hampshire and are supported by grants
from industry.
     Biology of the European Chafer in NH. This three-year, $42,000 grant from the
New England Regional Turf Foundation helped us to understand the life cycle of the
European Chafer. The European Chafer was first discovered in the state in 1995 and
has since caused millions of dollars of turf damage to lawns, athletic fields and golf
courses.
     For the last three years, four sites were sampled weekly from May to October and
temperature recorded. These sites were UNH, Sagamore-Hampton Golf Course in
North Hampton, Hoodkroft Country Club, Derry, and Campbell’s Golf Course in
Salem. With the knowledge of the life cycle in New Hampshire in relation to tem-
perature, we can now design IPM programs that will provide control in high priority
turf, while protecting the environment with minimum pesticide use.
     The UNH campus is severely infested with European Chafer and much turf has
been lost. The cost of replacing this turf was thousands of dollars. Extension is
working with the University’s Grounds Dept. to develop an IPM program for UNH
that will protect the most valuable turf (i.e. athletic fields) with the minimum of
pesticide use.
     An attractive campus with green lawn is important in recruiting students. Sports
fields are an important revenue source to UNH and provide recreational opportunities
for students. These priority areas must be protected from damage. As a result of our
work, the soccer fields and some lawns were sprayed because our sampling showed
high grub counts. However, control was unnecessary in the football field due to the
absence of grubs.

Forest Pest Monitoring and Management
     As a member of the Forest Pest Advisory Group, I provide technical knowledge
to the Governor, State Forester, and legislature. FPAG is composed of the NH Dept.
of Agriculture, NH Division of Forests and Lands, Society for the Protection of NH
Forests, NH Audubon, and Extension.
     New Hampshire is under assault by a several new pests. The most important at
this time is the Hemlock Wooly Adelgid (HWA). I have helped the state identify,
                                                                                           69
survey and control infestations of HWA. So far, we have eradicated infestations in
Peterborough and Bedford. The Portsmouth infestation is too massive to eradicate,
but hopefully quarantines will contain it.
    HWA can potentially kill most of our hemlocks, altering the forest ecosystem.
Deer use Hemlock stands for protection from winter cold and snow. Hemlocks cool
trout streams. Without hemlocks, fewer trout will survive. Many landscape hemlocks
will have to be sprayed, adding pesticides to our environment. Slowing the spread of
HWA will prevent the loss of recreational dollars (hunting, fishing), losses of timber,
and reduce the pesticide load in the environment.

Pesticide Safety Education
     The Pesticide Safety Education Program is responsible for helping in the training
of the 1,600 commercial and private pesticide applicators. Extension provides              The UNH cam-
training materials in the form of publications and videotapes. All pesticide applicators
must be re-certified within five years by attending continuing education seminars.         pus is severely
     Extension conducts over 30 meetings for pesticide applicators to obtain credits       infested with
for recertification. These seminars cover topics on pesticide safety, regulations,
environmental contamination, toxicity, and integrated pest management. As Coordi-          European Chafer
nator of the program, I am also responsible for providing expertise on all aspects of
pesticide use, including human health and environmental effects.
                                                                                           and much turf
     Through the Pesticide Safety Education Program, UNH Cooperative Extension             has been lost.
helped farmers and pest control personnel to control crop, structural and household
pests with the least impact on human health and the environment. Losses would be in        The cost of re-
the millions of dollars without this program.
                                                                                           placing this turf
Contact:                                                                                   was thousands of
Dr. Stanley Swier
Extension Specialist/Entomology                                                            dollars. Exten-
Coordinator, Pesticide Safety Education Program                                            sion is working
254 Spaulding Hall,
862-1733                                                                                   with the
Email: stan.swier@unh.edu
                                                                                           University’s
                                                                                           Grounds Dept. to
                                                                                           develop an IPM
                                                                                           program for
                                                                                           UNH that will
                                                                                           protect the most
                                                                                           valuable turf
                                                                                           (i.e. athletic
                                                                                           fields) with the
                                                                                           minimum of
                                                                                           pesticide use.



70

								
To top