GMID - MARKETING PARAMETERS - DEFINITIONS Activity Rate, labour See Labour force participation rate. force Average Earnings See Earnings Average Gross Monthly See Earnings / Hourly Earnings of Employees Average Hours of Work Hours actually worked are the hours actually worked during normal periods of work, time worked Per Week in addition to normal periods of work and generally paid at higher rates (overtime), time spent at the place of work on work such as the preparation of the workplace, repairs and maintenance, preparation and cleaning of tools, and the preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports, time spent at the place of work waiting or standing by for such reasons as lack of supply of work, breakdown of machinery or accidents, or time spent at the place of work during which no work is done but for which payment is made under a guaranteed work contract and time corresponding to short rest periods at the workplace, including tea and coffee breaks. The following should be excluded: hours paid for but not worked (see below), such as paid leave, paid meal breaks and time spent travelling between the home and the workplace. Hours paid for are generally the hours actually worked (see above) plus the hours paid for but not worked, such as annual leave, paid public holidays, paid sick leave, paid meal breaks and time spent travelling between the home and the workplace. Average Wage or Salary See Wages Rates rates Balance of Payments A statement of a country's trade and financial transactions with the rest if the world over particular period of time, usually one year. Balance of trade Payments are made between countries for a variety of transactions. But the balance of trade refers to the balance of payments on transactions in tangible goods. Such goods have to be shipped and transported from one country to another. The transaction cannot be completed by a phone call or postal message, as is the case of most invisibles. A country has a trade surplus if exports of tangible goods exceed imports of tangible goods. Birth Rate See crude birth rate Buses and Coaches Passenger road motor vehicle (including mini-buses) designed to seat more than nine persons (including the driver). C.i.f. "Cost-insurance-freight" - charges incurred in transporting the goods from one country to another. Cancer The second most common cause of death in developed countries after cardio-vascular diseases, cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells (hyperplasia). Normal cells, by a still unknown mechanism, stop dividing when their proper function is attained; malignant cells do not, and therefore produce an accumulation of tissue called tumour. Another characteristic of cancer (metastasis) is the ability of malignant cells to detach themselves from the primary tumour and spread to other sites. Cardiovascular Disease Disease of the heart and blood vessels. A list of the various forms of cardiovascular disease (CVD) can be found in the International Classification of Diseases, the major ones being coronary heart disease affecting the coronary arteries, and stroke affecting the brain (cerebral and carotid arteries). CVD is currently the major cause of death in developed countries. The foremost etiological processes leading to CVD are atherosclerosis (a gradual blocking of the arteries due to the development of plaques composed predominantly of cholesterol), hypertension (a chronically elevated blood pressure), and congenital or rheumatic heart diseases (the latter resulting from the infection in childhood from specific streptococcal bacteria). Census The total process of collecting, compiling and publishing data on the demographic, social and economic situation of all persons in a specified territory at a particular time. The operation of a census is usually governed by legal or constitutional arrangements which may fix its date and other aspects of its procedures, as well as making it obligatory for all respondents to answer truthfully. A modern census has four essential features: individual enumeration, universality within a precisely defined territory, simultaneity, and defined periodicity. Where individual enumeration is not attempted and group enumeration is used the result is more accurately termed a head count rather than a census proper. This was the case in many early censuses. Universality, although always a goal, is never achieved in practice, virtually every census having some individuals not recorded. A distinction is made between de facto enumeration, which records where each individual was on census night, and de jure enumeration, which records usual residence. Each is widely used; the former in the United Kingdom and the latter in the United States, for example. Simultaneity is not always strictly observed either. In many cases there are practical advantages in spreading the process of enumeration over some time, for example where only a small number of trained interviewers is available. Nevertheless, the information recorded should always refer to the same date. Though the full processing and analysis of census material may take several years, provisional results (sometimes based on a sample of individuals or areas) are frequently published very soon after the completion of field operations, so that the constantly changing make-up of the population may be grasped with the minimum of delay, in spite of the problems caused by over- or undercounts and other data errors. Census, Coverage The definition of the population groups and the time period to be included in a census. However, the term is often used to refer to the achieved rather than the intended coverage. For a census coverage is generally defined as the resident population (de jure or de facto) of a geographic area on a particular date. This definition is usually expanded to explicitly include or exclude such groups as citizens temporarily overseas, persons in transit, and foreign nationals within the enumeration areas. Census, Data Collection The mechanisms whereby information on the age structure, births, deaths, migration and other related topics are compiled. The most important of these techniques are censuses, sample surveys, and civil registration which embraces both vital registration and population registers. Data on migration are normally collected through records compiled for persons entering or leaving the country at land frontiers, seaports or airports. The actual methods by which the information is collected in censuses and surveys vary considerably according to the level of development of the country and the sophistication of the respondents. In most developed countries census forms are completed by the householders, and the role of the enumerator is simply to deliver the forms, collect them and check that they have been correctly completed. In developing countries on the other hand, where large proportions of the population are illiterate, the forms are completed by the enumerators on the basis of oral answers given by the householders. Sample surveys also take a variety of forms: they may be single-round retrospective surveys or they may be multi-round longitudinal prospective surveys. In developed countries some survey questionnaires are delivered through the post, and the respondents are asked to complete them themselves; but most surveys are conducted by face-to- face interviews between the enumerators and the respondents. The instruments of data collection sometimes take the form of verbatim questionnaires, the enumerators being required to read the questions out as they have been printed or they take the form of a simple ‘schedule’ in which the nature of the question is indicated by an abbreviated column heading. In the latter case the enumerators are left to word the questions as they think fit and in some developing countries this may involve translating the questions into the local language when the form itself has been printed in another. Registration procedures also vary. In most countries the responsibility for registering a birth or death lies with the immediate relatives; the registrar plays an essentially ‘passive’ role, and simply waits for people to come and register. Sometimes, however, especially in developing countries, it is the responsibility of registrars to ascertain what births and deaths have occurred within their areas, to visit the relevant households, and to record the necessary particulars of the birth or death. These active procedures may mean that the registrars make regular visits to all the households in their areas. In these circumstances the distinction between an active registration system and a prospective survey can become hazy. Census, Undercount Failure to enumerate all the persons or events which should be counted in a census or survey. In a census undercounting of complete households is frequently distinguished from undercounting of individuals in enumerated households. Undercounting is generally more frequent among young adults, especially those not living in households with other family members. The word is sometimes used to mean net undercounting, the difference between the number of events over counted and the number undercounted. Central Bank A country's leading bank which acts as banker to the government and the Banking System and acts as the authority responsible for implementing the governments monetary policy. Central Death Rate The number of deaths occurring in a specified period of time (commonly one year) and in a specific age-sex category divided by the population at risk (i.e., in the appropriate age-sex category), expressed in person-years. The value is often multiplied by a convenient constant (e.g., 1,000). In most calculations based on vital statistics, the population at risk is taken to be the mid- year population. Chain Store Broad term referring to shops under the same facia, usually owned by multiples Chemist Outlet selling OTC and prescription-only medicines, in addition to parapharmacy goods, cosmetics and toiletries and some household products Constant Prices See Real Prices. Consumer Durables Consumer goods such as cars, televisions, washing machines which are 'consumed' over relatively long periods of time rather than immediately. Consumer Expenditure Above all, purchases by households of goods and market services, imputed rent of owner- occupied dwellings, goods produced by households for own consumption (e.g. agricultural products) goods and services provided free of charge or at a discount, and purchases of second- hand goods. It excludes the purchase of dwellings, mortgage repayments, business expenditures incurred by households and any interest payments. Consumer Expenditure Any definition of expenditure is to some extent arbitrary, and the inclusion of certain types of (methodological national payment is a matter of convenience or convention depending on the purpose for which the statistical office information is to be used. In the context of the tables presented in GMID, total expenditure definition) represents current expenditure on goods and services. Total expenditure, defined in this way, excludes those recorded payments which are really savings or investments (e.g. purchases of national savings certificates, life assurance premiums, contributions to pension funds). Similarly, income tax payments, national insurance contributions, mortgage capital repayments and other payments for major additions to dwellings are excluded. Expenditure data are collected in the diary record-book and in the household schedule. Informants are asked to record in the diary any payments made during the 14 days of record-keeping, whether or not the goods or services paid for have been received. Certain types of expenditure which are usually regular though infrequent, such as insurance, licences and season tickets, and the periods to which they relate, are recorded in the household schedule as well as regular payments such as utility bills. The cash purchase of motor vehicles is also entered in the household schedule. In addition, expenditure on some items purchased infrequently (thereby being subject to high sampling errors) has been recorded in the household schedule using a retrospective recall period of either three or 12 months. These items include carpets, furniture, holidays and some housing costs. In order to avoid duplication, all payments shown in the diary record-book which relate to items listed in the household or income schedules are omitted in the analysis of the data irrespective of whether there is a corresponding entry on the latter schedules. Amounts paid in respect of periods longer than a week are converted to weekly values. Expenditure tables in this report show the main commodity groups of spending and these are broken down into items which are numbered hierarchically. a. Goods supplied from a household’s own shop or farm. Spenders are asked to record and give the value of goods obtained from their own shop or farm, even if the goods are withdrawn from stock for personal use without payment. The value is included as expenditure. b. Hire purchase and credit sales agreements, and transactions financed by loans repaid by instalments Expenditure on transactions under hire purchase or credit sales agreements, or financed by loans repaid by instalments, consists of all instalments which are still being paid at the date of interview, together with down payments on commodities acquired within the preceding three months. These two components (divided by the periods covered) provide the weekly averages which are included in the expenditure on the separate items given in the tables. c. Club payments and budget account payments, instalments through mail order firms and similar forms of credit transaction When goods are purchased by forms of credit other than hire purchase and credit sales agreement, the expenditure on them may be estimated either from the amount of the instalment which is paid or from the value of the goods which are acquired. Since the particular commodities to which the instalment relates may not be known, details of goods ordered through clubs, etc., during the month prior to the date of interview are recorded in the household schedule. The weekly equivalent of the value of the goods is included in the expenditure on the separate items. This procedure has the advantage of enabling club transactions to be related to specific articles. Although payments into clubs, etc., are shown in the diary record-book, these entries are excluded from expenditure estimates. d. Credit card transactions From 1988 purchases made by credit card or charge card have been recorded in the survey on an acquisition basis rather than the formerly used payment basis. Thus, if a spender acquired an item (by use of credit/charge card) during the two week survey period, the value of the item would be included as part of expenditure in that period whether or not any payment was made in this period to the credit card account. Payments made to the card account are ignored. However any payment of credit/charge card interest is included in expenditure if made in the two week period. e. Income tax Amounts of income tax deducted under the PAYE scheme or paid directly by those who are employers or self-employed are recorded (together with information about tax refunds). For employers and the self-employed the amounts comprise the actual payments made in the previous twelve months and may not correspond to the tax due on the income arising in that period e.g., if not tax has been paid but is due or if tax payments cover more than one financial year. However, the amounts of tax deducted at source from some of the items which appear in the Income Schedule are not directly available. Estimates of the tax paid on bank and building society interest and amounts deducted from dividends on stocks and shares are therefore made by applying the appropriate rates of tax. In the case of income tax paid at source on pensions and annuities, similar adjustments are made. These estimates mainly affect the relatively few households with high income from interest and dividends, and households including someone receiving a pension from previous employment. f. Rented dwellings Housing expenditure is taken as the sum of expenditure on rent, rates, council tax, water rates, etc. For local authority tenants the expenditure is gross rent less any rebate (including rebate received fin the form of housing benefit), and for other tenants gross rent less any rent allowance received under statutory schemes including the Housing Benefit Scheme. Rebate on Council Tax or rates (Northern Ireland) is deducted from expenditure on Council Tax or rates. Receipts from sub-letting part of the dwelling are not deducted from housing costs but appear (net of the expenses of the sub-letting) as investment income. g. Rent-free dwellings Rent-free dwellings are those owned by someone outside the household and where either no rent is charged or the rent is paid by someone outside the household. Households whose rent is paid directly to the landlord by the DSS do not live rent-free. Payments Council Tax, water rates etc. are regarded as the cost of housing. Rebate on rates (Northern Ireland)/Council Tax/water rates (Scotland)(including rebate received in the form of housing benefit), is deducted from expenditure on rates/Council Tax/water rates. Receipts from sub- letting part of the dwelling are not deducted from housing costs but appear (net of the expenses of the sub-letting) as investment income. h. Owner-occupied dwellings Payments for Council Tax, rates (Northern Ireland), water rates, ground rent, mortgage interest payments, insurance of structure etc., are regarded as the cost of housing. Rebate on rates (Northern Ireland)/Council Tax/water rates (Scotland) (including rebate received in the form of housing benefit for the rented element of shared ownership dwellings) is deducted from expenditure on Council Tax/rates. Receipts from letting part of the dwelling are not deducted from housing costs but appear (net of the expenses of the letting) as investment income. Mortgage capital repayments and amounts paid for the outright purchase of the dwelling or for major structural alterations are not included as housing expenditure, but are entered under ‘other payments recorded’. Average payments by owner-occupied households for repairs, maintenance and decoration are shown separately in the estimates of expenditure by tenure type. i. Second-hand goods and part-exchange transactions The survey expenditure data are based on information about actual payments and therefore include payments for second-hand goods and part-exchange transactions. New payments only are included for part-exchange transactions, i.e.; the costs of the goods obtained less the amounts allowed for the goods which are traded in. Receipts for goods sold or traded in are not included in income. j. Business expenses. The survey covers only private households and is concerned with payments made by members of households are private individuals. Spenders are asked to state whether expenditure which has been recorded on the schedules includes amounts which will be refunded as expenses from a business or organisation or which will be entered as business expenses for income tax purposes, e.g. rent, telephone charges, travelling expenses, meals out. Any such amounts are deducted from the recorded expenditure. Consumer Expenditure Category Definitions Food NB: Expenditure on food brought into the home Bread, bakery products and Bread, flour, pasta, biscuits, morning goods, rice and other cereals cereals Meat Fresh meat, poultry, game, prepared meat/poultry products, canned meats and other meat products Fish Fresh, chilled and frozen fish, dried, salted and smoked fish, prepared fish products, canned fish, shellfish Milk, cheese and eggs Liquid, condensed and powdered milk, yoghurt, cream, cheese and eggs Oils and fats Butter, margarine, salad and cooking oils, lard and other fats Fruit Fresh, canned, dried and frozen fruit Potatoes Potatoes and potato products Vegetables Fresh, canned, dried and frozen vegetables Sugar Sugar Confectionery Chocolate and sugar confectionery, honey, jam and preserves Coffee, tea and cocoa Coffee, tea, cocoa drinks, drinking chocolate and hot malted drinks Soft drinks Soft carbonated and non-carbonated drinks, mineral water, fruit and vegetable juice Other food Soups, seasonings, ice-cream, baby foods and other manufactured foods Alcoholic Drinks NB: Expenditure on drinks brought into the home Beer Lager, bitter, ale, stout Spirits Whisky, gin, vodka, rum, brandy and other spirits Wine and other drinks Still, sparkling, fortified wine, Champagne, vermouth, cider and perry Tobacco Cigarettes Cigarettes Other Tobacco Cigars, cigarillos, pipe tobacco, hand rolling tobacco, snuff and smoking accessories Clothing and Footwear NB: Excludes sportswear and repair of clothing and footwear Men's and boys' wear Men's and boys' outerwear, underwear, nightwear, knitwear, socks and clothing accessories Women's, girls' and Women's, girls' and children's outerwear, underwear, nightwear, knitwear, socks, stockings, tights, children's wear clothing accessories and haberdashery Footwear Men's, women's and children's footwear (excludes trainers, etc.) Housing NB: Mortgage repayments fall outside the scope of Consumer Expenditure Rents Rent of tenant occupied dwellings and imputed rent of owner occupied dwellings Water and sewerage Water and sewerage charges Maintenance and repair of Contractors’ charges and supplies for maintenance and repair of dwelling dwelling Household Fuels Electricity Domestic electricity charges Gas Domestic gas charges Coal and coke House coal and coke Central heating Central heating charges Other household fuels Wood, burning oils, liquid gases and other household fuels Household Goods and Services Furniture All furniture, mattresses, antiques and works of art (excludes office and garden furniture) Carpets and other floor Carpets, rugs, floor tiles, linoleum and other floor coverings coverings Household textiles and soft Sheets, pillows, cushions, duvets, blankets, towels, curtains and other household textiles furnishings Household appliances White goods and small electrical appliances: refrigerators, gas and electric cookers, washing machines, vacuum cleaners, irons, hairdryers, etc. Glassware, tableware and China and porcelain, cutlery, ceramic housewares, plastic housewares, metalware, brushes, mops household utensils etc. Household cleaning Textile washing products, surface cleaners, dishwashing products air fresheners and insecticides products Hardware and DIY goods Electric fittings and accessories, Do-It-Yourself tools, gardening tools and garden furniture Household and domestic Laundry, dry cleaning charges; repairs to clothing, footwear domestic appliances and furniture; services cleaning services, child minding and other domestic services Health Goods and Medical Services Pharmaceutical products, medical appliances Drugs and medicines, spectacles, thermometers and other medical appliances and equipment Medical services Physicians, dentists, hospitals and nursing homes; health insurance Transport Purchase of cars, motorcycles and other Purchase of private cars, motorcycles and other vehicles vehicles Petrol and oil All types of petroleum, diesel and engine oil Other running costs of vehicles Repairs to motor vehicles, car aftermarket, parking fees, garage rents, road tax, insurance, technical tests, driving tests and lessons, car hire, bridge and road tolls, other motoring costs Urban transport All types of urban transport: buses, underground trains, trams, trolleybuses, taxis, etc. Intercity buses Fares on coaches for intercity travel Rail travel Fares on intercity and suburban rail travel Air travel Fares on air travel (excludes air travel component of package tours) Other travel Sea, river and other travel fares Communications Postal services Charges for postal services Telecommunications Telephone, fax, telex and internet charges, purchase of telephones and mobiles Leisure and Recreation Purchase of audio-visual, photographic and Purchase of TVs, video recorders, radios, CD players, cameras, camcorders, information processing equipment audio and video tapes, CDs, films, personal computers and peripherals, computer software and other audio-visual, photographic and information processing goods Hire of audio-visual hardware and software, Hire, license fees and repairs of the above goods license fees and repairs Sports goods, toys, games and camping Sport and camping items (including sportswear), traditional toys and video equipment games Flowers, plants, pet goods, other recreational Flowers, seeds, plants, pets, pet foods, pet accessories, veterinary charges and goods other recreational goods Recreational and cultural services Admissions to cinemas, theatres, sports events, museums, clubs, and other cultural institutions; betting and gaming; other cultural services Books, newspapers and magazines Books, newspapers, magazines and stationery Education Education Tuition fees in schools and universities Hotels and Catering Catering Expenditure on food and drink outside the home (e.g. restaurants, cafes, canteens) Accommodation The cost of accommodation in hotels, hostels and other lodgings Other expenditure Personal hygiene and cosmetics articles Bath and shower, babycare, haircare and shaving products, deodorants, skincare and suncare products, fragrances and colour cosmetics, disposable paper products Hairdressing, beauty care and other personal Hairdressing, beauty care and other personal care services care services Jewellery, silverware, watches and clocks, Jewellery, silverware, watches and clocks, suit-cases, brief-cases, overnight bags travel goods Package holidays Expenditure on package tours (including air travel component) Financial services Administrative costs of pension schemes, life insurance and other financial services Other goods and services Miscellaneous goods and services not included elsewhere (e.g. private newspaper advertisements, legal fees, clothes hire) Total Consumer Expenditure in the The total of all the above categories. Comprises expenditure in the country by Domestic Market by Households resident households and tourists. of which: Durable Goods Durable Goods Non-Durable Goods Non-Durable Goods Services Services Plus: Direct Purchases Abroad by Resident Expenditure by country’s nationals on holiday abroad Households Less: Direct Purchases in the Domestic Expenditure by foreign tourists in the country Market by Non-Resident Households Equals: Final Consumer Expenditure by The result of the above three categories Resident Households Plus: Final Consumer Expenditure by Non- Expenditure by non-profit institutions serving households (e.g. social Profit Institutions Serving Households organisations, political parties, trade unions, religious associations, recreational and sporting clubs) Equals: Private Final Consumption The result of the above five categories Expenditure Consumer Price Index Indices for Consumer Prices are the most frequently used indicators of inflation and reflect changes in the cost of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services by the average consumer. The weights used for combining the indices for the various groups of items are usually derived from household expenditure surveys. The percentage change of the Consumer Price Index, also sometimes referred to as the Retail Price Index, is also referred to as inflation Consumption Consumption is as a category within national accounts. An economy’s consumption is that part of its production which is used up in a year and is not added to its capital stock. The difference between income and consumption is called saving. But it is possible for consumption to exceed income in which case there is said to have been dissaving. Consumer expenditure is consumption by private individuals and constitutes most of Britain’s total national expenditure. Co-operative Co-operatives are societies affiliated to the world wide federation of co-operatives, founded in 1895 to promote fair trading. In each country where co-operatives function there are a number of societies controlling a series of retail outlets Crude Birth Rate The ratio of live births in a specified period (usually one calendar year) to the average population in the period (normally taken to the mid-year population, which is equivalent to the number of person-years lived). The value is conventionally expressed per 1,000. Sometimes referred to simply as the birth rate, the crude birth rate is the simplest and commonest measure of fertility. As with any crude rate, it is influenced both by the level of the process it attempts to measure, fertility, and by the age-sex structure of the population. Nevertheless, the relative number of women of childbearing age in the population as a whole does not vary greatly in most populations, so the crude birth rate is less affected by variations in the age structure than is the crude death rate. In other ways the adjective ‘crude’ is more appropriate for the crude birth rate, since it takes no account of the proportions of women married, or in other reproductive unions, which makes it impossible to distinguish the respective impact of marriage and marital fertility. The range of values observed for the crude birth rate is considerable, from around 10 per 1,000 in some developed countries today, to 55 or more in some parts of the developing world. The most important factor in determining such variation is the prevalence of contraception and induced abortion. However, even where modern methods of family planning are not widely employed, and where age-sex structures and marriage patterns are similar, crude birth rates may still show marked variation from population to population. Such divergencies are attributable to certain socio-cultural characteristics: the duration of breastfeeding and the prevalence of post-partum abstinence, for example. Additionally, poor hygiene and the widespread incidence of diseases affecting the reproductive organs (particularly common in parts of tropical Africa) may lead to reductions in the crude birth rate. Crude Death Rate The ratio of deaths in a year to the mid-year population, or, more generally, the ratio of deaths in any specified period to the number of person years lived in that period. The value is conventionally expressed as per 1000. The most elementary and one of the most frequently quoted of all measures of mortality, the crude death rate (also called simply the death rate) is strongly influenced by the age-sex structure of the population. Other things being equal, the higher the proportion of old people, the higher the death rate. It is, therefore, a very poor indicator of the comparative mortality conditions of different countries. The estimated crude death rates for both the United Kingdom and Guatemala was 12 per 1,000 in 1980, for example, where life expectancy at birth (a much clearer indication of mortality levels) was 72 years in the United Kingdom and 58 years in Guatemala. However, for short periods and for one country, comparisons made on the basis of crude death rates are more valid since the age-sex structure of the population changes only slowly. The lowest crude death rates should theoretically occur in rapidly growing, and hence youthful, populations with high life expectancy; and the highest rates should occur in slow-growing old populations with low life expectancy. Today, although the former set of circumstances holds (in 1980 Kuwait, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan all had crude death rates of 5 per 1,000 and Costa Rica 4 per 1,000), the latter does not occur in national populations. All countries with high proportions of old people have achieved long life expectancies, and the remaining parts of the world with poor mortality conditions (life expectancy of around 40) have young populations owing to high fertility. As a consequence crude death rates above 20 per 1,000 are becoming increasingly rare, and rates of 30 are now unknown for national populations in normal circumstances. In the past, crude death rates of over 50 per 1,000 could not have been sustained for any length of time as the population would have died out. More common values in historical populations were 30 to 40 per 1,000, with crisis years reaching rates perhaps twice as high. Crude Divorce Rate The ratio of divorces in a given period (normally a year) to the average population in that period or to the number of person-years lived in the period. The distortions and qualifications of other crude rates are apparent in this measure, the values it gives being influenced by the age-sex structure, marriage patterns and underlying mortality conditions of a population, as well as its patterns of divorce. Moreover, the variation in the legal provision for divorces in different countries makes any use of this rate as a comparative indicator of marital instability highly dubious. Crude Marriage Rate See marriage rate Crude rate A rate which consists of the ratio of the demographic events occurring in a specified period (usually a year) to the average total population in that period (normally the mid-year population), or to the number of person-years lived during the period. Although widely quoted these rates are generally poor indicators of the processes they attempt to measure since the total population is taken as the denominator and large numbers of people irrelevant to the demographic experience in question are therefore included in the calculation: for example, men, children and older women are incapable of giving birth but are taken into account in the calculation of the crude birth rate. Rates based on more carefully specified numerators and denominators are more interpretable than are crude rates; an example is the age-specific rate, which allows the age pattern of a process to be studied. Another approach is that of standardisation, in which an attempt is made to control the possible influence of confounding factors. In spite of all their drawbacks the simplicity and apparent comprehendibility of crude rates makes them, particularly in non-specialist work, the most frequently quoted of all measures. Crude Rate of Natural The ratio of the increase in population during a specified period (usually a year) that is Increase attributable to the difference between births and deaths (the natural increase) to the average population in the period (usually the mid-year population). This is equivalent to the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate. In contemporary populations this rate is rarely negative for national units, although low fertility has produced such values in parts of Europe, notably in both East and West Germany. Values of around 1 per cent are common in developed countries, while developing countries frequently demonstrate much higher values, with some in Africa and the Middle East approaching 4 per cent. High values such as these arise from the combination of improved mortality conditions (a crude death rate of 10 per 1,000 or less), a young population, and high fertility (a crude birth rate of 40 to 50 per 1,000 or even higher). Death The permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after birth. As defined by the World Health Organisation a death can only occur after a live birth, so the definition does not encompass stillbirth or abortion both of which are classified as foetal mortality. Death Rate See crude death rate Dependency Ratio, See Labour force dependency ratio Labour Force, Discount Rate The Interest Rate at which the streams of cash inflows and outflows associated with an investment project are to be discounted. For private sector projects the discount rate is frequently based upon the weighted-average cost of capital to the firm, with the interest cost of each form of finance (long-term loans, overdrafts, equity, etc.) being weighted by the proportion which each form of finance contributes to total company finances. Divorce The final legal dissolution of a marriage, involving the separation of husband and wife by a judicial decree which confers on each the right of remarriage according to the laws of individual countries. Within this broad definition the legal situation with regard to divorce varies from being altogether illegal (in some predominantly Catholic countries) to requiring only a statement of intent by the husband (in much of the Islamic world). The incidence of divorce is, not surprisingly, greatly influenced by such conditions and it tends to vary inversely with the difficulty of obtaining a decree. The most accurate data on the prevalence of marital instability often comes from census or survey questions. The most useful measures of divorce are those provided by a divorce schedule which gives rates of divorce according to age or, preferably, by duration of marriage. These enable the calculation of the proportion of marriages that will end in divorce, probably the most informative single indicator of trends and levels. Even this, however, needs careful interpretation at a time of rapid change. International comparisons are particularly hazardous owing to variation in legal conditions, but it is clear that significant increases in divorce have occurred in most of the developed nations since the second world war, especially since the 1960s, as liberalised divorce laws came into effect in many countries. Divorce Rate A term used in a variety of ways to indicate the incidence of divorce in a population, and often put forward with various qualifiers to specify more exactly its meaning. One measure sometimes referred to in this way is the crude divorce rate, which is simply the ratio of divorces in a particular year to the average population and as such largely uninformative. Relating divorces to the total number of marriages, as in the divorce rate for married persons, is similarly highly approximate and open to compositional distortions. More refined measures are rates which are age-specific or, more usefully, duration of marriage specific. These are presented in a divorce schedule and allow the proportion of marriages ending in divorce to be calculated. Dwelling Refers to one or more rooms designed for living which can serve as independent dwelling units for this purpose. The number of dwellings may include separate rooms in hostels, homes for students and young workers etc. etc. Earnings Income received by persons in paid employment for working full time, part time or overtime together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, before any deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social security and pension schemes and life insurance premiums. Average Monthly Earnings are broken out spread out by industry according to International Labour Organisation’s Classification of all Economic Activities. Economically Active All persons of either sex who furnish the supply of labour for the production of goods and Population services during a specified time-reference period. National practices vary between countries as regards the treatment of groups such as armed forces , members of religious orders, persons seeking their first job, seasonal workers or persons engaged in part-time economic activities. In certain countries, all or some of these groups are included among the economically active while in other countries they are treated as inactive. However, in general, the data on economically active population do not include students, persons occupied solely in domestic duties in their own households, members of collective households, inmates of institutions, retired persons, persons living entirely on their own means, and persons wholly dependent on others. In most countries the statistics of the economically active population relate only to employed and unemployed persons above a specified age while in some there is no such age provision. The economically active population is also often referred to as the labour force or work force though in such cases looser definitions are sometimes applied. Education at the First Education of which the main function is to provide the basic elements of education (e.g. at Level elementary school, primary school) Education at the Second Provided at middle school, secondary school, high school, teacher training school at this level and Level schools of a vocational or technical nature. This level of education is based upon at least four years' previous instruction at first level and provides general and/or specialised instruction. Education at the Third Provided at university, teachers college, higher professional school, which requires, as a minimum Level condition of admission, the successful completion education at the second level, or evidence of the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge. Educational See School. Establishment Employed, the Note: the following is the international definition of employed used by the International Labour Organistion though national definitions may vary. All persons above a specific age who during a specified period, either one week or one day, were in one of the following categories: a) "Paid Employment" a1) "at work": persons who during the reference period performed some work for wage or salary, in cash or in kind; a2) "with a job but not at work": persons who, having already worked in their present job, were temporarily not at work during the reference period and had a formal attachment to their job. b) "Self-Employment" b1) "at work": persons who during the reference period performed some work for profit or family gain, in cash or in kind; b2) "with an enterprise but not at work": persons with an enterprise, which may be a business enterprise, a farm or a service undertaking, who were temporarily not at work during the reference period for any specific reason. The employed also include: a) Persons temporarily not at work because of illness or injury, holiday or vacation, strike or lockout, educational or training leave, maternity or parental leave, reduction in economic activity , temporary disorganisation or suspension of work etc. b) Employers, own account workers and members of producers co-operatives c) Unpaid family workers at work d) Persons engaged in the production of economic goods and services for own and household consumption e) Apprentices who received pay in cash or in kind f) Members of the armed forces, both regular and temporary members of. Employee A person who is hired (employed) by another person or firm to provide labour services as a factor input in the production of a good or service. Employer A person or firm who hires (employs) labour as a factor input in the production of a good or service. Enrolment rate, school See School Enrolment Rate EPOS Electronic Point Of Sale - a system for recording sales using sophisticated cash tills which record the total amount to be paid by a customer, provide him or her with him or her with itemised bills, and simultaneously adjust the firms stock records to assist the firm to plan its reordering of goods. Ethnic Group A group of persons bound together by a common culture, language, customs, religion or race. The term is often used in the context of minority groups differentiated from a larger population by these characteristics. The precise definitions of ethnic groups in official statistics vary widely and the question is essentially, a matter of self-identification. In many countries place of birth has been used in an attempt to identify ethnicity, and one or more of the specific attributes of the group (language, religion, etc.) may also be employed. Exchange Rate The price of one currency expressed in terms of some other currency. Expenditure, Personal Expenditure is taken as representing current expenditure on goods and services. It excludes savings or investments (e.g. purchase of national savings certificates or shares; life assurance premiums; contributions to pension funds). Income tax payments and other such contributions, and mortgage capital repayments and other payments for purchase of or major additions to dwellings are also excluded. Special procedures are applied to purchases under hire purchase and other credit arrangements. Exponential Population See population growth, exponential Growth Export A good, service, or capital asset which is sold to foreign countries. Extended Family See Household, extended family f.o.b. – (Free On Board) Traded goods can either be valued f.o.b. or c.i.f., that is, after the inclusion of commission, insurance and freight charges incurred in transit. F.o.b. prices are lower than c.i.f. prices. The importance of the distinction is that trade figures are sometimes given in f.o.b. terms and sometimes in c.i.f. terms and the choice of measure affects the size of the deficit or surplus. Family See Household, family Fixed Exchange Rates Exchange rates which are maintained or pegged at a particular level, or within certain bands. They have the advantage of reducing trading risks through exchange rate changes, but have the disadvantage that when there are structural reasons for exchange rates changing, these changes are at first prevented and then when they finally take place are larger and more disruptive than they need to be. Food and Agriculture An international agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. Its primary objective is to Organisation (FAO) improve agricultural productivity and hence the nutritional standards of agrarian countries throughout the world. In addition, the FAO continually surveys world agricultural conditions, collects and issues statistics on farming, fishing, forestry and related topics. Foreign Exchange Constitute assets denominated in foreign currency held by a Central Bank which may be easily Reserves mobilised as a source of direct financing of payment imbalance and indirect regulation of the size of this imbalance through interventions on the foreign exchange market. Goods Vehicles Any single road motor vehicle designed to carry goods. This excludes articulated tractors and semi-trailers. Gross Capital This comprises expenditure on fixed assets, including their replacement and additions to existing Formation fixed assets; expenditure on maintenance and repairs is excluded. Fixed assets include dwellings, other new buildings and works, vehicles, plant machinery and other equipment. A further category of fixed asset is land and existing buildings, transactions which, except for actual costs of transfer, net out to zero when aggregated across the economy as a whole. Transactions in land and existing buildings are included in the sectoral analyses of capital formation but are excluded from the industrial analyses. The acquisition of fixed assets is normally recorded at the time the expenditure takes place. However, some assets which are imported are recorded at the time of delivery. Gross Domestic Fixed See Gross Capital Formation Capital Formation Gross Domestic Product Gross domestic product is the sum of all domestically produced output and is equal to domestic (GDP) expenditure plus exports minus imports. Its measurement can be approached in three largely independent ways: as the total of all output, production or value added by all activities which produce goods and services; as the total of all incomes earned from producing goods and services; and as the total of all expenditures made either in consuming the finished goods and services or in adding to wealth (less expenditure on imports). The best central estimate of GDP is derived principally from the levels of the two broadly independent analyses based on expenditure and income. Account is taken also of the changes in the volume of value added derived from the output analysis of GDP which is compiled only in index number format. Gross National Product Gross national product is the measure of a country’s output and is equal to gross domestic (GNP) product plus income received from abroad minus payments made abroad. Gross Personal Income See income Head of Household There is no universally accepted rule as to who is considered the head of a household, and the concept may be of significance only as a part of the process of enumeration in a census. Most systems assume that the members of the household (in practice the member responding to the questionnaire) will decide themselves who is to be considered the head for the purpose of the evaluation in question. In complex households the classification given may depend on who is cited as head and in these cases leaving the decision to household members may introduce a subjective element into the classification. This, however, is generally preferred as the best means of describing the social reality of the household as seen by its members. In recent years opposition to the term ‘household head’ (especially from feminists) has led to several censuses (e.g. the United States and the United Kingdom) replacing it with the term ‘reference person’. It may not be easy to reconstruct the more conventional definition from this; a major drawback in assessing change over time in household composition. Higher and University See Education at the Third Level Education Higher Education Libraries primarily serving students and teachers in universities and other institutions of education Libraries at the third level. Home Shopping Mail order and other direct mail activities HORECA Horeca figures refer to the sales of food and rink items through Hotels, Restaurants and Catering channels and are not included in retail sales. Hours of Work See Average Hours of Work Per Week Household (Census) One or more persons who make common provision for food and other essentials for living. This is an abbreviated version of the definition of the household recommended by the United Nations (1980) for enumeration and aggregation of individuals in population and housing censuses. ‘Common provision for food’ – often defined as sharing a hearth or cooking facilities – is the most frequent criterion used for identifying households in national censuses. The second most common criterion is the sharing of a dwelling or housing unit. This is often combined with common provision for food in defining households for census purposes, although in some cases – notably the United States and Canada – it is the only criterion. Household Income Household income is the aggregate of the gross incomes of the individual members of the household before deduction of income tax and any other deductions at source. Income as thus defined excludes money received by one member from another member of the household, proceeds from the sale of cars, furniture or other capital assets, and receipts from legacies, maturing insurance policies and windfalls. Income in kind is also excluded. Household Projection A projection of future population expressed in terms of the number and composition of households. Household, Co-resident Those who share the same physical space for the purposes of eating, sleeping and taking rest and Group leisure, growing up, child rearing and procreating. It has been argued that the co-resident group is the group of persons brought together by the ‘intersection of different activities within a particular space’. It should be noted that in certain respects the above definition is wider than that of the Household which has often, especially in the majority of modern censuses, been taken to be the group of persons who regularly take meals together derived from a common stock of food. This implicitly assumes that in order to eat together all working members (whose locus of employment need not be within the space occupied by the co-resident domestic group) pool their income. Household, Extended Denotes a domestic group or composite of domestic groups consisting of two or more nuclear Family families linked together through parent and child (patrilineal extended family, matrilineal extended family) or through siblings (fraternal or sororal extended family). In quantitative studies of the co-resident group an extended family household has been defined as one consisting of a conjugal family unit with the addition of one or more relatives other than offspring, the whole group living together on its own with servants. If the resident relative is of a generation earlier than that of the head of the household the extension is upwards; if the relative is a brother, sister or cousin of the head or his spouse it is sideways or lateral. A multiple family household comprises all forms of domestic group which include two or more conjugal family units connected by kinship or marriage; these units can be simple or extended and can be disposed vertically and laterally. In certain functionalist treatments of family extension of complexity, co-residence in the same dwelling may not be an absolutely necessary precondition, for instances in the co-operative exploitation of a common economic resource, even where that resource is land. Furthermore, certain census-takers do not define domestic groups with reference to their living under the same roof. In certain agricultural societies the eldest generation living after retirement in separate quarters without their own kitchens are treated as part of the household of their children. Household, Family It is conventionally argued in both anthropological and sociological literature that families are kinship units and as such must be defined strictly in terms of kinship relationships and not in terms of co-residence. The empirical distinction is founded on the observation that in numerous societies families do not form households, and that in even more instances co-resident groups are not composed of families. Demographers have used the word ‘family’ in ways that reflect its use in everyday speech and, perhaps more significantly, by the methodology or data-gathering principles of modern national census offices which treat the co-resident group or the dwelling unit as the unit of enumeration. ‘Family demographers’ tend therefore to be preoccupied with those kin co-residing in the same dwelling unit. Kin who do not share the same dwelling unit are not therefore part of the ‘family’ in the demographic sense, even though they may live close by and even though there may be considerable interaction between them and the ‘family’. This latter approach has met with considerable criticism from those who argue that co-resident group structure and kinship are so enmeshed that they must not be differentiated for analytic purposes. Housing expenditure Housing expenditure of households living in unfurnished or furnished rented dwellings consists of the payments by such households for rent, council tax, water and any insurance of the structure. For households living in rent-free accommodation housing expenditure is estimated in the same way as for rented dwellings. Expenditure of households living in their own dwellings consists of the payments by these households for council tax / rates or equivalent, water, ground rent and insurance of the structure, together with any mortgage interest payments. Hypermarket Store with a sales area of over 4,000 square metres, with at least 35% of selling space devoted to non-foods. Frequently on out-of-town sites or as the anchor store in a shopping centre ILO See International Monetary Fund IMF See International Monetary Fund Import 1) a good which is produced in a foreign country and which is then physically transported to and sold in the 'home' market leading to an outflow of foreign exchange from the home country ('visible import) 2) a service which is provided for the 'home' country by foreign interests, either in the home country (banking, insurance) or overseas (for example, travel abroad), again leading to an outflow of foreign exchange from the home country ('invisible' import) 3) capital which is invested in the home country in the form of portfolio investment, foreign direct investment in physical assets and banking deposits (capital imports). Income The income of all households in cash and in kind. It includes income from employment and self- employment, property and entrepreneurial income, social security benefits and other current transfers. Personal Disposable Income is calculated by subtracting income taxes, social security contributions and other deductions from Gross Personal Income. It represents a maximum amount which households can use for final consumption without decreasing their property. Net Savings from Disposable Income is the difference between Personal Disposable Income and Final Consumer Expenditure by Resident Households in the year stated. Income (methodological The standard concept of income in the survey is, as far as possible, that of gross weekly cash national statistical office income current at the time of interview, i.e., before the deduction of income tax actually paid, definition) national insurance contributions and other deductions at source. However, for a few tables a concept of disposable income is used, defined as gross weekly cash income less the statutory deductions and payments of income tax (taking refunds into account) and national insurance contributions. Some other analyses of FES data use ‘equivalisation’ of incomes, i.e., adjustment of household income to allow for the different size and composition of each household. Equivalisation is not used in this volume. Analyses by specific household compositions, show a full picture. The cash levels of certain items of income (and expenditure) recorded in the survey by households receiving supplementary benefit were affected by the Housing Benefit Scheme introduced in stages from November 1982. From 1984 housing expenditure is given on a strictly net basis and all rent/council tax rebates and allowances and housing benefit are excluded from gross income. Although information about most types of income is obtained on a current basis, some data, principally income from investment and from self-employment, are estimated over a 12-month period. The following are excluded from the assessment of income: a. money received by one member of the household from another (e.g. housekeeping money, dress allowance, children’s pocket money) other than wages paid to resident domestic servants; b. withdrawals of savings, receipts from maturing insurance policies, proceeds from sale of financial and other assets (e.g., houses, cars, furniture, etc.) winnings from betting, lump-sum gratuities and windfalls such as legacies; c. the value of educational grants and scholarships not paid in cash; d. the value of income in kind, including the value of goods received free and the abatement in cost of goods received at reduced prices, and of bills paid by someone who is not a member of the household; e. loans and money received in repayment of loans. Details are obtained of the income of each member of the household. The income of the household is taken to be the sum of the incomes of all its members. The information does not relate to a common or a fixed time period. Items recorded from periods greater than a week are converted to a weekly value. Particular points relating to some components of income are as follows: a. Wages and salaries of employees The normal gross wages or salaries of employees are taken to be their earnings. These are calculated by adding to the normal ‘take home’ pay amounts deducted at source, such as income tax payments, national insurance contributions and other deductions e.g. payments into firm social clubs, superannuation schemes, works transport, benevolent funds, etc. Employees are asked to give the earnings actually received including bonuses and commission the last time payment was made and, if different, the amount usually received. It is the amount usually received that is regarded as the normal take-home pay. Additions are made so as to include in normal earnings the value of occasional payments, such as bonuses or commissions received quarterly or annually. One of the principal objects in obtaining data on income is to enable expenditure to be classified in ranges of normal income. Average household expenditure is likely to be based on the long-term expectations of the various members of the household as to their incomes rather than be altered by short- term changes affecting individuals. Hence if an employee has been away from work without pay for 13 weeks or less he is regarded as continuing to receive his normal earnings instead of social security benefits, such as unemployment or sickness benefit, that he may be receiving. Otherwise, his normal earnings are disregarded and his current short-term social security benefits taken instead. Wages and salaries include any earnings from subsidiary employment as an employee and the earnings of HM Forces. b. Income from self-employment Income from self-employment covers any personal income from employment other than as an employee; for example, as a sole trader, professional or other person working on his own account or in partnership, including subsidiary work on his own account by a person whose main job is as an employee. It is measured from estimates of income or trading profits, after deduction of business expenses but before deduction of tax, over the most recent 12-month period for which figures can be given. Should either a loss have been made or no profit, income would be taken as the amounts drawn from the business for own use or as any other income received from the job or business. Persons working as mail order agents or baby- sitters, with no other employment, have been classified as unoccupied rather than as self- employed, and the earnings involved have been classified as earnings from ‘other sources’ rather than self-employment income. c. Income from investment Income from investments or from property, other than that in which the household is residing, is the amount received during the 12 months immediately prior to the date of the initial interview. It includes receipts from sub-letting part of the dwelling (net of the expenses of the sub-letting). If income tax has been deducted at source the gross amount is estimated by applying a conversion factor during processing. d. Social security benefits Income from social security benefits does not include the short-term payments such as unemployment or sickness benefit received by an employee who has been away from work for 13 weeks or less, and who is therefore regarded as continuing to receive his normal earnings as previously described. Industrial Production Coverage of industrial production indices comprises mining and quarrying, manufacturing and electricity, and gas and water according to the UN International Standard Industrial Classification (ISIC), and the indices are compiled using the Laspeyres formula; for many developing countries the indices refer to the production of a major primary commodity such as crude petroleum. Infant mortality Mortality of live-born infants who have not reached their first birthday. A number of distinctions are made according to the age at death of the infant and the cause of death. Deaths in the first month (28 days) of life are termed neo-natal, and deaths thereafter post neonatal. Mortality in the first week is sometimes called early neonatal. Although stillbirths are not normally taken into account in these terms, they are included in perinatal mortality, which normally deals with deaths in the first week of life and still-births occurring after 20 or 28 weeks’ gestation. Precise definitions of perinatal mortality may vary with respect to the categories of deaths included. The most common measure of deaths during infancy is the infant mortality rate, defined conventionally as the number of deaths among infants below one year of age per 1,000 live births in the same period. Rates for the various sub-classifications of age or cause are components of this overall rate. Infant Mortality Rate The number of deaths during a year, of live-born infants who have not reached their first birthday, divided by the number of live births in the period, and usually expressed per 1,000. Today, while some of the poorest countries continue to experience rates of 200 per 1,000 or above, most areas have seen large improvements. Many developing countries show values of less than 100, and in the developed world values of below 30 are virtually universal, with some countries below 10. Detailed assessment of levels and trends in developing countries is made difficult by problems with data, for better registration of deaths may suggest increases in mortality which in fact only reflect better coverage. Infectious Diseases Diseases caused by various micro-organisms, bacteria or viruses. The host’s immune system (humoral or cellular responses) has the task of preventing the spread of infection internally, and immunological control of infection can be preventively stimulated by vaccines. Successful vaccines have been developed for many important human viral infections such as smallpox, rabies, measles, and some forms of acute respiratory diseases. Another type of control of infection widely available is chemotherapy: anti-microbial agents such as penicillin and the sulfa drugs have been responsible for the significant control of many bacterial infections though comparable successes have not been achieved in the field of viral infections. Inflation An increase in the general level of prices in an economy that is sustained over a period of time. The annual prices may be small or gradual (creeping inflation), or large and accelerating (hyperinflation). The rate of inflation is usually measured using a Consumer Price Index which shows the annual percentage change in consumer prices. Interest Rate The particular amount of interest which a household or business borrower is required to pay to a lender for borrowing a particular sum of money to finance spending on consumption and investment. International Bank for See World Bank Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) International Fare Any payment made to carriers registered abroad by any person resident in the compiling country. Expenditure This category corresponds to ‘Other transportation, passenger services, debits’ in the standard reporting form of the International Monetary Fund. International Fare Any payment made to carriers registered in the compiling country of sums owed by non-resident Receipts visitors, whether or not travelling to that country. This corresponds to ‘Other transportation, passenger services, credits’ in the standard reporting form of the International Monetary Fund. International Labour A special agency of the United Nations, whose objective is to promote an improvement in living Organisation (ILO) standards and working conditions throughout the world, thereby facilitating social justice as a basis for securing world peace. The functions of the ILO encompass all aspects of social and economic conditions affecting employment throughout the world. It promotes national labour standards and work practices, but only in an advisory capacity, as it has no legislative powers. It provides technical assistance in manpower training, social policy and administration, and encourages co-operation between labour groups. The ILO is also concerned with the collection and dissemination of international labour statistics and undertakes research on a variety of labour- related statistics. International Monetary A multinational institution set up in 1947 to supervise the operation of a new international Fund (IMF) monetary regime - the Adjustable-Peg Exchange Rate System. The fund seeks to maintain co- operative and orderly currency arrangements between member countries with the aim of promoting increased international trade and balance-of-payments equilibrium. International Outbound The number of visits that each person makes from his country of usual residence to any other Tourism country for any purpose other than exercising a remunerated activity in the country visited. In principle, including all residents of a country, i.e., nationals of the country and foreigners who reside permanently in that country. International Tourism The expenditure of outbound visitors in other countries including their payments to foreign Expenditure carriers for international transport. They should in practice also include expenditure of residents travelling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases when these are so important as to justify a separate classification. For the sake of consistency with the Balance of Payments recommendations of the International Monetary Fund, international fare expenditure is classified separately. International Tourism Th expenditure of international inbound visitors including their payments to national carriers for Receipts international transport. They should also include any other prepayments made for goods/services received in the destination country. They should in practice also include receipts from same-day visitors, except in cases when these are so important as to justify a separate classification. For the sake of consistency with the Balance of Payments recommendations of the International Monetary Fund, international fare receipts are classified separately. Labour Force Also known as the economically active population, the labour force, or in a stricter sense the Economically Active Population, is conventionally defined as the total number of persons who supply labour for the production of economic goods and services. A given population typically comprises the economically active and inactive, with the former being composed both of persons in gainful employment and of those not currently employed but looking for work. The rest of the population is classified as not economically active. This includes housewives (termed homemakers in the United States), students, pensioners and other groups receiving private or public support without engaging in ‘economic’ activity. Further distinctions are made within the labour force according to industry or brand of economic activity. For the convenience of comparing these various categories the International Labour Organisation has produced a standard classification of occupations. There are, however, numerous 'grey areas' where it is difficult to distinguish between economic and non-economic uses of time. For example, the domestic activities of a housewife are not usually classified as economic, whereas a domestic servant performing identical tasks would normally be regarded as part of the labour force. Similarly, although domestic labour is not classified economic, unpaid work in an economic enterprise operated by a related person living in the same household is. The term encounters further difficulties when applied to low-income countries: in areas dominated by subsistence agriculture the concepts of economic and non- economic work are effectively meaningless since work, leisure and consumption are often intermingled. Labour Force The ratio of the economically dependent parts of the population to the productive part. Dependency Ratio Dependency ratios do not usually use detailed breakdowns of the population according to economic activity, but are normally calculated purely on the basis of the age-sex structure, leading to the use of the term age dependency ratio. The ages chosen to represent the number of individuals in the labour force are largely arbitrary, 15 to 64 being a common range useful for international comparisons. The ratio would be defined as the number of persons below 15 or above 64 years divided by the number between those ages. Labour force, economic Any occupation or activity that contributes to the production of income. Details of activity activity according to occupation of work status provide a means of classifying the labour force, sometimes also referred to as the working or economically active population. Homemakers or housewives, students and retired workers are not normally regarded as forming part of the labour force; it is, however, usually defined to include both unemployed and employed workers. The broad classifications of economic activity generally made often embrace a very wide range of individual jobs. Labour Force, The proportion of the population (usually in a specific age and sex category) in the labour force. Participation Rate The synonym activity rate is also commonly used. Large Mixed Retailer Mainly refers to department and variety store operators Library Irrespective of its title, any organised collection of printed books and periodicals or any other graphic or audio-visual material, and the services of a staff to provide and facilitate the use of such materials as are required to meet the informational, research, educational or recreational needs of its users. Life Expectancy The average number of additional years a person would live if the mortality conditions implied by a particular life table applied. Life expectancy at age x is represented by e x and life expectancy at birth by e0. Life expectancy at birth is very widely used as an indicator of mortality conditions. It is well suited to this role, being a measure based on mortality experience at all ages and independent of the effects of age structure. Mail Order Purchase of goods through the postal system, either in direct response to an advertisement or mail item, or via a catalogue. Market Temporary sales point usually located in street areas, typically not covered in retail sales figures. Marriage The legal union of persons of opposite sex, the legality being established by civil, religious or other means according to the custom and laws of each country. Marriage Rate Marriage rates are calculated to describe the occurrence of marriage in a population. Metropolitan Area Describes a very large urban settlement. Definitions vary between countries, but a population of at least 100,000 and containing one or more centres with 50,000 inhabitants is typical. Areas bordering the city which are socially and economically integrated with it are included. Because of the close links, particularly through commuting, between cities and their hinterlands, some studies employ the concept of a Metropolitan Labour Area. Mid-Year Population The size of a population (or any specified group within the population) at the mid-point of a calendar year, often calculated as the arithmetic mean of the size at the beginning and the end of the year. Assuming a linear variation over time the mid-year population can be taken to be the mean value for the year and used in the denominator of various rates. It is equivalent to the number of person-years lived during the year. The concept is often extended to cover periods of more than one year when the term mid-interval population is employed. Mid-Year Population, A measure calculated on the basis of observations made in one calendar year. Many demographic annual measure indices are presented on an annual basis and, where no explicit time reference is made, an annual dimension is often assumed. When various rates are under consideration an annual rate is normally calculated using the formula – events divided by mid-year population. Where a rate refers to data on a number of years, the term mean annual rate is employed. Rates or other measures calculated for periods of less than a year and adjusted to an annual dimension are termed annualised measures. Moped Two or three-wheeled road vehicle which is fitted with an engine having a cylinder capacity of less than 50cc and a maximum authorised design speed in accordance with national regulations.. Mortality The process whereby deaths occur in a population. The word mortality refers implicitly to the underlying conditions with regard to death, rather than to specific measures which may be affected by other factors. For example, the crude death rate reflects a population’s age structure as well as the prevailing patterns of mortality. Other measures, such as life expectancy, are more revealing and are normally understood when phrases such as ‘high mortality’ are employed. The age at which death is likely to occur and its cause vary greatly from country to country and according to such factors as age, sex, social class and occupation within each country. The two classifications which form the basis of analysis are age and cause of death. In the general population age is by far the most significant determinant of death rates. The importance of age-specific variation in mortality has long been clear, leading to the development of the life table as the main tool of analysis. In comparison, when examining whole populations the variations are less extreme; virtually the entire range of variation between populations is covered by life expectancies of between 20 and 80 years. The cause of death also varies greatly; exogenous mortality from such infectious diseases as plague, smallpox and tuberculosis is a principal cause of high mortality, whereas deaths from endogenous causes (above all cancer and cardio-vascular disease) predominate in developed countries. Motor Cycles Two-wheeled road motor vehicle with or without side car, including motor scooter, or three- wheeled road motor vehicle not exceeding 400kg unladen weight. All such vehicles with a cylinder capacity of 50cc or over are included, as are those under 50cc which do not meet the definition of moped. National Libraries Libraries which, irrespective of their title, are responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of all significant publications produced in the country and functioning as a "deposit" library, either by law or other arrangement, and normally compiling a national bibliography. Neoplasm Synonym of tumour, i.e., an abnormal growth of cells. A distinction is made between ‘benign’ tumours, which do not invade other parts of the body, and ‘malignant’ tumours which not only continue to grow in a disorderly way but can also spread from the primary site to other organs. This dissemination is known as metastasis. ‘Malignant’ tumours may remain dormant for years: rapid growth occurs when the tumour becomes vascularised, i.e., once the tumour induces the host to provide it with a network of blood vessels. ‘Benign’ tumours can be distinguished from ‘malignant’ tumours by recourse to a biopsy, i.e., by using a fragment of tumour for histological examination. Three major forms of treatment currently exist: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy (drug treatment). Early detection of malignant tumours is often a condition of successful treatment in many forms of cancer: population screening programmes, for example for breast or cervical cancer, have therefore been established in several countries. Net Domestic Product Net domestic product is gross domestic product minus the depreciation of the country’s capital stock. Net National Product Net national product gross national product minus the depreciation of the country’s capital stock. New Dwelling Refer to dwellings which are duly finished and ready for use (often in compliance with statutory Completed legislation). Nondurable Goods Consumer goods such as vegetables. Non-Specialised Non-Specialised libraries of a learned character which are neither libraries of institutions of higher Libraries education nor national libraries, though they may fulfil the functions of a national library for a specified geographical area. Normal hours of work Normal hours of work are the hours of work fixed by or in pursuance of laws or regulations, per week collective agreements or arbitral awards, or the number of hours in excess of which any time worked is remunerated at overtime rates or forms an exception to the rules or customs of the establishment relating to the classes of workers concerned. Number of Bed-Places The total capacity in bed-places of establishments offering accommodation available during the peak period of the tourist season. Number of Rooms The total capacity in rooms of establishments offering accommodation available during the peak period of the tourist season. Occupancy Rates The occupancy rate corresponds to the relationship between available capacity and the extent to which it is used. This rate may refer either to use of rooms or of beds. Occupancy rates are based on the number of nights of both domestic and international tourists. OECD See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Off-licence Shop selling take-home alcoholic drinks Organisation for An international organisation whose membership comprises mainly the economically advanced Economic Co-operation countries of the world. The OECD provides a regular forum for discussions amongst government and Development finance and trade ministers on economic matters affecting their mutual interests, particularly the (OECD) promotion of economic growth and international trade, and it co-ordinates the provision of economic aid to the less developed countries of the world. The OECD is a main source of international data and regularly compiles and publishes standardised inter-country statistics. Participation Rate, See Labour force, participation rate Labour Force Passenger Car Road motor vehicle, other than a motor cycle, intended for the carriage of passengers and designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver). This therefore includes taxis and hired passenger cars provided that they have fewer than 10 seats. This category may also include pick-ups. Pharmacy Specialist outlet retailing largely OTC and prescription-only medicines, as well as a small selection of parapharmacy goods Population A group of individuals co-existing at a given moment and defined according to various criteria. The term population usually denotes all the inhabitants of a specified area (state, province, city, etc.) but is also used to refer to sub-populations within this (for example, female population or school population). In an even more restricted sense the term is used to refer to any group under study, the employees of a company, patients in a hospital, and so on, where entry into and exit from the population can be seen as determining its size and structure, in the same way that birth, death and migration affect the population at large. Population Growth Rate The ratio of the total increase (or decrease) in a population during a given period to the average population in that period, taking into account all sources of population change (births, deaths and migration). The value is commonly calculated from the population totals given in two successive censuses. Population, Mid-Year See mid-year population Population, Projection The computation of future population size and characteristics based on assumptions about future trends in fertility, mortality and migration. A distinction is made between a projection and a forecast, the latter implying an element of prediction while the former simply represents the working out of various hypothetical assumptions. Demographers have in theory insisted that, given the inherent unpredictability of human behaviour, they can make only projections, but in practice the distinction between forecasts and projections is often artificial. Most projections made by official bodies are treated as forecasts, since many business and government decisions have to be based on a ‘best guess’ of future population size and composition. In the most widely used methodology for projection, component methods, each of the components of change (birth, death, migration) is estimated. Attempts to improve on the accuracy of this approach have involved various time-series and econometric methods, which offer potentially greater reliability but which are harder to relate to basic demographic processes. The use of theoretical models of demographic behaviour as a guide to projections has had little impact, possibly because the fundamental causes of population change are poorly understood. Whatever their sophistication, no projection techniques can predict future population with great accuracy. Population, Urban See urban population Primary Education See Education at the First Level Private Consumption Private consumption is the estimation within of the total personal expenditure on goods (durable and non-durable) and services. it also includes the final expenditure on goods and services for use by private non-profit making bodies serving persons. Producer Price Index Designed to monitor changes in the prices of items at the first important commercial transaction, it is a base-weighted index resting on the ‘basket of goods’ concept. Also sometimes referred to as the Wholesale Price Index, it covers a mix of agricultural and industrial goods at various stages of production and distribution, inclusive of imports and import duties. In practice, most national wholesale price indices are a mix of producer and wholesale prices for domestic goods representing prices for purchases in large quantities from either source. Producer Prices The prices at which producers sell their output on the domestic market or for export. Wholesale prices, in the strict sense, are prices at which wholesalers sell on the domestic market or for export. Public expenditure Expenditure by central and local government on both consumption and investment. It sometimes includes and sometimes excludes expenditure by nationalised industries. Pupil A person enrolled in a school for systematic instruction at any level of education. Also referred to as a student. Purchasing Power The rates of currency conversion that equalise the purchasing power of different currencies. This Parities (PPPs) means that a given sum of money, when converted into different currencies at the PPP’s rates, will buy the same base of goods and services in all countries. The PPPs are the rates of currency conversion which eliminate differences in price level between countries Rate of Natural Increase See crude rate of natural increase Real Prices The price of an item measured in constant price terms to make allowance for the effects of inflation. Retail Price Index See Consumer price index Retail Sales All of the figures presented, unless otherwise stated, are retail sales and refer only to sales through retail channels, e.g. high street shops and supermarkets. Retail Selling Prices Market values are measured at retail selling prices (i.e. prices quoted on products in-store) rather than at ex-factory prices, manufacturers’ selling prices or wholesale prices. Retail price discounts on bulk sales (e.g. three items for the price of two) and other specific, short term retail promotional offers on prices are not accounted for unless by national trade association data. Retailer A business which stocks a particular type of product (such as a shoe shop) or an extensive range of products (such as a department store) for sale to consumers. Retailers operate at the final end of a distribution channel for a product or products which also involves producers and wholesalers. Salaries Rates See Wages Rates Savings The difference between income and consumption is called saving. School A group of pupils in one or more grades organised to receive instruction on a given type and level under one teacher under the direct supervision of the head of the establishment. School Enrolment Rate The proportion of a population (usually specified according to age and sex) enrolled in an educational establishment at a given date. The school-age population is often used as the base population, distinction being made between various types of schooling, especially between part- and full-time enrolment, the former sometimes not being counted in the rate. Although the enrolment records of schools are sometimes used, it is usual to calculate these rates from census data from which it is possible to establish rates of entry into and departure from the school population, and to use life table methods to refine analysis further. School Libraries Those attached to all types of schools below the third level of education and serving primarily the pupils and teachers of such schools, even though they may also be open to the general public. Secondary Education See Education at the Second Level. Services Any intangible economic activities (hairdressing, catering, insurance, banking, etc.) that contribute directly or indirectly to the satisfaction of human wants. Student A person enrolled in a school for systematic instruction at any level of education. Also referred to as a pupil. Supermarket A store with a selling area of between 400 and 2,500 square metres, selling at least 70% foodstuffs and everyday commodities Superstore Store with a sales area of at least 2,500 square metres, generally devoted to non-foods, e.g. DIY Teacher A person directly engaged in instructing a group of pupils (students). Heads of educational institutions, supervisory and other personnel should be counted as teachers only when they have regular teaching functions.. Tele-shopping Sales direct to the consumer via TV broadcasting, by-passing conventional retail outlets and using telephone or fax ordering and electronic funds transfer Tourism Expenditure See International Tourism Expenditure Tourism Receipts See International Tourism Receipts Two-Wheelers Mopeds and Motor Cycles. Unemployed Note: the following is the international definition of employed used by the International Labour Organistion though national definitions may vary. The unemployed comprise all persons above a specified age who during the reference period were: a) "without work" i.e. were not in paid employment or self-employment; b) "currently available for work" i.e. were available for paid employment or self employment during the reference period; and c) "seeking work", i.e. had taken steps in a specified reference period to seek paid employment or self-employment. The specific steps may include registration at a public or private employment exchange; application to employers; checking at work sites, farms, factory gates etc., placing or answering newspaper advertisements, seeking assistance of friends or relatives, looking for land, building, machinery, finances, licenses to establish own enterprise etc. etc. The unemployed also comprises: a) those temporarily absent from their jobs with no formal job attachment who were currently available for work b) Students, homemakers and others mainly engaged in non-economic activities during the reference period. National definitions of unemployment may differ from the international standard definition. The national definitions used vary from one country to another as regards inter alia age limits, reference periods, criteria for seeking work, treatment of persons temporarily laid off and of persons seeking work for the first time. Differences between countries with regard to the treatment of unemployed persons with respect to classification by status in employment are particularly pronounced. In general, unemployed persons with previous job experience, classified according to their last job, are included in with employees, but in some cases they and unemployed persons seeking their first job form the most important part of the group "persons not classifiable by status". Unemployment Rate The number of unemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the Economically Active Population. Unemployment rates can be used to measure changing job opportunities over time and between countries. They also provide a summary measure of the degree of under- employment of factors of production, that is the extent to which a country's actual GNP falls short of potential GNP. Unemployment, General The data are annual averages of monthly, quarterly or semi-annual data. The numbers indicate the Level size of the problem and the percentages (unemployment rate) illustrate the relative severity of unemployment. These rates are calculated by relating the number of persons in the given group who are unemployed during the reference period (usually a particular day or a given week) to the total of employed and unemployed persons in the group at the same date. UNESCO See United Nations Economic and Social Council United Nations (UN) An association of states which have agreed to abide by the principles originally laid down in the UN Charter. It s main objectives are the maintenance of international peace and security, the upholding of fundamental human rights in all nations and the promotion social harmonisation and progress amongst all nations. The principle departments of the UN are the General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council (UNESCO) There are also a number of subsidiaries and affiliated bodies working in accordance with the Charter, such as the IMF, the ILO and the World Bank. United Nations Aims to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations Economic and Social through education, science, culture and communication in order to further universal respect for Council justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations. Urban Population The population living in areas with a census definition as urban. The criteria used to specify what is an urban area vary and it is not possible to give a single definition. The underlying concepts are fivefold: 1) national administrative divisions based on historical, political or administrative, rather than statistical concepts 2) population size 3) local administrative areas 4) specific urban characteristics 5) predominant economic activities. Most censuses use combinations of these five aspects. Even with elaborate definitions, however, a 3-way distinction of rural, urban and semi-urban or suburban is often necessary in order accurately to reflect the range of settlement patterns. Although the density of population is implicitly involved in most definitions it is rarely mentioned explicitly. The whole range of definitions in use makes comparative studies of urbanisation very difficult. While geographers have made extensive studies of urban populations (it is possibly the most popular subfield within human geography), demographers have largely concentrated on general studies of urbanisation, with relatively few attempts at detailed analysis of the social and ecological aspects of urban areas. Visible Balance See Balance of Trade Voluntary Chain Wholesaler-owned buying organisation distributing basic commodities - especially food - to smaller retail outlets. Affiliation to such a group (also known as a "symbol") permits the small trader such as the local grocery shop to buy at better prices, and benefit from a corporate image and joint advertising Wages Rates The rates paid for normal time of work, comprising: basic wages and salaries, cost of living allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances. The following should be excluded: overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances, other social security payments made by the employer directly to employees and ex gratia payments in kind supplementary to normal wage and salary rates. The International Labour Organisation state that earnings [wages] "…relate to remuneration in cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule, at regular intervals, for time worked or work done together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other paid leave or holidays. Earnings exclude employers' contributions in respect of their employees paid to social security and pensions schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes. Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay." Wholesale Price Index See Producer Price Index Working Age Population See Economically Active Population and Labour Force World Bank A multinational institution set up in 1947 to provide economic aid to member countries (mainly developing countries) in order to strengthen their economies. The bank has supported a wide range of long-term investments including infrastructure projects such as roads, telecommunications and electricity supply; agriculture and industrial projects including the establishment of new industries, as well social, training and educational programmes. The Bank's funds come largely from the developed countries, but it also raises money on international capital markets. The Bank operates according to 'business principles' lending at commercial rates of interest only to those governments it feels are capable of servicing and repaying their debts.