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					GMID - MARKETING PARAMETERS - DEFINITIONS

Activity Rate, labour    See Labour force participation rate.
force
Average Earnings         See Earnings
Average Gross Monthly    See Earnings
/ Hourly Earnings of
Employees
Average Hours of Work    Hours actually worked are the hours actually worked during normal periods of work, time worked
Per Week                 in addition to normal periods of work and generally paid at higher rates (overtime), time spent at
                         the place of work on work such as the preparation of the workplace, repairs and maintenance,
                         preparation and cleaning of tools, and the preparation of receipts, time sheets and reports, time
                         spent at the place of work waiting or standing by for such reasons as lack of supply of work,
                         breakdown of machinery or accidents, or time spent at the place of work during which no work is
                         done but for which payment is made under a guaranteed work contract and time corresponding to
                         short rest periods at the workplace, including tea and coffee breaks. The following should be
                         excluded: hours paid for but not worked (see below), such as paid leave, paid meal breaks and
                         time spent travelling between the home and the workplace. Hours paid for are generally the
                         hours actually worked (see above) plus the hours paid for but not worked, such as annual leave,
                         paid public holidays, paid sick leave, paid meal breaks and time spent travelling between the
                         home and the workplace.
Average Wage or Salary   See Wages Rates
rates
Balance of Payments      A statement of a country's trade and financial transactions with the rest if the world over particular
                         period of time, usually one year.
Balance of trade         Payments are made between countries for a variety of transactions. But the balance of trade refers
                         to the balance of payments on transactions in tangible goods. Such goods have to be shipped and
                         transported from one country to another. The transaction cannot be completed by a phone call or
                         postal message, as is the case of most invisibles. A country has a trade surplus if exports of
                         tangible goods exceed imports of tangible goods.

Birth Rate               See crude birth rate
Buses and Coaches        Passenger road motor vehicle (including mini-buses) designed to seat more than nine persons
                         (including the driver).
C.i.f.                   "Cost-insurance-freight" - charges incurred in transporting the goods from one country to another.
Cancer                   The second most common cause of death in developed countries after cardio-vascular diseases,
                         cancer is an uncontrolled proliferation of cells (hyperplasia). Normal cells, by a still unknown
                         mechanism, stop dividing when their proper function is attained; malignant cells do not, and
                         therefore produce an accumulation of tissue called tumour. Another characteristic of cancer
                         (metastasis) is the ability of malignant cells to detach themselves from the primary tumour and
                         spread to other sites.
Cardiovascular Disease   Disease of the heart and blood vessels. A list of the various forms of cardiovascular disease
                         (CVD) can be found in the International Classification of Diseases, the major ones being coronary
                         heart disease affecting the coronary arteries, and stroke affecting the brain (cerebral and carotid
                         arteries).
                         CVD is currently the major cause of death in developed countries. The foremost etiological
                         processes leading to CVD are atherosclerosis (a gradual blocking of the arteries due to the
                         development of plaques composed predominantly of cholesterol), hypertension (a chronically
                         elevated blood pressure), and congenital or rheumatic heart diseases (the latter resulting from the
                         infection in childhood from specific streptococcal bacteria).
Census                   The total process of collecting, compiling and publishing data on the demographic, social and
                         economic situation of all persons in a specified territory at a particular time. The operation of a
                         census is usually governed by legal or constitutional arrangements which may fix its date and
                         other aspects of its procedures, as well as making it obligatory for all respondents to answer
                         truthfully. A modern census has four essential features: individual enumeration, universality
                          within a precisely defined territory, simultaneity, and defined periodicity. Where individual
                          enumeration is not attempted and group enumeration is used the result is more accurately termed a
                          head count rather than a census proper. This was the case in many early censuses. Universality,
                          although always a goal, is never achieved in practice, virtually every census having some
                          individuals not recorded. A distinction is made between de facto enumeration, which records
                          where each individual was on census night, and de jure enumeration, which records usual
                          residence. Each is widely used; the former in the United Kingdom and the latter in the United
                          States, for example. Simultaneity is not always strictly observed either. In many cases there are
                          practical advantages in spreading the process of enumeration over some time, for example where
                          only a small number of trained interviewers is available. Nevertheless, the information recorded
                          should always refer to the same date. Though the full processing and analysis of census material
                          may take several years, provisional results (sometimes based on a sample of individuals or areas)
                          are frequently published very soon after the completion of field operations, so that the constantly
                          changing make-up of the population may be grasped with the minimum of delay, in spite of the
                          problems caused by over- or undercounts and other data errors.
Census, Coverage          The definition of the population groups and the time period to be included in a census. However,
                          the term is often used to refer to the achieved rather than the intended coverage. For a census
                          coverage is generally defined as the resident population (de jure or de facto) of a geographic area
                          on a particular date. This definition is usually expanded to explicitly include or exclude such
                          groups as citizens temporarily overseas, persons in transit, and foreign nationals within the
                          enumeration areas.
Census, Data Collection   The mechanisms whereby information on the age structure, births, deaths, migration and other
                          related topics are compiled. The most important of these techniques are censuses, sample
                          surveys, and civil registration which embraces both vital registration and population registers.
                          Data on migration are normally collected through records compiled for persons entering or
                          leaving the country at land frontiers, seaports or airports.
                          The actual methods by which the information is collected in censuses and surveys vary
                          considerably according to the level of development of the country and the sophistication of the
                          respondents. In most developed countries census forms are completed by the householders, and
                          the role of the enumerator is simply to deliver the forms, collect them and check that they have
                          been correctly completed. In developing countries on the other hand, where large proportions of
                          the population are illiterate, the forms are completed by the enumerators on the basis of oral
                          answers given by the householders. Sample surveys also take a variety of forms: they may be
                          single-round retrospective surveys or they may be multi-round longitudinal prospective surveys.
                          In developed countries some survey questionnaires are delivered through the post, and the
                          respondents are asked to complete them themselves; but most surveys are conducted by face-to-
                          face interviews between the enumerators and the respondents.
                          The instruments of data collection sometimes take the form of verbatim questionnaires, the
                          enumerators being required to read the questions out as they have been printed or they take the
                          form of a simple ‘schedule’ in which the nature of the question is indicated by an abbreviated
                          column heading. In the latter case the enumerators are left to word the questions as they think fit
                          and in some developing countries this may involve translating the questions into the local
                          language when the form itself has been printed in another. Registration procedures also vary. In
                          most countries the responsibility for registering a birth or death lies with the immediate relatives;
                          the registrar plays an essentially ‘passive’ role, and simply waits for people to come and register.
                          Sometimes, however, especially in developing countries, it is the responsibility of registrars to
                          ascertain what births and deaths have occurred within their areas, to visit the relevant households,
                          and to record the necessary particulars of the birth or death. These active procedures may mean
                          that the registrars make regular visits to all the households in their areas. In these circumstances
                          the distinction between an active registration system and a prospective survey can become hazy.
Census, Undercount        Failure to enumerate all the persons or events which should be counted in a census or survey. In a
                          census undercounting of complete households is frequently distinguished from undercounting of
                          individuals in enumerated households. Undercounting is generally more frequent among young
                          adults, especially those not living in households with other family members. The word is
                          sometimes used to mean net undercounting, the difference between the number of events over
                          counted and the number undercounted.
Central Bank               A country's leading bank which acts as banker to the government and the Banking System and
                           acts as the authority responsible for implementing the governments monetary policy.
Central Death Rate         The number of deaths occurring in a specified period of time (commonly one year) and in a
                           specific age-sex category divided by the population at risk (i.e., in the appropriate age-sex
                           category), expressed in person-years. The value is often multiplied by a convenient constant (e.g.,
                           1,000). In most calculations based on vital statistics, the population at risk is taken to be the mid-
                           year population.
Chain Store                Broad term referring to shops under the same facia, usually owned by multiples
Chemist                    Outlet selling OTC and prescription-only medicines, in addition to parapharmacy goods,
                           cosmetics and toiletries and some household products
Constant Prices            See Real Prices.
Consumer Durables          Consumer goods such as cars, televisions, washing machines which are 'consumed' over relatively
                           long periods of time rather than immediately.
Consumer Expenditure       Above all, purchases by households of goods and market services, imputed rent of owner-
                           occupied dwellings, goods produced by households for own consumption (e.g. agricultural
                           products) goods and services provided free of charge or at a discount, and purchases of second-
                           hand goods. It excludes the purchase of dwellings, mortgage repayments, business expenditures
                           incurred by households and any interest payments.
Consumer Expenditure       Any definition of expenditure is to some extent arbitrary, and the inclusion of certain types of
(methodological national   payment is a matter of convenience or convention depending on the purpose for which the
statistical office         information is to be used. In the context of the tables presented in GMID, total expenditure
definition)                represents current expenditure on goods and services. Total expenditure, defined in this way,
                           excludes those recorded payments which are really savings or investments (e.g. purchases of
                           national savings certificates, life assurance premiums, contributions to pension funds). Similarly,
                           income tax payments, national insurance contributions, mortgage capital repayments and other
                           payments for major additions to dwellings are excluded. Expenditure data are collected in the
                           diary record-book and in the household schedule. Informants are asked to record in the diary any
                           payments made during the 14 days of record-keeping, whether or not the goods or services paid
                           for have been received. Certain types of expenditure which are usually regular though infrequent,
                           such as insurance, licences and season tickets, and the periods to which they relate, are recorded
                           in the household schedule as well as regular payments such as utility bills.
                           The cash purchase of motor vehicles is also entered in the household schedule. In addition,
                           expenditure on some items purchased infrequently (thereby being subject to high sampling errors)
                           has been recorded in the household schedule using a retrospective recall period of either three or
                           12 months. These items include carpets, furniture, holidays and some housing costs. In order to
                           avoid duplication, all payments shown in the diary record-book which relate to items listed in the
                           household or income schedules are omitted in the analysis of the data irrespective of whether
                           there is a corresponding entry on the latter schedules. Amounts paid in respect of periods longer
                           than a week are converted to weekly values.
                           Expenditure tables in this report show the main commodity groups of spending and these are
                           broken down into items which are numbered hierarchically.

                           a.   Goods supplied from a household’s own shop or farm.

                                Spenders are asked to record and give the value of goods obtained from their own shop or
                                farm, even if the goods are withdrawn from stock for personal use without payment. The
                                value is included as expenditure.

                           b.   Hire purchase and credit sales agreements, and transactions financed by loans repaid by
                                instalments

                                Expenditure on transactions under hire purchase or credit sales agreements, or financed by
                                loans repaid by instalments, consists of all instalments which are still being paid at the date of
                                interview, together with down payments on commodities acquired within the preceding three
                                months. These two components (divided by the periods covered) provide the weekly averages
     which are included in the expenditure on the separate items given in the tables.

c.   Club payments and budget account payments, instalments through mail order firms and
     similar forms of credit transaction

     When goods are purchased by forms of credit other than hire purchase and credit sales
     agreement, the expenditure on them may be estimated either from the amount of the
     instalment which is paid or from the value of the goods which are acquired. Since the
     particular commodities to which the instalment relates may not be known, details of goods
     ordered through clubs, etc., during the month prior to the date of interview are recorded in the
     household schedule. The weekly equivalent of the value of the goods is included in the
     expenditure on the separate items. This procedure has the advantage of enabling club
     transactions to be related to specific articles. Although payments into clubs, etc., are shown
     in the diary record-book, these entries are excluded from expenditure estimates.

d.   Credit card transactions

     From 1988 purchases made by credit card or charge card have been recorded in the survey on
     an acquisition basis rather than the formerly used payment basis. Thus, if a spender acquired
     an item (by use of credit/charge card) during the two week survey period, the value of the
     item would be included as part of expenditure in that period whether or not any payment was
     made in this period to the credit card account. Payments made to the card account are
     ignored. However any payment of credit/charge card interest is included in expenditure if
     made in the two week period.

e.   Income tax

     Amounts of income tax deducted under the PAYE scheme or paid directly by those who are
     employers or self-employed are recorded (together with information about tax refunds). For
     employers and the self-employed the amounts comprise the actual payments made in the
     previous twelve months and may not correspond to the tax due on the income arising in that
     period e.g., if not tax has been paid but is due or if tax payments cover more than one
     financial year. However, the amounts of tax deducted at source from some of the items
     which appear in the Income Schedule are not directly available. Estimates of the tax paid on
     bank and building society interest and amounts deducted from dividends on stocks and shares
     are therefore made by applying the appropriate rates of tax. In the case of income tax paid at
     source on pensions and annuities, similar adjustments are made. These estimates mainly
     affect the relatively few households with high income from interest and dividends, and
     households including someone receiving a pension from previous employment.

f.   Rented dwellings

     Housing expenditure is taken as the sum of expenditure on rent, rates, council tax, water
     rates, etc. For local authority tenants the expenditure is gross rent less any rebate (including
     rebate received fin the form of housing benefit), and for other tenants gross rent less any rent
     allowance received under statutory schemes including the Housing Benefit Scheme. Rebate
     on Council Tax or rates (Northern Ireland) is deducted from expenditure on Council Tax or
     rates. Receipts from sub-letting part of the dwelling are not deducted from housing costs but
     appear (net of the expenses of the sub-letting) as investment income.

g.   Rent-free dwellings

     Rent-free dwellings are those owned by someone outside the household and where either no
     rent is charged or the rent is paid by someone outside the household. Households whose rent
     is paid directly to the landlord by the DSS do not live rent-free. Payments Council Tax,
     water rates etc. are regarded as the cost of housing. Rebate on rates (Northern
                                   Ireland)/Council Tax/water rates (Scotland)(including rebate received in the form of housing
                                   benefit), is deducted from expenditure on rates/Council Tax/water rates. Receipts from sub-
                                   letting part of the dwelling are not deducted from housing costs but appear (net of the
                                   expenses of the sub-letting) as investment income.

                              h.   Owner-occupied dwellings

                                   Payments for Council Tax, rates (Northern Ireland), water rates, ground rent, mortgage
                                   interest payments, insurance of structure etc., are regarded as the cost of housing. Rebate on
                                   rates (Northern Ireland)/Council Tax/water rates (Scotland) (including rebate received in the
                                   form of housing benefit for the rented element of shared ownership dwellings) is deducted
                                   from expenditure on Council Tax/rates. Receipts from letting part of the dwelling are not
                                   deducted from housing costs but appear (net of the expenses of the letting) as investment
                                   income. Mortgage capital repayments and amounts paid for the outright purchase of the
                                   dwelling or for major structural alterations are not included as housing expenditure, but are
                                   entered under ‘other payments recorded’. Average payments by owner-occupied households
                                   for repairs, maintenance and decoration are shown separately in the estimates of expenditure
                                   by tenure type.

                              i.   Second-hand goods and part-exchange transactions

                                   The survey expenditure data are based on information about actual payments and therefore
                                   include payments for second-hand goods and part-exchange transactions. New payments
                                   only are included for part-exchange transactions, i.e.; the costs of the goods obtained less the
                                   amounts allowed for the goods which are traded in. Receipts for goods sold or traded in are
                                   not included in income.

                              j.   Business expenses.

                                   The survey covers only private households and is concerned with payments made by
                                   members of households are private individuals. Spenders are asked to state whether
                                   expenditure which has been recorded on the schedules includes amounts which will be
                                   refunded as expenses from a business or organisation or which will be entered as business
                                   expenses for income tax purposes, e.g. rent, telephone charges, travelling expenses, meals
                                   out. Any such amounts are deducted from the recorded expenditure.


 Consumer Expenditure Category Definitions
Food                       NB: Expenditure on food brought into the home
Bread, bakery products and Bread, flour, pasta, biscuits, morning goods, rice and other cereals
cereals

Meat                         Fresh meat, poultry, game, prepared meat/poultry products, canned meats and other meat products
Fish                         Fresh, chilled and frozen fish, dried, salted and smoked fish, prepared fish products, canned fish,
                             shellfish
Milk, cheese and eggs        Liquid, condensed and powdered milk, yoghurt, cream, cheese and eggs
Oils and fats                Butter, margarine, salad and cooking oils, lard and other fats
Fruit                        Fresh, canned, dried and frozen fruit
Potatoes                     Potatoes and potato products
Vegetables                   Fresh, canned, dried and frozen vegetables
Sugar                        Sugar
Confectionery                Chocolate and sugar confectionery, honey, jam and preserves
Coffee, tea and cocoa        Coffee, tea, cocoa drinks, drinking chocolate and hot malted drinks
Soft drinks                  Soft carbonated and non-carbonated drinks, mineral water, fruit and vegetable juice
Other food                    Soups, seasonings, ice-cream, baby foods and other manufactured foods
Alcoholic Drinks              NB: Expenditure on drinks brought into the home
Beer                          Lager, bitter, ale, stout
Spirits                       Whisky, gin, vodka, rum, brandy and other spirits
Wine and other drinks         Still, sparkling, fortified wine, Champagne, vermouth, cider and perry
Tobacco
Cigarettes                    Cigarettes
Other Tobacco                 Cigars, cigarillos, pipe tobacco, hand rolling tobacco, snuff and smoking accessories
Clothing and Footwear         NB: Excludes sportswear and repair of clothing and footwear
Men's and boys' wear          Men's and boys' outerwear, underwear, nightwear, knitwear, socks and clothing accessories
Women's, girls' and           Women's, girls' and children's outerwear, underwear, nightwear, knitwear, socks, stockings, tights,
children's wear               clothing accessories and haberdashery
Footwear                      Men's, women's and children's footwear (excludes trainers, etc.)
Housing                       NB: Mortgage repayments fall outside the scope of Consumer Expenditure
Rents                         Rent of tenant occupied dwellings and imputed rent of owner occupied dwellings
Water and sewerage            Water and sewerage charges
Maintenance and repair of     Contractors’ charges and supplies for maintenance and repair of dwelling
dwelling
Household Fuels
Electricity                   Domestic electricity charges
Gas                           Domestic gas charges
Coal and coke                 House coal and coke
Central heating               Central heating charges
Other household fuels         Wood, burning oils, liquid gases and other household fuels
Household Goods and
Services
Furniture                     All furniture, mattresses, antiques and works of art (excludes office and garden furniture)
Carpets and other floor       Carpets, rugs, floor tiles, linoleum and other floor coverings
coverings
Household textiles and soft   Sheets, pillows, cushions, duvets, blankets, towels, curtains and other household textiles
furnishings
Household appliances          White goods and small electrical appliances: refrigerators, gas and electric cookers, washing
                              machines, vacuum cleaners, irons, hairdryers, etc.
Glassware, tableware and      China and porcelain, cutlery, ceramic housewares, plastic housewares, metalware, brushes, mops
household utensils            etc.
Household cleaning            Textile washing products, surface cleaners, dishwashing products air fresheners and insecticides
products
Hardware and DIY goods        Electric fittings and accessories, Do-It-Yourself tools, gardening tools and garden furniture
Household and domestic        Laundry, dry cleaning charges; repairs to clothing, footwear domestic appliances and furniture;
services                      cleaning services, child minding and other domestic services
Health Goods and Medical Services
Pharmaceutical products, medical appliances      Drugs and medicines, spectacles, thermometers and other medical appliances
and equipment
Medical services                                 Physicians, dentists, hospitals and nursing homes; health insurance
Transport
Purchase of cars, motorcycles and other          Purchase of private cars, motorcycles and other vehicles
vehicles
Petrol and oil                                   All types of petroleum, diesel and engine oil
Other running costs of vehicles                  Repairs to motor vehicles, car aftermarket, parking fees, garage rents, road tax,
                                                 insurance, technical tests, driving tests and lessons, car hire, bridge and road
                                                 tolls, other motoring costs
Urban transport                                  All types of urban transport: buses, underground trains, trams, trolleybuses, taxis,
                                                 etc.
Intercity buses                                  Fares on coaches for intercity travel
Rail travel                                      Fares on intercity and suburban rail travel
Air travel                                       Fares on air travel (excludes air travel component of package tours)
Other travel                                     Sea, river and other travel fares
Communications
Postal services                                  Charges for postal services
Telecommunications                               Telephone, fax, telex and internet charges, purchase of telephones and mobiles
Leisure and Recreation
Purchase of audio-visual, photographic and       Purchase of TVs, video recorders, radios, CD players, cameras, camcorders,
information processing equipment                 audio and video tapes, CDs, films, personal computers and peripherals, computer
                                                 software and other audio-visual, photographic and information processing goods
Hire of audio-visual hardware and software,      Hire, license fees and repairs of the above goods
license fees and repairs
Sports goods, toys, games and camping            Sport and camping items (including sportswear), traditional toys and video
equipment                                        games
Flowers, plants, pet goods, other recreational   Flowers, seeds, plants, pets, pet foods, pet accessories, veterinary charges and
goods                                            other recreational goods
Recreational and cultural services               Admissions to cinemas, theatres, sports events, museums, clubs, and other
                                                 cultural institutions; betting and gaming; other cultural services
Books, newspapers and magazines                  Books, newspapers, magazines and stationery
Education
Education                                        Tuition fees in schools and universities
Hotels and Catering
Catering                                         Expenditure on food and drink outside the home (e.g. restaurants, cafes,
                                                 canteens)
Accommodation                                    The cost of accommodation in hotels, hostels and other lodgings
Other expenditure
Personal hygiene and cosmetics articles          Bath and shower, babycare, haircare and shaving products, deodorants, skincare
                                                 and suncare products, fragrances and colour cosmetics, disposable paper
                                                 products
Hairdressing, beauty care and other personal     Hairdressing, beauty care and other personal care services
care services
Jewellery, silverware, watches and clocks,       Jewellery, silverware, watches and clocks, suit-cases, brief-cases, overnight bags
travel goods
Package holidays                                 Expenditure on package tours (including air travel component)
Financial services                               Administrative costs of pension schemes, life insurance and other financial
                                                 services
Other goods and services                         Miscellaneous goods and services not included elsewhere (e.g. private
                                                 newspaper advertisements, legal fees, clothes hire)
Total Consumer Expenditure in the                The total of all the above categories. Comprises expenditure in the country by
Domestic Market by Households                    resident households and tourists.
                  of which:
Durable Goods                                    Durable Goods
Non-Durable Goods                                Non-Durable Goods
Services                                         Services
Plus: Direct Purchases Abroad by Resident        Expenditure by country’s nationals on holiday abroad
Households
Less: Direct Purchases in the Domestic      Expenditure by foreign tourists in the country
Market by Non-Resident Households
Equals: Final Consumer Expenditure by       The result of the above three categories
Resident Households
Plus: Final Consumer Expenditure by Non-    Expenditure by non-profit institutions serving households (e.g. social
Profit Institutions Serving Households      organisations, political parties, trade unions, religious associations, recreational
                                            and sporting clubs)
Equals: Private Final Consumption           The result of the above five categories
Expenditure

Consumer Price Index      Indices for Consumer Prices are the most frequently used indicators of inflation and reflect
                          changes in the cost of acquiring a fixed basket of goods and services by the average consumer.
                          The weights used for combining the indices for the various groups of items are usually derived
                          from household expenditure surveys.
                          The percentage change of the Consumer Price Index, also sometimes referred to as the Retail
                          Price Index, is also referred to as inflation
Consumption               Consumption is as a category within national accounts. An economy’s consumption is that part
                          of its production which is used up in a year and is not added to its capital stock. The difference
                          between income and consumption is called saving. But it is possible for consumption to exceed
                          income in which case there is said to have been dissaving. Consumer expenditure is
                          consumption by private individuals and constitutes most of Britain’s total national expenditure.
Co-operative              Co-operatives are societies affiliated to the world wide federation of co-operatives, founded in
                          1895 to promote fair trading. In each country where co-operatives function there are a number of
                          societies controlling a series of retail outlets
Crude Birth Rate          The ratio of live births in a specified period (usually one calendar year) to the average population
                          in the period (normally taken to the mid-year population, which is equivalent to the number of
                          person-years lived). The value is conventionally expressed per 1,000.
                          Sometimes referred to simply as the birth rate, the crude birth rate is the simplest and commonest
                          measure of fertility. As with any crude rate, it is influenced both by the level of the process it
                          attempts to measure, fertility, and by the age-sex structure of the population. Nevertheless, the
                          relative number of women of childbearing age in the population as a whole does not vary greatly
                          in most populations, so the crude birth rate is less affected by variations in the age structure than
                          is the crude death rate. In other ways the adjective ‘crude’ is more appropriate for the crude birth
                          rate, since it takes no account of the proportions of women married, or in other reproductive
                          unions, which makes it impossible to distinguish the respective impact of marriage and marital
                          fertility.
                          The range of values observed for the crude birth rate is considerable, from around 10 per 1,000 in
                          some developed countries today, to 55 or more in some parts of the developing world. The most
                          important factor in determining such variation is the prevalence of contraception and induced
                          abortion. However, even where modern methods of family planning are not widely employed,
                          and where age-sex structures and marriage patterns are similar, crude birth rates may still show
                          marked variation from population to population. Such divergencies are attributable to certain
                          socio-cultural characteristics: the duration of breastfeeding and the prevalence of post-partum
                          abstinence, for example. Additionally, poor hygiene and the widespread incidence of diseases
                          affecting the reproductive organs (particularly common in parts of tropical Africa) may lead to
                          reductions in the crude birth rate.
Crude Death Rate          The ratio of deaths in a year to the mid-year population, or, more generally, the ratio of deaths in
                          any specified period to the number of person years lived in that period. The value is
                          conventionally expressed as per 1000.
                          The most elementary and one of the most frequently quoted of all measures of mortality, the crude
                          death rate (also called simply the death rate) is strongly influenced by the age-sex structure of the
                          population. Other things being equal, the higher the proportion of old people, the higher the death
                          rate. It is, therefore, a very poor indicator of the comparative mortality conditions of different
                          countries. The estimated crude death rates for both the United Kingdom and Guatemala was 12
                        per 1,000 in 1980, for example, where life expectancy at birth (a much clearer indication of
                        mortality levels) was 72 years in the United Kingdom and 58 years in Guatemala. However, for
                        short periods and for one country, comparisons made on the basis of crude death rates are more
                        valid since the age-sex structure of the population changes only slowly.
                        The lowest crude death rates should theoretically occur in rapidly growing, and hence youthful,
                        populations with high life expectancy; and the highest rates should occur in slow-growing old
                        populations with low life expectancy. Today, although the former set of circumstances holds (in
                        1980 Kuwait, Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan all had crude death rates of 5 per 1,000 and
                        Costa Rica 4 per 1,000), the latter does not occur in national populations. All countries with high
                        proportions of old people have achieved long life expectancies, and the remaining parts of the
                        world with poor mortality conditions (life expectancy of around 40) have young populations
                        owing to high fertility. As a consequence crude death rates above 20 per 1,000 are becoming
                        increasingly rare, and rates of 30 are now unknown for national populations in normal
                        circumstances. In the past, crude death rates of over 50 per 1,000 could not have been sustained
                        for any length of time as the population would have died out. More common values in historical
                        populations were 30 to 40 per 1,000, with crisis years reaching rates perhaps twice as high.
Crude Divorce Rate      The ratio of divorces in a given period (normally a year) to the average population in that period
                        or to the number of person-years lived in the period.
                        The distortions and qualifications of other crude rates are apparent in this measure, the values it
                        gives being influenced by the age-sex structure, marriage patterns and underlying mortality
                        conditions of a population, as well as its patterns of divorce. Moreover, the variation in the legal
                        provision for divorces in different countries makes any use of this rate as a comparative indicator
                        of marital instability highly dubious.
Crude Marriage Rate     See marriage rate
Crude rate              A rate which consists of the ratio of the demographic events occurring in a specified period
                        (usually a year) to the average total population in that period (normally the mid-year population),
                        or to the number of person-years lived during the period.
                        Although widely quoted these rates are generally poor indicators of the processes they attempt to
                        measure since the total population is taken as the denominator and large numbers of people
                        irrelevant to the demographic experience in question are therefore included in the calculation: for
                        example, men, children and older women are incapable of giving birth but are taken into account
                        in the calculation of the crude birth rate.
                        Rates based on more carefully specified numerators and denominators are more interpretable than
                        are crude rates; an example is the age-specific rate, which allows the age pattern of a process to be
                        studied. Another approach is that of standardisation, in which an attempt is made to control the
                        possible influence of confounding factors. In spite of all their drawbacks the simplicity and
                        apparent comprehendibility of crude rates makes them, particularly in non-specialist work, the
                        most frequently quoted of all measures.
Crude Rate of Natural   The ratio of the increase in population during a specified period (usually a year) that is
Increase                attributable to the difference between births and deaths (the natural increase) to the average
                        population in the period (usually the mid-year population). This is equivalent to the difference
                        between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate.
                        In contemporary populations this rate is rarely negative for national units, although low fertility
                        has produced such values in parts of Europe, notably in both East and West Germany. Values of
                        around 1 per cent are common in developed countries, while developing countries frequently
                        demonstrate much higher values, with some in Africa and the Middle East approaching 4 per cent.
                        High values such as these arise from the combination of improved mortality conditions (a crude
                        death rate of 10 per 1,000 or less), a young population, and high fertility (a crude birth rate of 40
                        to 50 per 1,000 or even higher).
Death                   The permanent disappearance of all evidence of life at any time after birth. As defined by the
                        World Health Organisation a death can only occur after a live birth, so the definition does not
                        encompass stillbirth or abortion both of which are classified as foetal mortality.
Death Rate              See crude death rate
Dependency Ratio,       See Labour force dependency ratio
Labour Force,
Discount Rate            The Interest Rate at which the streams of cash inflows and outflows associated with an
                         investment project are to be discounted. For private sector projects the discount rate is frequently
                         based upon the weighted-average cost of capital to the firm, with the interest cost of each form of
                         finance (long-term loans, overdrafts, equity, etc.) being weighted by the proportion which each
                         form of finance contributes to total company finances.
Divorce                  The final legal dissolution of a marriage, involving the separation of husband and wife by a
                         judicial decree which confers on each the right of remarriage according to the laws of individual
                         countries.
                         Within this broad definition the legal situation with regard to divorce varies from being altogether
                         illegal (in some predominantly Catholic countries) to requiring only a statement of intent by the
                         husband (in much of the Islamic world). The incidence of divorce is, not surprisingly, greatly
                         influenced by such conditions and it tends to vary inversely with the difficulty of obtaining a
                         decree.
                         The most accurate data on the prevalence of marital instability often comes from census or survey
                         questions. The most useful measures of divorce are those provided by a divorce schedule which
                         gives rates of divorce according to age or, preferably, by duration of marriage. These enable the
                         calculation of the proportion of marriages that will end in divorce, probably the most informative
                         single indicator of trends and levels. Even this, however, needs careful interpretation at a time of
                         rapid change.
                         International comparisons are particularly hazardous owing to variation in legal conditions, but it
                         is clear that significant increases in divorce have occurred in most of the developed nations since
                         the second world war, especially since the 1960s, as liberalised divorce laws came into effect in
                         many countries.
Divorce Rate             A term used in a variety of ways to indicate the incidence of divorce in a population, and often put
                         forward with various qualifiers to specify more exactly its meaning.
                         One measure sometimes referred to in this way is the crude divorce rate, which is simply the ratio
                         of divorces in a particular year to the average population and as such largely uninformative.
                         Relating divorces to the total number of marriages, as in the divorce rate for married persons, is
                         similarly highly approximate and open to compositional distortions. More refined measures are
                         rates which are age-specific or, more usefully, duration of marriage specific. These are presented
                         in a divorce schedule and allow the proportion of marriages ending in divorce to be calculated.
Dwelling                 Refers to one or more rooms designed for living which can serve as independent dwelling units
                         for this purpose. The number of dwellings may include separate rooms in hostels, homes for
                         students and young workers etc. etc.
Earnings                 Income received by persons in paid employment for working full time, part time or overtime
                         together with remuneration for time not worked, such as for annual vacation, before any
                         deductions are made by the employer in respect of taxes, contributions of employees to social
                         security and pension schemes and life insurance premiums. Average Monthly Earnings are broken
                         out spread out by industry according to International Labour Organisation’s Classification of all
                         Economic Activities.
Economically Active      All persons of either sex who furnish the supply of labour for the production of goods and
Population               services during a specified time-reference period. National practices vary between countries as
                         regards the treatment of groups such as armed forces , members of religious orders, persons
                         seeking their first job, seasonal workers or persons engaged in part-time economic activities. In
                         certain countries, all or some of these groups are included among the economically active while in
                         other countries they are treated as inactive. However, in general, the data on economically active
                         population do not include students, persons occupied solely in domestic duties in their own
                         households, members of collective households, inmates of institutions, retired persons, persons
                         living entirely on their own means, and persons wholly dependent on others.
                         In most countries the statistics of the economically active population relate only to employed and
                         unemployed persons above a specified age while in some there is no such age provision.
                         The economically active population is also often referred to as the labour force or work force
                         though in such cases looser definitions are sometimes applied.
Education at the First   Education of which the main function is to provide the basic elements of education (e.g. at
Level                    elementary school, primary school)
Education at the Second   Provided at middle school, secondary school, high school, teacher training school at this level and
Level                     schools of a vocational or technical nature. This level of education is based upon at least four
                          years' previous instruction at first level and provides general and/or specialised instruction.
Education at the Third    Provided at university, teachers college, higher professional school, which requires, as a minimum
Level                     condition of admission, the successful completion education at the second level, or evidence of
                          the attainment of an equivalent level of knowledge.
Educational               See School.
Establishment
Employed, the             Note: the following is the international definition of employed used by the International Labour
                          Organistion though national definitions may vary.

                          All persons above a specific age who during a specified period, either one week or one day, were
                          in one of the following categories:
                          a) "Paid Employment"
                          a1) "at work": persons who during the reference period performed some work for wage or salary,
                          in cash or in kind;
                          a2) "with a job but not at work": persons who, having already worked in their present job, were
                          temporarily not at work during the reference period and had a formal attachment to their job.
                          b) "Self-Employment"
                          b1) "at work": persons who during the reference period performed some work for profit or family
                          gain, in cash or in kind;
                          b2) "with an enterprise but not at work": persons with an enterprise, which may be a business
                          enterprise, a farm or a service undertaking, who were temporarily not at work during the reference
                          period for any specific reason.
                          The employed also include:
                          a) Persons temporarily not at work because of illness or injury, holiday or vacation, strike or
                               lockout, educational or training leave, maternity or parental leave, reduction in economic
                               activity , temporary disorganisation or suspension of work etc.
                          b) Employers, own account workers and members of producers co-operatives
                          c) Unpaid family workers at work
                          d) Persons engaged in the production of economic goods and services for own and household
                               consumption
                          e) Apprentices who received pay in cash or in kind
                          f) Members of the armed forces, both regular and temporary members of.

Employee                  A person who is hired (employed) by another person or firm to provide labour services as a factor
                          input in the production of a good or service.
Employer                  A person or firm who hires (employs) labour as a factor input in the production of a good or
                          service.
Enrolment rate, school    See School Enrolment Rate
EPOS                      Electronic Point Of Sale - a system for recording sales using sophisticated cash tills which record
                          the total amount to be paid by a customer, provide him or her with him or her with itemised bills,
                          and simultaneously adjust the firms stock records to assist the firm to plan its reordering of goods.
Ethnic Group              A group of persons bound together by a common culture, language, customs, religion or race.
                          The term is often used in the context of minority groups differentiated from a larger population by
                          these characteristics. The precise definitions of ethnic groups in official statistics vary widely and
                          the question is essentially, a matter of self-identification. In many countries place of birth has
                          been used in an attempt to identify ethnicity, and one or more of the specific attributes of the
                          group (language, religion, etc.) may also be employed.
Exchange Rate             The price of one currency expressed in terms of some other currency.
Expenditure, Personal     Expenditure is taken as representing current expenditure on goods and services. It excludes
                          savings or investments (e.g. purchase of national savings certificates or shares; life assurance
                          premiums; contributions to pension funds). Income tax payments and other such contributions,
                          and mortgage capital repayments and other payments for purchase of or major additions to
                          dwellings are also excluded. Special procedures are applied to purchases under hire purchase and
                           other credit arrangements.
Exponential Population     See population growth, exponential
Growth
Export                     A good, service, or capital asset which is sold to foreign countries.
Extended Family            See Household, extended family
f.o.b. – (Free On Board)   Traded goods can either be valued f.o.b. or c.i.f., that is, after the inclusion of commission,
                           insurance and freight charges incurred in transit. F.o.b. prices are lower than c.i.f. prices. The
                           importance of the distinction is that trade figures are sometimes given in f.o.b. terms and
                           sometimes in c.i.f. terms and the choice of measure affects the size of the deficit or surplus.
Family                     See Household, family
Fixed Exchange Rates       Exchange rates which are maintained or pegged at a particular level, or within certain bands.
                           They have the advantage of reducing trading risks through exchange rate changes, but have the
                           disadvantage that when there are structural reasons for exchange rates changing, these changes are
                           at first prevented and then when they finally take place are larger and more disruptive than they
                           need to be.
Food and Agriculture       An international agency of the United Nations, established in 1945. Its primary objective is to
Organisation (FAO)         improve agricultural productivity and hence the nutritional standards of agrarian countries
                           throughout the world. In addition, the FAO continually surveys world agricultural conditions,
                           collects and issues statistics on farming, fishing, forestry and related topics.
Foreign Exchange           Constitute assets denominated in foreign currency held by a Central Bank which may be easily
Reserves                   mobilised as a source of direct financing of payment imbalance and indirect regulation of the size
                           of this imbalance through interventions on the foreign exchange market.
Goods Vehicles             Any single road motor vehicle designed to carry goods. This excludes articulated tractors and
                           semi-trailers.
Gross Capital              This comprises expenditure on fixed assets, including their replacement and additions to existing
Formation                  fixed assets; expenditure on maintenance and repairs is excluded. Fixed assets include dwellings,
                           other new buildings and works, vehicles, plant machinery and other equipment. A further
                           category of fixed asset is land and existing buildings, transactions which, except for actual costs
                           of transfer, net out to zero when aggregated across the economy as a whole. Transactions in land
                           and existing buildings are included in the sectoral analyses of capital formation but are excluded
                           from the industrial analyses. The acquisition of fixed assets is normally recorded at the time the
                           expenditure takes place. However, some assets which are imported are recorded at the time of
                           delivery.
Gross Domestic Fixed       See Gross Capital Formation
Capital Formation
Gross Domestic Product     Gross domestic product is the sum of all domestically produced output and is equal to domestic
(GDP)                      expenditure plus exports minus imports.
                           Its measurement can be approached in three largely independent ways: as the total of all output,
                           production or value added by all activities which produce goods and services; as the total of all
                           incomes earned from producing goods and services; and as the total of all expenditures made
                           either in consuming the finished goods and services or in adding to wealth (less expenditure on
                           imports). The best central estimate of GDP is derived principally from the levels of the two
                           broadly independent analyses based on expenditure and income. Account is taken also of the
                           changes in the volume of value added derived from the output analysis of GDP which is compiled
                           only in index number format.
Gross National Product     Gross national product is the measure of a country’s output and is equal to gross domestic
(GNP)                      product plus income received from abroad minus payments made abroad.
Gross Personal Income      See income
Head of Household          There is no universally accepted rule as to who is considered the head of a household, and the
                           concept may be of significance only as a part of the process of enumeration in a census.
                           Most systems assume that the members of the household (in practice the member responding to
                           the questionnaire) will decide themselves who is to be considered the head for the purpose of the
                           evaluation in question. In complex households the classification given may depend on who is
                           cited as head and in these cases leaving the decision to household members may introduce a
                           subjective element into the classification. This, however, is generally preferred as the best means
                         of describing the social reality of the household as seen by its members. In recent years
                         opposition to the term ‘household head’ (especially from feminists) has led to several censuses
                         (e.g. the United States and the United Kingdom) replacing it with the term ‘reference person’. It
                         may not be easy to reconstruct the more conventional definition from this; a major drawback in
                         assessing change over time in household composition.
Higher and University    See Education at the Third Level
Education
Higher Education         Libraries primarily serving students and teachers in universities and other institutions of education
Libraries                at the third level.
Home Shopping            Mail order and other direct mail activities
HORECA                   Horeca figures refer to the sales of food and rink items through Hotels, Restaurants and Catering
                         channels and are not included in retail sales.
Hours of Work            See Average Hours of Work Per Week
Household (Census)       One or more persons who make common provision for food and other essentials for living. This
                         is an abbreviated version of the definition of the household recommended by the United Nations
                         (1980) for enumeration and aggregation of individuals in population and housing censuses.
                         ‘Common provision for food’ – often defined as sharing a hearth or cooking facilities – is the
                         most frequent criterion used for identifying households in national censuses. The second most
                         common criterion is the sharing of a dwelling or housing unit. This is often combined with
                         common provision for food in defining households for census purposes, although in some cases –
                         notably the United States and Canada – it is the only criterion.
Household Income         Household income is the aggregate of the gross incomes of the individual members of the
                         household before deduction of income tax and any other deductions at source. Income as thus
                         defined excludes money received by one member from another member of the household,
                         proceeds from the sale of cars, furniture or other capital assets, and receipts from legacies,
                         maturing insurance policies and windfalls. Income in kind is also excluded.
Household Projection     A projection of future population expressed in terms of the number and composition of
                         households.
Household, Co-resident   Those who share the same physical space for the purposes of eating, sleeping and taking rest and
Group                    leisure, growing up, child rearing and procreating.
                         It has been argued that the co-resident group is the group of persons brought together by the
                         ‘intersection of different activities within a particular space’.
                         It should be noted that in certain respects the above definition is wider than that of the Household
                         which has often, especially in the majority of modern censuses, been taken to be the group of
                         persons who regularly take meals together derived from a common stock of food. This implicitly
                         assumes that in order to eat together all working members (whose locus of employment need not
                         be within the space occupied by the co-resident domestic group) pool their income.
Household, Extended      Denotes a domestic group or composite of domestic groups consisting of two or more nuclear
Family                   families linked together through parent and child (patrilineal extended family, matrilineal
                         extended family) or through siblings (fraternal or sororal extended family).
                         In quantitative studies of the co-resident group an extended family household has been defined
                         as one consisting of a conjugal family unit with the addition of one or more relatives other than
                         offspring, the whole group living together on its own with servants. If the resident relative is of a
                         generation earlier than that of the head of the household the extension is upwards; if the relative is
                         a brother, sister or cousin of the head or his spouse it is sideways or lateral. A multiple family
                         household comprises all forms of domestic group which include two or more conjugal family
                         units connected by kinship or marriage; these units can be simple or extended and can be disposed
                         vertically and laterally.
                         In certain functionalist treatments of family extension of complexity, co-residence in the same
                         dwelling may not be an absolutely necessary precondition, for instances in the co-operative
                         exploitation of a common economic resource, even where that resource is land. Furthermore,
                         certain census-takers do not define domestic groups with reference to their living under the same
                         roof. In certain agricultural societies the eldest generation living after retirement in separate
                         quarters without their own kitchens are treated as part of the household of their children.
Household, Family        It is conventionally argued in both anthropological and sociological literature that families are
                              kinship units and as such must be defined strictly in terms of kinship relationships and not in
                              terms of co-residence. The empirical distinction is founded on the observation that in numerous
                              societies families do not form households, and that in even more instances co-resident groups are
                              not composed of families.
                              Demographers have used the word ‘family’ in ways that reflect its use in everyday speech and,
                              perhaps more significantly, by the methodology or data-gathering principles of modern national
                              census offices which treat the co-resident group or the dwelling unit as the unit of enumeration.
                              ‘Family demographers’ tend therefore to be preoccupied with those kin co-residing in the same
                              dwelling unit. Kin who do not share the same dwelling unit are not therefore part of the ‘family’
                              in the demographic sense, even though they may live close by and even though there may be
                              considerable interaction between them and the ‘family’. This latter approach has met with
                              considerable criticism from those who argue that co-resident group structure and kinship are so
                              enmeshed that they must not be differentiated for analytic purposes.
Housing expenditure           Housing expenditure of households living in unfurnished or furnished rented dwellings consists of
                              the payments by such households for rent, council tax, water and any insurance of the structure.
                              For households living in rent-free accommodation housing expenditure is estimated in the same
                              way as for rented dwellings. Expenditure of households living in their own dwellings consists of
                              the payments by these households for council tax / rates or equivalent, water, ground rent and
                              insurance of the structure, together with any mortgage interest payments.
Hypermarket                   Store with a sales area of over 4,000 square metres, with at least 35% of selling space devoted to
                              non-foods. Frequently on out-of-town sites or as the anchor store in a shopping centre
ILO                           See International Monetary Fund
IMF                           See International Monetary Fund
Import                        1) a good which is produced in a foreign country and which is then physically transported to and
                                   sold in the 'home' market leading to an outflow of foreign exchange from the home country
                                   ('visible import)
                              2) a service which is provided for the 'home' country by foreign interests, either in the home
                                   country (banking, insurance) or overseas (for example, travel abroad), again leading to an
                                   outflow of foreign exchange from the home country ('invisible' import)
                              3) capital which is invested in the home country in the form of portfolio investment, foreign
                                   direct investment in physical assets and banking deposits (capital imports).
Income                        The income of all households in cash and in kind. It includes income from employment and self-
                              employment, property and entrepreneurial income, social security benefits and other current
                              transfers. Personal Disposable Income is calculated by subtracting income taxes, social security
                              contributions and other deductions from Gross Personal Income. It represents a maximum amount
                              which households can use for final consumption without decreasing their property. Net Savings
                              from Disposable Income is the difference between Personal Disposable Income and Final
                              Consumer Expenditure by Resident Households in the year stated.
Income (methodological        The standard concept of income in the survey is, as far as possible, that of gross weekly cash
national statistical office   income current at the time of interview, i.e., before the deduction of income tax actually paid,
definition)                   national insurance contributions and other deductions at source. However, for a few tables a
                              concept of disposable income is used, defined as gross weekly cash income less the statutory
                              deductions and payments of income tax (taking refunds into account) and national insurance
                              contributions. Some other analyses of FES data use ‘equivalisation’ of incomes, i.e., adjustment
                              of household income to allow for the different size and composition of each household.
                              Equivalisation is not used in this volume. Analyses by specific household compositions, show a
                              full picture. The cash levels of certain items of income (and expenditure) recorded in the survey
                              by households receiving supplementary benefit were affected by the Housing Benefit Scheme
                              introduced in stages from November 1982. From 1984 housing expenditure is given on a strictly
                              net basis and all rent/council tax rebates and allowances and housing benefit are excluded from
                              gross income.
                              Although information about most types of income is obtained on a current basis, some data,
                              principally income from investment and from self-employment, are estimated over a 12-month
                              period.
                              The following are excluded from the assessment of income:
a.   money received by one member of the household from another (e.g. housekeeping money,
     dress allowance, children’s pocket money) other than wages paid to resident domestic
     servants;

b.   withdrawals of savings, receipts from maturing insurance policies, proceeds from sale of
     financial and other assets (e.g., houses, cars, furniture, etc.) winnings from betting, lump-sum
     gratuities and windfalls such as legacies;

c.   the value of educational grants and scholarships not paid in cash;

d.   the value of income in kind, including the value of goods received free and the abatement in
     cost of goods received at reduced prices, and of bills paid by someone who is not a member
     of the household;

e.   loans and money received in repayment of loans.

Details are obtained of the income of each member of the household. The income of the
household is taken to be the sum of the incomes of all its members. The information does not
relate to a common or a fixed time period. Items recorded from periods greater than a week are
converted to a weekly value.
          Particular points relating to some components of income are as follows:

a.   Wages and salaries of employees

      The normal gross wages or salaries of employees are taken to be their earnings. These are
      calculated by adding to the normal ‘take home’ pay amounts deducted at source, such as
      income tax payments, national insurance contributions and other deductions e.g. payments
      into firm social clubs, superannuation schemes, works transport, benevolent funds, etc.
      Employees are asked to give the earnings actually received including bonuses and
      commission the last time payment was made and, if different, the amount usually received.
      It is the amount usually received that is regarded as the normal take-home pay. Additions
      are made so as to include in normal earnings the value of occasional payments, such as
      bonuses or commissions received quarterly or annually. One of the principal objects in
      obtaining data on income is to enable expenditure to be classified in ranges of normal
      income. Average household expenditure is likely to be based on the long-term expectations
      of the various members of the household as to their incomes rather than be altered by short-
      term changes affecting individuals. Hence if an employee has been away from work without
      pay for 13 weeks or less he is regarded as continuing to receive his normal earnings instead
      of social security benefits, such as unemployment or sickness benefit, that he may be
      receiving. Otherwise, his normal earnings are disregarded and his current short-term social
      security benefits taken instead. Wages and salaries include any earnings from subsidiary
      employment as an employee and the earnings of HM Forces.

b. Income from self-employment

      Income from self-employment covers any personal income from employment other than as
      an employee; for example, as a sole trader, professional or other person working on his own
      account or in partnership, including subsidiary work on his own account by a person whose
      main job is as an employee. It is measured from estimates of income or trading profits, after
      deduction of business expenses but before deduction of tax, over the most recent 12-month
      period for which figures can be given. Should either a loss have been made or no profit,
      income would be taken as the amounts drawn from the business for own use or as any other
      income received from the job or business. Persons working as mail order agents or baby-
      sitters, with no other employment, have been classified as unoccupied rather than as self-
      employed, and the earnings involved have been classified as earnings from ‘other sources’
                             rather than self-employment income.

                        c. Income from investment

                             Income from investments or from property, other than that in which the household is
                             residing, is the amount received during the 12 months immediately prior to the date of the
                             initial interview. It includes receipts from sub-letting part of the dwelling (net of the
                             expenses of the sub-letting). If income tax has been deducted at source the gross amount is
                             estimated by applying a conversion factor during processing.

                        d. Social security benefits

                              Income from social security benefits does not include the short-term payments such as
                              unemployment or sickness benefit received by an employee who has been away from work
                              for 13 weeks or less, and who is therefore regarded as continuing to receive his normal
                              earnings as previously described.
Industrial Production   Coverage of industrial production indices comprises mining and quarrying, manufacturing and
                        electricity, and gas and water according to the UN International Standard Industrial Classification
                        (ISIC), and the indices are compiled using the Laspeyres formula; for many developing countries
                        the indices refer to the production of a major primary commodity such as crude petroleum.
Infant mortality        Mortality of live-born infants who have not reached their first birthday.
                        A number of distinctions are made according to the age at death of the infant and the cause of
                        death. Deaths in the first month (28 days) of life are termed neo-natal, and deaths thereafter post
                        neonatal. Mortality in the first week is sometimes called early neonatal. Although stillbirths are
                        not normally taken into account in these terms, they are included in perinatal mortality, which
                        normally deals with deaths in the first week of life and still-births occurring after 20 or 28 weeks’
                        gestation. Precise definitions of perinatal mortality may vary with respect to the categories of
                        deaths included.
                        The most common measure of deaths during infancy is the infant mortality rate, defined
                        conventionally as the number of deaths among infants below one year of age per 1,000 live births
                        in the same period. Rates for the various sub-classifications of age or cause are components of
                        this overall rate.
Infant Mortality Rate   The number of deaths during a year, of live-born infants who have not reached their first birthday,
                        divided by the number of live births in the period, and usually expressed per 1,000.
                        Today, while some of the poorest countries continue to experience rates of 200 per 1,000 or
                        above, most areas have seen large improvements. Many developing countries show values of less
                        than 100, and in the developed world values of below 30 are virtually universal, with some
                        countries below 10. Detailed assessment of levels and trends in developing countries is made
                        difficult by problems with data, for better registration of deaths may suggest increases in mortality
                        which in fact only reflect better coverage.
Infectious Diseases     Diseases caused by various micro-organisms, bacteria or viruses. The host’s immune system
                        (humoral or cellular responses) has the task of preventing the spread of infection internally, and
                        immunological control of infection can be preventively stimulated by vaccines. Successful
                        vaccines have been developed for many important human viral infections such as smallpox,
                        rabies, measles, and some forms of acute respiratory diseases.
                        Another type of control of infection widely available is chemotherapy: anti-microbial agents such
                        as penicillin and the sulfa drugs have been responsible for the significant control of many
                        bacterial infections though comparable successes have not been achieved in the field of viral
                        infections.
Inflation               An increase in the general level of prices in an economy that is sustained over a period of time.
                        The annual prices may be small or gradual (creeping inflation), or large and accelerating
                        (hyperinflation). The rate of inflation is usually measured using a Consumer Price Index which
                        shows the annual percentage change in consumer prices.
Interest Rate           The particular amount of interest which a household or business borrower is required to pay to a
                        lender for borrowing a particular sum of money to finance spending on consumption and
                        investment.
International Bank for   See World Bank
Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD)
International Fare       Any payment made to carriers registered abroad by any person resident in the compiling country.
Expenditure              This category corresponds to ‘Other transportation, passenger services, debits’ in the standard
                         reporting form of the International Monetary Fund.
International Fare       Any payment made to carriers registered in the compiling country of sums owed by non-resident
Receipts                 visitors, whether or not travelling to that country. This corresponds to ‘Other transportation,
                         passenger services, credits’ in the standard reporting form of the International Monetary Fund.
International Labour     A special agency of the United Nations, whose objective is to promote an improvement in living
Organisation (ILO)       standards and working conditions throughout the world, thereby facilitating social justice as a
                         basis for securing world peace. The functions of the ILO encompass all aspects of social and
                         economic conditions affecting employment throughout the world. It promotes national labour
                         standards and work practices, but only in an advisory capacity, as it has no legislative powers. It
                         provides technical assistance in manpower training, social policy and administration, and
                         encourages co-operation between labour groups. The ILO is also concerned with the collection
                         and dissemination of international labour statistics and undertakes research on a variety of labour-
                         related statistics.
International Monetary   A multinational institution set up in 1947 to supervise the operation of a new international
Fund (IMF)               monetary regime - the Adjustable-Peg Exchange Rate System. The fund seeks to maintain co-
                         operative and orderly currency arrangements between member countries with the aim of
                         promoting increased international trade and balance-of-payments equilibrium.
International Outbound   The number of visits that each person makes from his country of usual residence to any other
Tourism                  country for any purpose other than exercising a remunerated activity in the country visited. In
                         principle, including all residents of a country, i.e., nationals of the country and foreigners who
                         reside permanently in that country.
International Tourism    The expenditure of outbound visitors in other countries including their payments to foreign
Expenditure              carriers for international transport. They should in practice also include expenditure of residents
                         travelling abroad as same-day visitors, except in cases when these are so important as to justify a
                         separate classification. For the sake of consistency with the Balance of Payments
                         recommendations of the International Monetary Fund, international fare expenditure is classified
                         separately.
International Tourism    Th expenditure of international inbound visitors including their payments to national carriers for
Receipts                 international transport. They should also include any other prepayments made for goods/services
                         received in the destination country. They should in practice also include receipts from same-day
                         visitors, except in cases when these are so important as to justify a separate classification. For the
                         sake of consistency with the Balance of Payments recommendations of the International Monetary
                         Fund, international fare receipts are classified separately.
Labour Force             Also known as the economically active population, the labour force, or in a stricter sense the
                         Economically Active Population, is conventionally defined as the total number of persons who
                         supply labour for the production of economic goods and services.
                         A given population typically comprises the economically active and inactive, with the former
                         being composed both of persons in gainful employment and of those not currently employed but
                         looking for work. The rest of the population is classified as not economically active. This
                         includes housewives (termed homemakers in the United States), students, pensioners and other
                         groups receiving private or public support without engaging in ‘economic’ activity. Further
                         distinctions are made within the labour force according to industry or brand of economic activity.
                         For the convenience of comparing these various categories the International Labour
                         Organisation has produced a standard classification of occupations.
                         There are, however, numerous 'grey areas' where it is difficult to distinguish between economic
                         and non-economic uses of time. For example, the domestic activities of a housewife are not
                         usually classified as economic, whereas a domestic servant performing identical tasks would
                         normally be regarded as part of the labour force. Similarly, although domestic labour is not
                         classified economic, unpaid work in an economic enterprise operated by a related person living in
                         the same household is. The term encounters further difficulties when applied to low-income
                         countries: in areas dominated by subsistence agriculture the concepts of economic and non-
                         economic work are effectively meaningless since work, leisure and consumption are often
                         intermingled.
Labour Force             The ratio of the economically dependent parts of the population to the productive part.
Dependency Ratio         Dependency ratios do not usually use detailed breakdowns of the population according to
                         economic activity, but are normally calculated purely on the basis of the age-sex structure, leading
                         to the use of the term age dependency ratio. The ages chosen to represent the number of
                         individuals in the labour force are largely arbitrary, 15 to 64 being a common range useful for
                         international comparisons. The ratio would be defined as the number of persons below 15 or
                         above 64 years divided by the number between those ages.
Labour force, economic   Any occupation or activity that contributes to the production of income. Details of activity
activity                 according to occupation of work status provide a means of classifying the labour force,
                         sometimes also referred to as the working or economically active population. Homemakers or
                         housewives, students and retired workers are not normally regarded as forming part of the labour
                         force; it is, however, usually defined to include both unemployed and employed workers. The
                         broad classifications of economic activity generally made often embrace a very wide range of
                         individual jobs.
Labour Force,            The proportion of the population (usually in a specific age and sex category) in the labour force.
Participation Rate       The synonym activity rate is also commonly used.
Large Mixed Retailer     Mainly refers to department and variety store operators
Library                  Irrespective of its title, any organised collection of printed books and periodicals or any other
                         graphic or audio-visual material, and the services of a staff to provide and facilitate the use of
                         such materials as are required to meet the informational, research, educational or recreational
                         needs of its users.
Life Expectancy          The average number of additional years a person would live if the mortality conditions implied by
                         a particular life table applied. Life expectancy at age x is represented by e x and life expectancy at
                         birth by e0.
                         Life expectancy at birth is very widely used as an indicator of mortality conditions. It is well
                         suited to this role, being a measure based on mortality experience at all ages and independent of
                         the effects of age structure.
Mail Order               Purchase of goods through the postal system, either in direct response to an advertisement or mail
                         item, or via a catalogue.
Market                   Temporary sales point usually located in street areas, typically not covered in retail sales figures.
Marriage                 The legal union of persons of opposite sex, the legality being established by civil, religious or
                         other means according to the custom and laws of each country.
Marriage Rate            Marriage rates are calculated to describe the occurrence of marriage in a population.
Metropolitan Area        Describes a very large urban settlement. Definitions vary between countries, but a population of
                         at least 100,000 and containing one or more centres with 50,000 inhabitants is typical. Areas
                         bordering the city which are socially and economically integrated with it are included. Because of
                         the close links, particularly through commuting, between cities and their hinterlands, some studies
                         employ the concept of a Metropolitan Labour Area.
Mid-Year Population      The size of a population (or any specified group within the population) at the mid-point of a
                         calendar year, often calculated as the arithmetic mean of the size at the beginning and the end of
                         the year. Assuming a linear variation over time the mid-year population can be taken to be the
                         mean value for the year and used in the denominator of various rates. It is equivalent to the
                         number of person-years lived during the year. The concept is often extended to cover periods of
                         more than one year when the term mid-interval population is employed.
Mid-Year Population,     A measure calculated on the basis of observations made in one calendar year. Many demographic
annual measure           indices are presented on an annual basis and, where no explicit time reference is made, an annual
                         dimension is often assumed.
                         When various rates are under consideration an annual rate is normally calculated using the
                         formula – events divided by mid-year population. Where a rate refers to data on a number of
                         years, the term mean annual rate is employed. Rates or other measures calculated for periods of
                         less than a year and adjusted to an annual dimension are termed annualised measures.
Moped                    Two or three-wheeled road vehicle which is fitted with an engine having a cylinder capacity of
                       less than 50cc and a maximum authorised design speed in accordance with national regulations..
Mortality              The process whereby deaths occur in a population. The word mortality refers implicitly to the
                       underlying conditions with regard to death, rather than to specific measures which may be
                       affected by other factors. For example, the crude death rate reflects a population’s age structure
                       as well as the prevailing patterns of mortality. Other measures, such as life expectancy, are more
                       revealing and are normally understood when phrases such as ‘high mortality’ are employed. The
                       age at which death is likely to occur and its cause vary greatly from country to country and
                       according to such factors as age, sex, social class and occupation within each country. The two
                       classifications which form the basis of analysis are age and cause of death.
                       In the general population age is by far the most significant determinant of death rates. The
                       importance of age-specific variation in mortality has long been clear, leading to the development
                       of the life table as the main tool of analysis. In comparison, when examining whole populations
                       the variations are less extreme; virtually the entire range of variation between populations is
                       covered by life expectancies of between 20 and 80 years.
                       The cause of death also varies greatly; exogenous mortality from such infectious diseases as
                       plague, smallpox and tuberculosis is a principal cause of high mortality, whereas deaths from
                       endogenous causes (above all cancer and cardio-vascular disease) predominate in developed
                       countries.
Motor Cycles           Two-wheeled road motor vehicle with or without side car, including motor scooter, or three-
                       wheeled road motor vehicle not exceeding 400kg unladen weight. All such vehicles with a
                       cylinder capacity of 50cc or over are included, as are those under 50cc which do not meet the
                       definition of moped.
National Libraries     Libraries which, irrespective of their title, are responsible for acquiring and conserving copies of
                       all significant publications produced in the country and functioning as a "deposit" library, either
                       by law or other arrangement, and normally compiling a national bibliography.
Neoplasm               Synonym of tumour, i.e., an abnormal growth of cells. A distinction is made between ‘benign’
                       tumours, which do not invade other parts of the body, and ‘malignant’ tumours which not only
                       continue to grow in a disorderly way but can also spread from the primary site to other organs.
                       This dissemination is known as metastasis. ‘Malignant’ tumours may remain dormant for years:
                       rapid growth occurs when the tumour becomes vascularised, i.e., once the tumour induces the host
                       to provide it with a network of blood vessels.
                       ‘Benign’ tumours can be distinguished from ‘malignant’ tumours by recourse to a biopsy, i.e., by
                       using a fragment of tumour for histological examination.
                       Three major forms of treatment currently exist: surgery, radiation and chemotherapy (drug
                       treatment). Early detection of malignant tumours is often a condition of successful treatment in
                       many forms of cancer: population screening programmes, for example for breast or cervical
                       cancer, have therefore been established in several countries.
Net Domestic Product   Net domestic product is gross domestic product minus the depreciation of the country’s capital
                       stock.
Net National Product   Net national product gross national product minus the depreciation of the country’s capital
                       stock.
New Dwelling           Refer to dwellings which are duly finished and ready for use (often in compliance with statutory
Completed              legislation).
Nondurable Goods       Consumer goods such as vegetables.
Non-Specialised        Non-Specialised libraries of a learned character which are neither libraries of institutions of higher
Libraries              education nor national libraries, though they may fulfil the functions of a national library for a
                       specified geographical area.
Normal hours of work   Normal hours of work are the hours of work fixed by or in pursuance of laws or regulations,
per week               collective agreements or arbitral awards, or the number of hours in excess of which any time
                       worked is remunerated at overtime rates or forms an exception to the rules or customs of the
                       establishment relating to the classes of workers concerned.
Number of Bed-Places   The total capacity in bed-places of establishments offering accommodation available during the
                       peak period of the tourist season.
Number of Rooms        The total capacity in rooms of establishments offering accommodation available during the peak
                       period of the tourist season.
Occupancy Rates          The occupancy rate corresponds to the relationship between available capacity and the extent to
                         which it is used. This rate may refer either to use of rooms or of beds. Occupancy rates are based
                         on the number of nights of both domestic and international tourists.
OECD                     See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Off-licence              Shop selling take-home alcoholic drinks
Organisation for         An international organisation whose membership comprises mainly the economically advanced
Economic Co-operation    countries of the world. The OECD provides a regular forum for discussions amongst government
and Development          finance and trade ministers on economic matters affecting their mutual interests, particularly the
(OECD)                   promotion of economic growth and international trade, and it co-ordinates the provision of
                         economic aid to the less developed countries of the world. The OECD is a main source of
                         international data and regularly compiles and publishes standardised inter-country statistics.
Participation Rate,      See Labour force, participation rate
Labour Force
Passenger Car            Road motor vehicle, other than a motor cycle, intended for the carriage of passengers and
                         designed to seat no more than nine persons (including the driver). This therefore includes taxis
                         and hired passenger cars provided that they have fewer than 10 seats. This category may also
                         include pick-ups.
Pharmacy                 Specialist outlet retailing largely OTC and prescription-only medicines, as well as a small
                         selection of parapharmacy goods
Population               A group of individuals co-existing at a given moment and defined according to various criteria.
                         The term population usually denotes all the inhabitants of a specified area (state, province, city,
                         etc.) but is also used to refer to sub-populations within this (for example, female population or
                         school population). In an even more restricted sense the term is used to refer to any group under
                         study, the employees of a company, patients in a hospital, and so on, where entry into and exit
                         from the population can be seen as determining its size and structure, in the same way that birth,
                         death and migration affect the population at large.
Population Growth Rate   The ratio of the total increase (or decrease) in a population during a given period to the average
                         population in that period, taking into account all sources of population change (births, deaths and
                         migration).
                         The value is commonly calculated from the population totals given in two successive censuses.
Population, Mid-Year     See mid-year population
Population, Projection   The computation of future population size and characteristics based on assumptions about future
                         trends in fertility, mortality and migration. A distinction is made between a projection and a
                         forecast, the latter implying an element of prediction while the former simply represents the
                         working out of various hypothetical assumptions. Demographers have in theory insisted that,
                         given the inherent unpredictability of human behaviour, they can make only projections, but in
                         practice the distinction between forecasts and projections is often artificial. Most projections
                         made by official bodies are treated as forecasts, since many business and government decisions
                         have to be based on a ‘best guess’ of future population size and composition.
                         In the most widely used methodology for projection, component methods, each of the components
                         of change (birth, death, migration) is estimated. Attempts to improve on the accuracy of this
                         approach have involved various time-series and econometric methods, which offer potentially
                         greater reliability but which are harder to relate to basic demographic processes. The use of
                         theoretical models of demographic behaviour as a guide to projections has had little impact,
                         possibly because the fundamental causes of population change are poorly understood. Whatever
                         their sophistication, no projection techniques can predict future population with great accuracy.
Population, Urban        See urban population
Primary Education        See Education at the First Level
Private Consumption      Private consumption is the estimation within of the total personal expenditure on goods (durable
                         and non-durable) and services. it also includes the final expenditure on goods and services for use
                         by private non-profit making bodies serving persons.
Producer Price Index     Designed to monitor changes in the prices of items at the first important commercial transaction,
                         it is a base-weighted index resting on the ‘basket of goods’ concept. Also sometimes referred to
                         as the Wholesale Price Index, it covers a mix of agricultural and industrial goods at various
                         stages of production and distribution, inclusive of imports and import duties. In practice, most
                           national wholesale price indices are a mix of producer and wholesale prices for domestic goods
                           representing prices for purchases in large quantities from either source.
Producer Prices            The prices at which producers sell their output on the domestic market or for export. Wholesale
                           prices, in the strict sense, are prices at which wholesalers sell on the domestic market or for
                           export.
Public expenditure         Expenditure by central and local government on both consumption and investment. It sometimes
                           includes and sometimes excludes expenditure by nationalised industries.

Pupil                      A person enrolled in a school for systematic instruction at any level of education. Also referred to
                           as a student.
Purchasing Power           The rates of currency conversion that equalise the purchasing power of different currencies. This
Parities (PPPs)            means that a given sum of money, when converted into different currencies at the PPP’s rates,
                           will buy the same base of goods and services in all countries. The PPPs are the rates of currency
                           conversion which eliminate differences in price level between countries
Rate of Natural Increase   See crude rate of natural increase
Real Prices                The price of an item measured in constant price terms to make allowance for the effects of
                           inflation.
Retail Price Index         See Consumer price index
Retail Sales               All of the figures presented, unless otherwise stated, are retail sales and refer only to sales through
                           retail channels, e.g. high street shops and supermarkets.
Retail Selling Prices      Market values are measured at retail selling prices (i.e. prices quoted on products in-store) rather
                           than at ex-factory prices, manufacturers’ selling prices or wholesale prices. Retail price discounts
                           on bulk sales (e.g. three items for the price of two) and other specific, short term retail
                           promotional offers on prices are not accounted for unless by national trade association data.
Retailer                   A business which stocks a particular type of product (such as a shoe shop) or an extensive range
                           of products (such as a department store) for sale to consumers. Retailers operate at the final end
                           of a distribution channel for a product or products which also involves producers and wholesalers.
Salaries Rates             See Wages Rates
Savings                    The difference between income and consumption is called saving.
School                     A group of pupils in one or more grades organised to receive instruction on a given type and level
                           under one teacher under the direct supervision of the head of the establishment.
School Enrolment Rate      The proportion of a population (usually specified according to age and sex) enrolled in an
                           educational establishment at a given date.
                           The school-age population is often used as the base population, distinction being made between
                           various types of schooling, especially between part- and full-time enrolment, the former
                           sometimes not being counted in the rate. Although the enrolment records of schools are
                           sometimes used, it is usual to calculate these rates from census data from which it is possible to
                           establish rates of entry into and departure from the school population, and to use life table
                           methods to refine analysis further.
School Libraries           Those attached to all types of schools below the third level of education and serving primarily the
                           pupils and teachers of such schools, even though they may also be open to the general public.
Secondary Education        See Education at the Second Level.
Services                   Any intangible economic activities (hairdressing, catering, insurance, banking, etc.) that
                           contribute directly or indirectly to the satisfaction of human wants.
Student                    A person enrolled in a school for systematic instruction at any level of education. Also referred to
                           as a pupil.
Supermarket                A store with a selling area of between 400 and 2,500 square metres, selling at least 70%
                           foodstuffs and everyday commodities
Superstore                 Store with a sales area of at least 2,500 square metres, generally devoted to non-foods, e.g. DIY
Teacher                    A person directly engaged in instructing a group of pupils (students). Heads of educational
                           institutions, supervisory and other personnel should be counted as teachers only when they have
                           regular teaching functions..
Tele-shopping              Sales direct to the consumer via TV broadcasting, by-passing conventional retail outlets and using
                           telephone or fax ordering and electronic funds transfer
Tourism Expenditure        See International Tourism Expenditure
Tourism Receipts        See International Tourism Receipts
Two-Wheelers            Mopeds and Motor Cycles.
Unemployed              Note: the following is the international definition of employed used by the International Labour
                        Organistion though national definitions may vary.

                        The unemployed comprise all persons above a specified age who during the reference period
                        were:
                        a) "without work" i.e. were not in paid employment or self-employment;
                        b) "currently available for work" i.e. were available for paid employment or self employment
                              during the reference period; and
                        c) "seeking work", i.e. had taken steps in a specified reference period to seek paid employment
                              or self-employment. The specific steps may include registration at a public or private
                              employment exchange; application to employers; checking at work sites, farms, factory gates
                              etc., placing or answering newspaper advertisements, seeking assistance of friends or
                              relatives, looking for land, building, machinery, finances, licenses to establish own enterprise
                              etc. etc.
                        The unemployed also comprises:
                        a) those temporarily absent from their jobs with no formal job attachment who were currently
                              available for work
                        b) Students, homemakers and others mainly engaged in non-economic activities during the
                              reference period.
                        National definitions of unemployment may differ from the international standard definition. The
                        national definitions used vary from one country to another as regards inter alia age limits,
                        reference periods, criteria for seeking work, treatment of persons temporarily laid off and of
                        persons seeking work for the first time.
                        Differences between countries with regard to the treatment of unemployed persons with respect to
                        classification by status in employment are particularly pronounced. In general, unemployed
                        persons with previous job experience, classified according to their last job, are included in with
                        employees, but in some cases they and unemployed persons seeking their first job form the most
                        important part of the group "persons not classifiable by status".
Unemployment Rate       The number of unemployed workers expressed as a percentage of the Economically Active
                        Population. Unemployment rates can be used to measure changing job opportunities over time
                        and between countries. They also provide a summary measure of the degree of under-
                        employment of factors of production, that is the extent to which a country's actual GNP falls short
                        of potential GNP.
Unemployment, General   The data are annual averages of monthly, quarterly or semi-annual data. The numbers indicate the
Level                   size of the problem and the percentages (unemployment rate) illustrate the relative severity of
                        unemployment. These rates are calculated by relating the number of persons in the given group
                        who are unemployed during the reference period (usually a particular day or a given week) to the
                        total of employed and unemployed persons in the group at the same date.
UNESCO                  See United Nations Economic and Social Council
United Nations (UN)     An association of states which have agreed to abide by the principles originally laid down in the
                        UN Charter. It s main objectives are the maintenance of international peace and security, the
                        upholding of fundamental human rights in all nations and the promotion social harmonisation and
                        progress amongst all nations. The principle departments of the UN are the General Assembly and
                        the Economic and Social Council (UNESCO) There are also a number of subsidiaries and
                        affiliated bodies working in accordance with the Charter, such as the IMF, the ILO and the
                        World Bank.
United Nations          Aims to contribute to peace and security in the world by promoting collaboration among nations
Economic and Social     through education, science, culture and communication in order to further universal respect for
Council                 justice, for the rule of law and for the human rights and fundamental freedoms which are
                        affirmed for the peoples of the world, without distinction of race, sex, language or religion, by the
                        Charter of the United Nations. See United Nations.
Urban Population        The population living in areas with a census definition as urban. The criteria used to specify what
                        is an urban area vary and it is not possible to give a single definition. The underlying concepts are
                         fivefold:
                                  1) national administrative divisions based on historical, political or administrative,
                                        rather than statistical concepts
                                  2) population size
                                  3) local administrative areas
                                  4) specific urban characteristics
                                  5) predominant economic activities.
                         Most censuses use combinations of these five aspects. Even with elaborate definitions, however,
                         a 3-way distinction of rural, urban and semi-urban or suburban is often necessary in order
                         accurately to reflect the range of settlement patterns. Although the density of population is
                         implicitly involved in most definitions it is rarely mentioned explicitly.
                         The whole range of definitions in use makes comparative studies of urbanisation very difficult.
                         While geographers have made extensive studies of urban populations (it is possibly the most
                         popular subfield within human geography), demographers have largely concentrated on general
                         studies of urbanisation, with relatively few attempts at detailed analysis of the social and
                         ecological aspects of urban areas.
Visible Balance          See Balance of Trade
Voluntary Chain          Wholesaler-owned buying organisation distributing basic commodities - especially food - to
                         smaller retail outlets. Affiliation to such a group (also known as a "symbol") permits the small
                         trader such as the local grocery shop to buy at better prices, and benefit from a corporate image
                         and joint advertising
Wages Rates              The rates paid for normal time of work, comprising: basic wages and salaries, cost of living
                         allowances and other guaranteed and regularly paid allowances. The following should be
                         excluded: overtime payments, bonuses and gratuities, family allowances, other social security
                         payments made by the employer directly to employees and ex gratia payments in kind
                         supplementary to normal wage and salary rates.

                         The International Labour Organisation state that earnings [wages] "…relate to remuneration in
                         cash and in kind paid to employees, as a rule, at regular intervals, for time worked or work done
                         together with remuneration for time not worked, such as annual vacation, other paid leave or
                         holidays. Earnings exclude employers' contributions in respect of their employees paid to social
                         security and pensions schemes and also the benefits received by employees under these schemes.
                         Earnings also exclude severance and termination pay."
Wholesale Price Index    See Producer Price Index
Working Age Population   See Economically Active Population and Labour Force
World Bank               A multinational institution set up in 1947 to provide economic aid to member countries (mainly
                         developing countries) in order to strengthen their economies. The bank has supported a wide
                         range of long-term investments including infrastructure projects such as roads,
                         telecommunications and electricity supply; agriculture and industrial projects including the
                         establishment of new industries, as well social, training and educational programmes. The Bank's
                         funds come largely from the developed countries, but it also raises money on international capital
                         markets. The Bank operates according to 'business principles' lending at commercial rates of
                         interest only to those governments it feels are capable of servicing and repaying their debts.

				
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