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GUI and Event-driven Programming in Java

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					GUI and Event-driven Programming in Java

        We illustrate basic GUI design and event-driven programming in Java through an
escalating series of examples. The key examples are:

Class-1: MyFrame0.java & system environment to compile/run the programs in TextPad
or dos prompt.

Class-2: TestPanelExample & panelExample3 – done from scratch [as class X.java &
class TestX.java] – through: event handling, incrementally developed/compiled, separate
main driver class, imports needed for various methods & objects, frame extension, event
interface [registration of GUI objects as event generators, event handler, import class,
event interface].

Class-3: Compare the development of a calculator in Java versus its development in
Html + JavaScript. Compare the graphical interface specification in Java versus how it is
done in Html. Compare the event handling in Java versus how it is done using Javscript
working with Html elements. Compare how data conversion is done in Java versus
Javascript. Develop incrementally from scratch as class X & TestX for Java; as X.html
for Html & Javascript.

Class-1               Designing and running simple Java graphics programs.

In-class Lab          Frames - Make a Java program that creates a window and controls
                      its size & visibility.

        See MyFrame0.java under Java-examples link. It defines a blueprint for a Java
object - a so-called class - called MyFrame, which has a main program that creates an
instance of a frame (window) object. To compile and execute the program, save it as
MyFrame [ actually MyFrame.java ] – where the class name matches the file name.
Compile and execute the file using the TextPad Tools menu, or the shortcuts Ctrl+1
[compile] & Ctrl+2 [run application]. A Dos command prompt appears. The window
has been already created by the Java program, but an input request MyInput.readString()
blocks execution of a statement making the window visible, until you enter a string and
<CR> in the dos prompt.

       Program Structure – save program in file Mine.java:
       import …
       public class Mine
       {
         public static void main (String[ ] args) { JFrame f = new JFrame ("…") ; … }
       }

       Syntax summary:
       import                imports Java classes used in the program
       public class Mine { } encompassing class - saved in file of same name
       public static void main(String[ ] args)
                              signature for main program
       JFrame ("…")           constructor for frame object
       f.setSize (x, y)       JFrame method sets width & height of frame
       f.setVisible (boolean) JFrame method sets frame's visibility
       MyInput.readString( ) waits/reads string from dos prompt


In-class Lab           Frames - Monitor window's dynamic properties.

         See MyFrame1.java which shows how frame properties can be dynamically
altered. The frame dimensions are returned by getSize method in a Dimension object.
An input statement stalls execution. At the first stall, use the mouse to resize frame, then
enter <CR> in dos prompt to un-block the stall and note the new dimensions displayed.
Similarly for the next effect which flips frame from invisible to visible.
         Two import statements are required to use JFrame and Dimension objects. The
MyInput class 'static' method readString ( ) does not require an import statement because
its defining class is in the current directory – such classes are automatically available.

       Syntax summary:
       f.getSize()            JFrame method returns Dimension object for window
       Dimension d            Dimension object containing height & width


In-class Lab           ContentPanes - Add buttons and other GUI components to frames.

        See MyFrameWithComponents0.java program. This adds GUI components –
specifically button objects – to the frame. The frame consists of a title bar at the window
top and a so-called ContentPane below that – into which the buttons are placed or added.
To get the pane use the f.getContentPane( ) method. If you try to add components
directly to the frame, rather than to the ContentPane, a run-time error occurs with an error
message indicating the need for the ContentPane. Nor is the ContentPane itself quite
satisfactory as a display case because objects added to the pane latter overlay objects
added earlier.

       Syntax summary:
       f.getContentPane()     returns pane where GUI components are placed
       add(X)                 JFrame method that puts object X in frame's pane
       JButton ("…")          JButton constructor with label parameter


In-class Lab           Define a layout structure for objects added to a pane.

Objects added to a pane overlap unless a layout organization is defined for the pane. See
MyFrameWithComponents1.java program. To establish a Layout for a ContentPane it
use:
                f.getContentPane( ).setLayout (new BorderLayout ( ) )

This lets objects be placed east, west, north, south, or center in a pane. The following
adds a button to the center of a pane:

               add (new JButton("OK"), BorderLayout.CENTER )

Alternatives like grid layouts arrange objects in a checkerboard pattern.

       Syntax summary:

       setLayout(new BorderLayout ( ) )       pane method to define NSEW Layout
       add(X, BorderLayout.CENTER )           pane method to put X in center of layout


In-class Lab           Extend JFrame to a new class – one which contains a so-called
                       panel with embedded textfields.

               frame
               title bar
               content pane

                    panel
                              text field




       See the panelExample0.java program. The outer class panelExample extends the
concept of a JFrame and 'inherits' all its methods. A constructor panelExample ( )
defines the blueprint for objects of the class. A main program executes the class
constructor to create a new instance of the object. This is a canonical example of how to
extend an existing class like JFrame. The program structure (with name changed to
Mine) is:

       public class Mine extends JFrame
       {
          private JTextField Num1, Num2;

          public Mine ( ) { JPanel p1 = new JPanel ( ) ; … }

          public static void main(String[ ] args)
          {    Mine f = new Mine ( );
                f.setTitle("f"); f.pack(); f.setVisible(true);
           }
       }

       The constructor Mine( ) for the new Mine class adds a Java panel object to a
frame's pane, then adds fields to the panel - which provides a default layout for objects so
they do not overlap. The added textfield objects are made global so they can be referred
to anywhere in the class but private so they are inaccessible outside the class.

       The variation panelExample2.java shows how the main program can create
multiple instances of this new class. TextFieldDemo4b is another variation which adds
an additional button object to the panel and colors the panel's background red.


       Program Structure:
       public class Mine extends JFrame
       { private type a, b;
          public             Mine ( )                  { }
          public static void main(String[ ] args)      { Mine f = new Mine ( ) ; … }
        }

       Syntax summary:
       class Mine extends JFrame       Mine expands JFrame's methods & properties
       public Mine ( ) {… }            constructor for class Mine
       JPanel ( )                      panel constructor
       JTextField (length)             textField constructor
       private JTextField tF           private declaration
       add (tF)                        adds tF to panel with default flowLayout
       f.pack( )                       shrink-wraps f to enclose embedded objects


        An alternative program organization (see TestPanelExample & the associated
class panelExample3.java – which has to be saved as panelExample.java) is to define the
extended class in a separate file - without a main program. A separate main class
(TestPanelExample) is then used to create instances of the new object just like
MyFrame0.java created a JFrame object.


In-class Lab           Make a program that recognizes & handles different events on
                       objects that have been registered as event-listeners - including data
                       access & conversion for the objects.

         See TextFieldDemo3c2b.java to see how to sensitize GUI objects like buttons and
fields to events like mouse-clicks and carriage-returns. Objects are 'sensitized' to events
by being registered as ActionListeners. An event-handler method - actionPerformed –
whose invocation signature is pre-defined, but whose contents are determined by the
programmer, recognizes the event source & specifies the response to the event.

        The event-handling is done as follows. When the source of the event is
recognized as a button-click on 'Simon', the handler gets the text from the Num textfield,
prepends the phrase "Simon says" to its contents, and stores the modified phrase back in
the textfield. When the source of the event is recognized as a <CR> in the Num textfield,
the handler gets text from the field, converts it to floating point form, takes the square
root, converts the result to a string again, then stores that string back in the text field.

        Notice how in an event-driven framework, an event on a sensitized object triggers
event processing. The key programming concepts are registering graphic objects as
listeners for events - which events this corresponds to depends on the object - and
defining an event-handling method which distinguishes between different event sources
and adapts its response accordingly.




       Program Structure:
       public class Mine extends JFrame
       { private type x, y ;
          public Mine ( )                         {… x.addActionListener (this) …}
          public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e) { if (e.getSource() == x ) { … } }

            public static void main(String[ ] args)    { Mine f = new Mine ( )         … }
        }

       Syntax summary:
       register object                 Num.addActionListener (this);
       event-handler signature         public void actionPerformed (ActionEvent e){…}
       recognize event source          if (e.getSource() == Num )
       data conversions                Num.setText ( String.valueOf(
                                       Math.sqrt(Double.parseDouble(Num.getText( ))) ));



In-class Lab

        Modify TextFieldDemo3c2b to be a calculator. The calculator should three fields
and two buttons: two fields for operand input, a third for the result of the calculation, one
button for addition, one for multiplication.


Technical notes:
To run in dos:

1. Change directory to where program is located such as:
         cd C:\MyStuff\AA-IT202\IT202\A-Java
2. To compile:
         javac TextFieldDemo.java
3. To run the program:
         java TextField
4. If the current directory is not in the environment's classpath use:
         javac –classpath . TextFieldDemo.java
and
         java –classpath . TextFieldDemo
5. To include the current directory in the classpath if not already there update
environment variable with:
         .;%classpath%
which concatenated the existing classpath with the current directory (denoted by ".").

To run in Textpad:

1. If the compile/run options do not appear in the Tools menu, then go to
Configure>Preferences>Tools>Add and add the jdk.

2. If the MyInput file in the same [current] directory as the main class being compile is
not recognized/found by the compiler, then the current directory may not be in the so-
called 'classpath' – one of the system environment variables. Refer to items 4/5 above.

				
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