Jimbun Chiri 2005 Synopsis Volume 57 by swp38119

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									             Jimbun Chiri 2005 Synopsis : Volume 57

                                                                      H. Todd Stradford
                                                                University of Wisconsin-Platteville


    The editors of the Jimbun Chiri have made great efforts in the 2006 volume to illustrate the
directions that geographic research in Japan is taking. Articles were selected to place the journal
in a “global academic context,” comparing trends in research, especially in English speaking
countries, to what is occurring in Japan. To further this goal, a second Special Edition was
published, which included four complete articles in English with abstracts in both English and
Japanese. In addition, the standard editions included two other articles and three complete
papers, given at meetings, in English. As usual, each of the articles in Japanese has an English
summary, more than an abstract, and all tables and figures titled in both Japanese and English.
As such, the journal can be perused by an English speaker who will obtain more information
than expected from a non English journal. In the Meeting Report Section, papers in English that
were presented were those of Nyugen Cao Huan of Vietnam National University, Development
of Geography in Vietnam, Rowland Atkinson of the University of Glasgow, Gentrification and
Urban Policy in the UK : Safety and the Return of High income Groups to Inner city Living,
and Andreas Dix of the University of Bonn, Environmental History in Germany : Development
and Recent Research Trends. In this volume, fourteen articles are authored by faculty and
thirteen by graduate students, in both the articles and research notes ; they range from a
traditional historic approach, as in Hiraoka Akitoshi's The Advancement of Japanese to the
Senkaku Islands and Tatsushiro Koga in the Meiji Era, to articles of a radical or social nature as
illustrated in the volume's special issue.

Special Issue :

    The final publication of 2005 begins with a message from the editors, in which they explain
how Japanese cultural geographers have recently been influenced by the methodologies and
philosophies of English speaking geographers, and have created geographic research that differs
from what Japanese cultural geographers did traditionally. Since individual researchers have
adopted the methodologies that they deem best for their particular problems, there is no “single,
uniform line of thought” presently in Japan. The editors have selected four articles to be
published in English to illustrate these trends.
    The first article, by Fukuda Tamami of Osaka Prefecture University, Theorizing Local
Culture : Cultural Turns in Contemporary Japanese Society and Current Studies on Local
Culture, is an example of a trend toward radical geography, where space is influenced by
people's perceptions and beliefs. In it, she examines how local culture has a strong influence on
current social conditions, such as in the conflicts that can develop between tourism and local
tradition. She also outlines the current studies on local culture as well as the author's attitudes
toward them to determine their direction and influences on the current social conditions. The
second selection, by Yamaguchi Satoshi of Kwansei Gakuin University, Living in a Segmented
World : The Diversified Social Practices among Okinawans on Mainland Japan, is a work that
can be classified under social geography as it examines the social and power networks
developed by urban migrants from Okinawa to the Osaka area from the end of World War II to
the 1970s, when most were not assimilated into Japanese society but maintained an Okinawan
identity. Yamaguchi explores how they adapted to their new environment of place, social
practices, and identities.
    The article by Sugiyama Kazuaki, of Osaka City University, Youth Problems and Urban
Social Control : Evidence from a Case of Local Community Policing in Contemporary Japan, is
another social geography piece as it deals with the transfiguration of social environments, in this
case, by the reactions of authorities to a Toyama Telephone dating service which was seen as
harmful to juveniles. This documents one of the first of community based social control actions
made in contemporary Japan.
    Colonial City, Space and Women : The Everyday Life in Colonial Taipei, by Chienwei Yeh of
Ibaraki University, is a topic in gender and space from a historical perspective ; it examines the
impact of Japanese colonialism in Taipei, and the methods which Chinese women of post school
age used to maintain Chinese lifestyles in their homes and neighborhoods, despite the forced
Japanization that surrounded them.
    In taking these approaches which differ from past Japanese methods, Japanese researchers
have adopted new methods from outside contacts, to be used to define and examine problems
researched from field data ; they have taken on a distinctive approach as factors from the local
study area combine with the new methodology. These new techniques are used because they
best address the problems to be examined.

Regional Coverage

    This volume contains articles mostly about Japan, with twenty of the twenty seven articles
concerning areas from the Ryukyus to the Oki Islands. There were four studies where field work
took place in China, one in South Korea, and two that can be considered multi regional. One of
the most interesting articles in the volume, possibly because it combined historic research with
modern technology, was that by Yasuda Junkei, A preliminary Report on the Location of
Xiaoguan Xincheng Fortified Town and the Traffic routes in the Tang Dynasty at Ch'ang an's
northwestern area : With Interpretation of Corona Satellite Photographs and a Field Investigation.
Yasuda, a graduate student at Nara Womens University, attempted to identify the ancient routes
from Lanzhou to Ch'ang an using descriptions in old books and the old Corona Satellite
photographs. Zhong Chong, a research fellow at Kyoto University studied the spatial aspects,
origins, and formation of Chinese genealogical lineage in A Historical geographical Study of
Lineage in Bei jiang Basin, Southeastern China. One finding was that there was a tendency to
reconstruct the founders of a family retrospectively. Yu Ya, a graduate Student at Kobe
University, had a delicious article on The Meaning of Dumplings or Jiaozi and their Regional
Differentiation in Shandong. As China transitioned into a market economy, Yu questioned
whether the traditional meaning and function of the “jiaozi” as part of local celebrations had
changed. Chienwei Yeh's article in the special edition finishes the articles on China. South
Korea's Fruit and Vegetable Supply Systems with Special Reference to Busan's Omgun Wholesale
Market by Araki Hitoshi, of Yamaguchi University, examines the role of local supply systems
which coexist with national systems in Pusan. He found that local supply systems backed by
many small scale producers can efficiently meet the demand of 3 . 6 million, keeping more
people employed in the rural areas without an increase in scale. Hiroshi Shimazaki and Philip L.
Wagner's Managing Pilgrimage, one of the English articles, looked at twenty sited pilgrimage
places stretching from Europe to Japan, encompassing four religious traditions. They found that
intervention and management is found on many levels, from religious to governmental, and that
contemporary pilgrims have become more like tourists than worshippers which causes
management concerns. In the Review section, Arai Yoshio of the University of Tokyo examined
research trends about the Internet as done by western geographers in Geographies of Information
Society and Cyberspace : A Research Perspective.

Topical Directions

    In this area this volume differs greatly from the previous. By far, there are more articles
concerned with social structure and issues than before. There are ten articles that can be at least
partially categorized under the social geography heading, with secondary topics ranging from
environment and culture to tourism and transportation. Articles from Fukuda Tamami,
Yamaguchi Satoshi, and Sugiyama Kazuaki on social change and controlling factors have
previously been mentioned. In Characteristics of Agri processing by Elderly Women in
Depopulated Mountain Villages : A Case Study of the Gohoku Region, Kochi Prefecture, Nakajo
Akihito, a graduate student at Hiroshima University, is concerned with the role that aging
women play in an isolated region of Kochi Prefecture, in organizing themselves and the
community as they take over agri processing jobs. In Expansion of the Direct bus network
connecting Haneda Airport with its hinterland, Adachi Tsuneyuki, a graduate student at the
Tokyo Metropolitan University, studied the socio economic factors determining the bus routes
that run between the rural areas and Haneda Airport. A similar study dealing with social factors
and transportation is that by Hatakeyama Teruo, a graduate student at Nihon University,
Conditions for Determining Facilities Selection and Location of Commuting Type Facilities in the
Long term Care Insurance System : a Case Study in Musashino City, Tokyo. Hatakeyama
examined the location of pickup points for care facilities and determined that it does not
correlate with the distribution of the elderly. Aizawa Ryotaro, a graduate student at Kobe
University, looked at the relation between place and memory in Nagata ku, Kobe City, the most
damaged area in the 1995 earthquake, by examining social activities in The Jizo Festival in the
Areas Damaged by the Hanshin Awaji Great Earthquake : Construction of Place and Memory.
He found that the Jizo festival has sometimes moved or been suspended, but that the Jizo
shrines themselves have been restored as they are usually small. Ishikawa Nao, a graduate
student at Nagoya University produced a social study on The Social Relations of Bullfighters in
the Oki Islands. She examined the relationships created among the local inhabitants by the
management structure of keeping fighting bulls. Yorifuji Akiko, a graduate student at
Ochanomizu University, studied the Formation of “Gambling Space” in Tokoname City, Aichi
Prefecture, Japan. A gambling area formed between the train station and a motorboat racing
facility that catered to the customers of the racing facility ; it also created an area of conflict in
the boundary area with the residential districts. Muranaka Ako, a graduate student, and
Terawaki Taku, both of Ritsumeikan University, produced a Socioeconomic Evaluation for
Benefits of Satoyama Forest Management by Stated Preference Measures : Analysis of Willingness
to Pay and Willingness to Work from Inhabitants around the Kannon Forest in Okunaka Hamlet,
Naka Town, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. They took surveys to determine the availability for as well
as attitudes toward volunteer activities for the preservation of the forest. They found that citizens
are willing to provide adequate funding and provide the necessary labor, which can now be
used in planning the environmental management of the forest.
    Four articles are primarily economic in nature, although the approach varies widely. Yabe
Naoto, a graduate student at the Tokyo Metropolitan University, did a locational analysis in The
Location of the Software Industry : An Extended Shift share Analysis Based on International
Trade. He found that unlike in the past, specialized programmers, such as those highly skilled
programmers for cameras and cell phones, are found only in Tokyo and not in rural areas or
India. He also found that major public works investment takes place in urban areas which
creates a demand for software of a level that the rural areas cannot provide Hanibuchi Tomoya,
a graduate student at Kyoto University, examined the Formation of Inter NGO Networks in
Japan. He found that there was a monopolar concentration in Tokyo but local and national type
networks are found in the entire country. He also found a dilemma in that local networks do not
want to be over centralized as it might undermine autonomy, but that when affiliated with
national networks, they gained national legitimacy for their goals. In The Community based
Management of Coastal Fisheries in Himeshima, Oita Prefecture, Japan : A Case Study of the
Fishing Ground Regulations on the Offshore Fixed Gill Net Fishery, Miyazawa Hirohisa of Kyoto
University examined the spatial restrictions on gill net fisheries which were developed to balance
gill net fishing with angling and seine type fishing, in order to protect the fishing grounds and
avoid conflicts among the different fishing industries. Oro Kohei of the Agricultural Research
Center of Western Japan, and Arai Sachiho and Nagata Junji of Tokyo University, investigated
The Growth of the Beef Cattle Breeding Sector in Okinawa after the Reversion to Japan in 1972 :
Evolution of Farm Management and Adaptive Technological Changes. As sugar cane farming
declined in the 1980s, farmers changed to or expanded their beef cattle programs. Larger scale
farms invest more in technology, but the small scale farm makes the best use of the year round
conditions in Okinawa for pasture.


    One article can be placed in the gender and space approach. Murata Yohei of Kyoto
University examined advertising in Japan to determine gender differentiated spaces in his article,
Male Body and Space in the Representation of Tobacco Advertisements in Contemporary Japan.
He found that males were represented with natural scenery, few spoken words, exhaled smoke,
and women gazing approvingly at men, and that men stood far apart from all others. Females
were placed in artificial environments, spoke many words, and never seemed to exhale smoke.
Another article might be characterized as behavioral in approach. Inagaki Ryo of Kyoto
University, in Employment Seeking Behavior of Young People in Metropolitan Suburbs and
Recruiting Activities among Employers, examined the recruiting strategy versus employment
seeking behavior in a suburban area of Nagoya. He found that in the suburban areas employers
use store window advertising and hire locals who use the store. A similar approach, in that the
study looked primarily at behavior shaping the landscape, was done by Kohmoto Daichi, a
graduate student at Hiroshima University with his article, Farmer's Attitudes toward Promoted
Organic Agriculture in Transformation : The Case of Aya Town, Kyushu. He compared two areas
in the same town that had differing attitudes toward organic farming. Chris McMorran, a
graduate student at the University of Colorado at Boulder, presented part of his Master's thesis
in an article as part of a rural depopulation and repopulation theme. In Constructing Idealized
Communities in Japan's Countryside : Tourist Place making in Kurokawa Onsen, he examined
the growth of the Kurokawa Hot Springs resort as a natural “home town” type destination that
has succeeded in providing employment especially through transportation improvements. Kondo
Hiroyuki of the University of Tokyo examines the changes in geographic education in Japan due
to the efforts of Ishibashi Goro in The Educational Philosophy of Ishibashi Goro through the
Geography Textbooks of Junior High School before World War II. He found that due to a 1937
paper by Ishibashi, there was a change in geographic education from rote memorization to what
is called “geography as education,” linking human with physical phenomenon. This study also
separated geography from geographic education. Lastly, in the historical tradition, Hiraoka
Akitoshi of Shimonoseki City University investigated The Advancement of Japanese to the
Senkaku Islands and Tatsushiro Koga in the Meiji Era, tracing the first settlements on the
Senkaku Islands, an area of dispute between China and Japan since the discovery of oil and
natural gas. Japanese settlements started in 1885 to harvest albatross feathers and eventually led
the Meiji Government to lease Kuba Island and 4 other islands to Tatsushiro Koga for 30 years.
Business declined and the village was eventually abandoned in 1937, allowing the islands to
return to a natural state.

Synopsis

    There has been an attempt in this edition to select articles that are concerned with social
spaces, behavioral issues, and gender. However, articles using traditional approaches balance the
journal. The changes indicate an acknowledgment of the break with a traditional past of historic
research, and we can look forward to a future of more original approaches and research. The
journal will continue to convey the current trends of human geography in Japan to its members
and the world. It is worth noting here that this journal is the official journal of the Human
Geographical Society of Japan and that only members can submit articles for publication.
Nonmembers can contribute only as secondary authors when the first author is a member of the
society. This limits the range of articles, but it also maintains the focus of what is being
researched by Japanese geographers. For those with access, the English summaries of past
volumes are available on the Internet, at http : //wwwsoc. nii. ac. jp/hgeog/journal/journal. html.

								
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