Jimbun Chiri 2005 Synopsis : Volume 57 H. Todd Stradford University of Wisconsin-Platteville The editors of the Jimbun Chiri have made great efforts in the 2006 volume to illustrate the directions that geographic research in Japan is taking. Articles were selected to place the journal in a “global academic context,” comparing trends in research, especially in English speaking countries, to what is occurring in Japan. To further this goal, a second Special Edition was published, which included four complete articles in English with abstracts in both English and Japanese. In addition, the standard editions included two other articles and three complete papers, given at meetings, in English. As usual, each of the articles in Japanese has an English summary, more than an abstract, and all tables and figures titled in both Japanese and English. As such, the journal can be perused by an English speaker who will obtain more information than expected from a non English journal. In the Meeting Report Section, papers in English that were presented were those of Nyugen Cao Huan of Vietnam National University, Development of Geography in Vietnam, Rowland Atkinson of the University of Glasgow, Gentrification and Urban Policy in the UK : Safety and the Return of High income Groups to Inner city Living, and Andreas Dix of the University of Bonn, Environmental History in Germany : Development and Recent Research Trends. In this volume, fourteen articles are authored by faculty and thirteen by graduate students, in both the articles and research notes ; they range from a traditional historic approach, as in Hiraoka Akitoshi's The Advancement of Japanese to the Senkaku Islands and Tatsushiro Koga in the Meiji Era, to articles of a radical or social nature as illustrated in the volume's special issue. Special Issue : The final publication of 2005 begins with a message from the editors, in which they explain how Japanese cultural geographers have recently been influenced by the methodologies and philosophies of English speaking geographers, and have created geographic research that differs from what Japanese cultural geographers did traditionally. Since individual researchers have adopted the methodologies that they deem best for their particular problems, there is no “single, uniform line of thought” presently in Japan. The editors have selected four articles to be published in English to illustrate these trends. The first article, by Fukuda Tamami of Osaka Prefecture University, Theorizing Local Culture : Cultural Turns in Contemporary Japanese Society and Current Studies on Local Culture, is an example of a trend toward radical geography, where space is influenced by people's perceptions and beliefs. In it, she examines how local culture has a strong influence on current social conditions, such as in the conflicts that can develop between tourism and local tradition. She also outlines the current studies on local culture as well as the author's attitudes toward them to determine their direction and influences on the current social conditions. The second selection, by Yamaguchi Satoshi of Kwansei Gakuin University, Living in a Segmented World : The Diversified Social Practices among Okinawans on Mainland Japan, is a work that can be classified under social geography as it examines the social and power networks developed by urban migrants from Okinawa to the Osaka area from the end of World War II to the 1970s, when most were not assimilated into Japanese society but maintained an Okinawan identity. Yamaguchi explores how they adapted to their new environment of place, social practices, and identities. The article by Sugiyama Kazuaki, of Osaka City University, Youth Problems and Urban Social Control : Evidence from a Case of Local Community Policing in Contemporary Japan, is another social geography piece as it deals with the transfiguration of social environments, in this case, by the reactions of authorities to a Toyama Telephone dating service which was seen as harmful to juveniles. This documents one of the first of community based social control actions made in contemporary Japan. Colonial City, Space and Women : The Everyday Life in Colonial Taipei, by Chienwei Yeh of Ibaraki University, is a topic in gender and space from a historical perspective ; it examines the impact of Japanese colonialism in Taipei, and the methods which Chinese women of post school age used to maintain Chinese lifestyles in their homes and neighborhoods, despite the forced Japanization that surrounded them. In taking these approaches which differ from past Japanese methods, Japanese researchers have adopted new methods from outside contacts, to be used to define and examine problems researched from field data ; they have taken on a distinctive approach as factors from the local study area combine with the new methodology. These new techniques are used because they best address the problems to be examined. Regional Coverage This volume contains articles mostly about Japan, with twenty of the twenty seven articles concerning areas from the Ryukyus to the Oki Islands. There were four studies where field work took place in China, one in South Korea, and two that can be considered multi regional. One of the most interesting articles in the volume, possibly because it combined historic research with modern technology, was that by Yasuda Junkei, A preliminary Report on the Location of Xiaoguan Xincheng Fortified Town and the Traffic routes in the Tang Dynasty at Ch'ang an's northwestern area : With Interpretation of Corona Satellite Photographs and a Field Investigation. Yasuda, a graduate student at Nara Womens University, attempted to identify the ancient routes from Lanzhou to Ch'ang an using descriptions in old books and the old Corona Satellite photographs. Zhong Chong, a research fellow at Kyoto University studied the spatial aspects, origins, and formation of Chinese genealogical lineage in A Historical geographical Study of Lineage in Bei jiang Basin, Southeastern China. One finding was that there was a tendency to reconstruct the founders of a family retrospectively. Yu Ya, a graduate Student at Kobe University, had a delicious article on The Meaning of Dumplings or Jiaozi and their Regional Differentiation in Shandong. As China transitioned into a market economy, Yu questioned whether the traditional meaning and function of the “jiaozi” as part of local celebrations had changed. Chienwei Yeh's article in the special edition finishes the articles on China. South Korea's Fruit and Vegetable Supply Systems with Special Reference to Busan's Omgun Wholesale Market by Araki Hitoshi, of Yamaguchi University, examines the role of local supply systems which coexist with national systems in Pusan. He found that local supply systems backed by many small scale producers can efficiently meet the demand of 3 . 6 million, keeping more people employed in the rural areas without an increase in scale. Hiroshi Shimazaki and Philip L. Wagner's Managing Pilgrimage, one of the English articles, looked at twenty sited pilgrimage places stretching from Europe to Japan, encompassing four religious traditions. They found that intervention and management is found on many levels, from religious to governmental, and that contemporary pilgrims have become more like tourists than worshippers which causes management concerns. In the Review section, Arai Yoshio of the University of Tokyo examined research trends about the Internet as done by western geographers in Geographies of Information Society and Cyberspace : A Research Perspective. Topical Directions In this area this volume differs greatly from the previous. By far, there are more articles concerned with social structure and issues than before. There are ten articles that can be at least partially categorized under the social geography heading, with secondary topics ranging from environment and culture to tourism and transportation. Articles from Fukuda Tamami, Yamaguchi Satoshi, and Sugiyama Kazuaki on social change and controlling factors have previously been mentioned. In Characteristics of Agri processing by Elderly Women in Depopulated Mountain Villages : A Case Study of the Gohoku Region, Kochi Prefecture, Nakajo Akihito, a graduate student at Hiroshima University, is concerned with the role that aging women play in an isolated region of Kochi Prefecture, in organizing themselves and the community as they take over agri processing jobs. In Expansion of the Direct bus network connecting Haneda Airport with its hinterland, Adachi Tsuneyuki, a graduate student at the Tokyo Metropolitan University, studied the socio economic factors determining the bus routes that run between the rural areas and Haneda Airport. A similar study dealing with social factors and transportation is that by Hatakeyama Teruo, a graduate student at Nihon University, Conditions for Determining Facilities Selection and Location of Commuting Type Facilities in the Long term Care Insurance System : a Case Study in Musashino City, Tokyo. Hatakeyama examined the location of pickup points for care facilities and determined that it does not correlate with the distribution of the elderly. Aizawa Ryotaro, a graduate student at Kobe University, looked at the relation between place and memory in Nagata ku, Kobe City, the most damaged area in the 1995 earthquake, by examining social activities in The Jizo Festival in the Areas Damaged by the Hanshin Awaji Great Earthquake : Construction of Place and Memory. He found that the Jizo festival has sometimes moved or been suspended, but that the Jizo shrines themselves have been restored as they are usually small. Ishikawa Nao, a graduate student at Nagoya University produced a social study on The Social Relations of Bullfighters in the Oki Islands. She examined the relationships created among the local inhabitants by the management structure of keeping fighting bulls. Yorifuji Akiko, a graduate student at Ochanomizu University, studied the Formation of “Gambling Space” in Tokoname City, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. A gambling area formed between the train station and a motorboat racing facility that catered to the customers of the racing facility ; it also created an area of conflict in the boundary area with the residential districts. Muranaka Ako, a graduate student, and Terawaki Taku, both of Ritsumeikan University, produced a Socioeconomic Evaluation for Benefits of Satoyama Forest Management by Stated Preference Measures : Analysis of Willingness to Pay and Willingness to Work from Inhabitants around the Kannon Forest in Okunaka Hamlet, Naka Town, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. They took surveys to determine the availability for as well as attitudes toward volunteer activities for the preservation of the forest. They found that citizens are willing to provide adequate funding and provide the necessary labor, which can now be used in planning the environmental management of the forest. Four articles are primarily economic in nature, although the approach varies widely. Yabe Naoto, a graduate student at the Tokyo Metropolitan University, did a locational analysis in The Location of the Software Industry : An Extended Shift share Analysis Based on International Trade. He found that unlike in the past, specialized programmers, such as those highly skilled programmers for cameras and cell phones, are found only in Tokyo and not in rural areas or India. He also found that major public works investment takes place in urban areas which creates a demand for software of a level that the rural areas cannot provide Hanibuchi Tomoya, a graduate student at Kyoto University, examined the Formation of Inter NGO Networks in Japan. He found that there was a monopolar concentration in Tokyo but local and national type networks are found in the entire country. He also found a dilemma in that local networks do not want to be over centralized as it might undermine autonomy, but that when affiliated with national networks, they gained national legitimacy for their goals. In The Community based Management of Coastal Fisheries in Himeshima, Oita Prefecture, Japan : A Case Study of the Fishing Ground Regulations on the Offshore Fixed Gill Net Fishery, Miyazawa Hirohisa of Kyoto University examined the spatial restrictions on gill net fisheries which were developed to balance gill net fishing with angling and seine type fishing, in order to protect the fishing grounds and avoid conflicts among the different fishing industries. Oro Kohei of the Agricultural Research Center of Western Japan, and Arai Sachiho and Nagata Junji of Tokyo University, investigated The Growth of the Beef Cattle Breeding Sector in Okinawa after the Reversion to Japan in 1972 : Evolution of Farm Management and Adaptive Technological Changes. As sugar cane farming declined in the 1980s, farmers changed to or expanded their beef cattle programs. Larger scale farms invest more in technology, but the small scale farm makes the best use of the year round conditions in Okinawa for pasture. One article can be placed in the gender and space approach. Murata Yohei of Kyoto University examined advertising in Japan to determine gender differentiated spaces in his article, Male Body and Space in the Representation of Tobacco Advertisements in Contemporary Japan. He found that males were represented with natural scenery, few spoken words, exhaled smoke, and women gazing approvingly at men, and that men stood far apart from all others. Females were placed in artificial environments, spoke many words, and never seemed to exhale smoke. Another article might be characterized as behavioral in approach. Inagaki Ryo of Kyoto University, in Employment Seeking Behavior of Young People in Metropolitan Suburbs and Recruiting Activities among Employers, examined the recruiting strategy versus employment seeking behavior in a suburban area of Nagoya. He found that in the suburban areas employers use store window advertising and hire locals who use the store. A similar approach, in that the study looked primarily at behavior shaping the landscape, was done by Kohmoto Daichi, a graduate student at Hiroshima University with his article, Farmer's Attitudes toward Promoted Organic Agriculture in Transformation : The Case of Aya Town, Kyushu. He compared two areas in the same town that had differing attitudes toward organic farming. Chris McMorran, a graduate student at the University of Colorado at Boulder, presented part of his Master's thesis in an article as part of a rural depopulation and repopulation theme. In Constructing Idealized Communities in Japan's Countryside : Tourist Place making in Kurokawa Onsen, he examined the growth of the Kurokawa Hot Springs resort as a natural “home town” type destination that has succeeded in providing employment especially through transportation improvements. Kondo Hiroyuki of the University of Tokyo examines the changes in geographic education in Japan due to the efforts of Ishibashi Goro in The Educational Philosophy of Ishibashi Goro through the Geography Textbooks of Junior High School before World War II. He found that due to a 1937 paper by Ishibashi, there was a change in geographic education from rote memorization to what is called “geography as education,” linking human with physical phenomenon. This study also separated geography from geographic education. Lastly, in the historical tradition, Hiraoka Akitoshi of Shimonoseki City University investigated The Advancement of Japanese to the Senkaku Islands and Tatsushiro Koga in the Meiji Era, tracing the first settlements on the Senkaku Islands, an area of dispute between China and Japan since the discovery of oil and natural gas. Japanese settlements started in 1885 to harvest albatross feathers and eventually led the Meiji Government to lease Kuba Island and 4 other islands to Tatsushiro Koga for 30 years. Business declined and the village was eventually abandoned in 1937, allowing the islands to return to a natural state. Synopsis There has been an attempt in this edition to select articles that are concerned with social spaces, behavioral issues, and gender. However, articles using traditional approaches balance the journal. The changes indicate an acknowledgment of the break with a traditional past of historic research, and we can look forward to a future of more original approaches and research. The journal will continue to convey the current trends of human geography in Japan to its members and the world. It is worth noting here that this journal is the official journal of the Human Geographical Society of Japan and that only members can submit articles for publication. Nonmembers can contribute only as secondary authors when the first author is a member of the society. This limits the range of articles, but it also maintains the focus of what is being researched by Japanese geographers. For those with access, the English summaries of past volumes are available on the Internet, at http : //wwwsoc. nii. ac. jp/hgeog/journal/journal. html.
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