Summary of Tenses

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Summary of Tenses Powered By Docstoc
					Summary
    of
  Tenses
There are nine indicative tenses:

present             habla         he speaks
preterit            habló         he spoke
imperfect           hablaba       he was speaking
future              hablará        he will speak
conditional         hablaría       he would speak
present perfect     ha hablado     he has spoken
past perfect        había hablado he had spoken
future perfect      habrá hablado he will have spoken
conditional perf.   habría hablado he would have spoken
  There’s a trick to keeping the perfect tenses straight. First of all, of course,
  all four have the past participle (hablado, comido, vivido). Then . . .

  The PRESENT perfect is the                The PAST perfect is the
  PRESENT of “haber” (which is              PAST (imperfect) tense of
  irregular) + past participle:             “haber” + past participle:


       he       hemos                         había         habíamos
       has      habéis + hablado              habías        habíais + hablado
       ha       han                           había         habían

The FUTURE perfect is the FUTURE          The CONDITIONAL perfect is the
of “haber” + past participle:             CONDITIONAL of “haber” + past part.:

  habré         habremos                      habría        habríamos
  habrás        habréis  + hablado            habrías       habríais + hablado
  habrá         habrán                        habría        habrían
 Also remember that, in English . . .

future = will       conditional = would

     perfect = have, has, or had

                Therefore,

     future perfect = will have
  conditional perfect = would have
Click here to go to a brief
    practice exercise.
On the next page you’ll
find a summary of ALL
    indicative AND
  subjunctive tenses.
               Indicative    Translation of Subjunctive
                            both ind. & subj.
present        habla            he speaks          hable
preterit       habló            he spoke
imperfect      hablaba          he was speaking hablara*
future         hablará          he will speak
conditional    hablaría         he would speak
pres.perf.     ha hablado       he has spoken      haya hablado
pluperf.       había hablado    he had spoken      hubiera hablado
future perf.   habrá hablado    he will have spoken
cond. perf.    habría hablado   he would have spoken

  *Because there is no preterit subjunctive, the imperfect
  subjunctive serves as the only past tense in the subjunctive and
  can translate as the imperfect does AND as the preterit does.
Click here to go to a brief practice exercise.