Lapland Tourism Strategy in summary by rck12084

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									Lapland Tourism
    Strategy
   2003-2006
            Lapland Tourism Strategy in summary

                 tourism brings well-being to all Lapland and
                   furthers regionally balanced development


                 strategic starting points of tourism development
   round-the-year                                                     internationalisation and
      tourism                                                             good accessibility
                             region-oriented development
                               tourist centres as engines
 actors roles and                                                        co-ordination of
 division of labour                                                       project action



                            elements of the tourism vision
  ”an exotic land of action and stories that gives power of life to the tourist”
  skilled entrepreneurs, security, internationality, quality standard of services, diverse
activities, cultural offerings, clean wilderness, strong brand, profiled regions and tourist
     centres, model region of sustainable development, know how centre of tourism



                         objectives of the development work
                        growth of tourism income and employment
                  safe, sustainable and controlled tourism development
        improvement of round-the-year profitability and income of enterprises
                      satisfaction of a customer and a desire to return




                      quantitative objectives of the development work 2006

           registered overnights +2,7 % per year (domestic +2 % and foreign +4 %)
                      June-September registered overnights +4 % per year
          all year utilisation level of hotel rooms +1,7 % per year (year 2006 = 50 %)
  sales of accommodation and nutrition industry +5,5 % per year (programme services +10 %)
   person-workyears of accommodation and nutrition industry + 3,5 % per year (programme
                                     services +6 %)
            the average price of a hotel room on a national level (year 2006 = 90 €)
                                ski lift ticket sales +6 % per year



                      action policies of the development work
        marketing and distribution channels            product and product development
        infrastructure and land use                    accessibility and traffic
        research and know how production               education, manpower and skills
        security and sustainability                   quality and joint course of action
TABLE OF CONTENTS

FOREWORD .................................................................................................................................................................... 3

1 STARTING POINTS AND THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF TOURISM......................... 4
   1.1 TOURISM BRINGS WELL-BEING TO THE WHOLE PROVINCE ......................................................................................... 4
   1.2 THE EFFECTS OF TOURISM INCOME AND EMPLOYMENT ARE REMARKABLE ................................................................ 4
   1.3 TOURISM IS MORE IMPORTANT TO LAPLAND THAN TO OTHER PROVINCES ................................................................. 5
2 REALISED DEVELOPMENT AND THE PRESENT STATE OF TOURISM ...................................................... 7
   2.1 TOTAL OVERNIGHTS AND THE AMOUNT OF FOREIGNERS ARE INCREASING ................................................................ 7
   2.2 LEISURE TIME TOURISM INCREASED MORE RAPIDLY THAN TOURISM CONNECTED WITH WORK.................................. 8
   2.3 GROWTH IN SUMMER DEMAND IS A POSSIBILITY ........................................................................................................ 8
   2.4 GERMANY AND GREAT BRITAIN ARE THE MAIN FOREIGN MARKET............................................................................ 9
   2.5 UNITS ARE SMALL - SALES HAVE INCREASED GREATLY .......................................................................................... 10
   2.6 DEVELOPMENT WORK EMPHASISES INVESTMENTS................................................................................................... 11
   2.7 MARKET POSITION AND COMPETITORS OF LAPLAND ............................................................................................... 13
3 REGIONAL PROFILES AND REGIONAL STRUCTURE OF TOURISM 2002................................................ 15
   3.1 TOURISM HISTORY OF LAPLAND .............................................................................................................................. 15
   3.2 REGIONAL STRUCTURE HAS DEVELOPED INTO TOURIST CENTRE ORIENTED ............................................................. 16
   3.3 SUB-REGION BASED COMPARISON ........................................................................................................................... 19
4 STRATEGY TO YEAR 2006 ..................................................................................................................................... 30
   4.1 MEGATRENDS .......................................................................................................................................................... 30
   4.2 STARTING POINTS OF DEVELOPMENT ....................................................................................................................... 34
   4.3 VISION, OBJECTIVES AND AIMS ................................................................................................................................ 39
   4.4 STRATEGIC POLICIES................................................................................................................................................ 44
   4.5 EXECUTION AND FOLLOW-UP .................................................................................................................................. 50
   4.6 EVALUATION OF THE EFFECTS ................................................................................................................................. 50
5 SUMMARY.................................................................................................................................................................. 52

BIBLIOGRAPHY........................................................................................................................................................... 53

APPENDICES................................................................................................................................................................. 55




                                                                                                                                                                             2
FOREWORD

The development of tourism in Lapland is an ongoing process, in which the action is based on
policies that are jointly agreed upon and regularly revised. Lapland Tourism Strategy 2003-2006,
which originated as a result of extensive co-operation, steers the development of tourism in the
province by defining the starting points and focal point areas of the development. The detailed
planning and execution of development will be carried out on the levels of region, tourist centres
and enterprises. With the help of the strategy, financing will be directed towards the most important
entities of issues in order to cause development measures that have strong enough lever effect.
Furthermore, the strategy is used to secure the total view of tourism development and to fit the
action on provincial level in the policies that concern the whole country. According to the outlining
done in strategic work, Lapland Tourism Strategy shows, with focal point areas, the direction that is
the aim of the development of investments and operation environment. Strategy does not include
operative action but for the part of most important entities of issues, financing and execution will be
specified in the programme contract of tourism. This concerns, for instance, the total marketing of
the provincial level as well as investing in the action of organisations on the regional level.

In Lapland, tourism is closely connected with the whole of regional development and other
industries. In the new strategy, tourist industry is approached from a wide perspective.
Acknowledging the factors outside the daily business routines is necessary in order to secure the
preconditions of development in the long run. In that case, along with product development and
marketing, for instance, issues connected with basic infrastructure and security that tourism needs
are taken into account.

Underlying the Lapland Tourism Strategy 2003-2006 are the previous plans that have guided the
development of industry and their focal points1. The progress and directing of the work has been
supervised by a competent control group (Appendix 1). Tourism committee of Lapland Chamber of
Commerce that consists of tourist entrepreneurs, marketing group of Lapin Markkinointi Oy and
tourism team of the sponsors have examined the strategic work in its various stages. In June 2002,
events were held in Tornio, Pyhätunturi fell, Rovaniemi, Saariselkä and Levi fell to collect the
regional views. Tourism Parliament of all Lapland was held in Rovaniemi in October 2002. After
the Parliament, a strategy draft was circulated for comment and given to the committee of Regional
Council of Lapland to be considered. Researcher Sami Laakkonen from Regional Council of
Lapland has been responsible for the progress of the process and the collection of the content.

The committee of Regional Council of Lapland has approved the Tourism Strategy in their meeting
on February 3rd 2003. Regional Council of Lapland wants to acknowledge with warm thanks for
fruitful co-operation all those who participated in the planning work. We are particularly thankful
for the entrepreneurs. Tourism is an important industry for our northern province and the key
position of the industry demands exemplary strength and co-ordination from development
measures. Succeeding in this requires the participants to commit themselves to persistent action in
accordance with the strategy.

                                                                       Esko Lotvonen
                                                                       Executive Director


1
    Lapin matkailun strateginen ohjelma 1995-1999. Lokakuu 1994. Lapin matkailuasiain neuvottelukunta.
    Lapin matkailu 1996-1999. Lapin matkailu Oy. Lapin matkailumarkkinointi Oy. 23.5.1996.
    Lapin matkailustrategian päivitys 1997. Aspectum Oy.
    Lapin matkailun kehittäminen 2000-2006. Lapin tavoite 1-ohjelmaa varten tehty linjaus.




                                                                                                         3
1 STARTING POINTS AND THE REGIONAL ECONOMIC SIGNIFICANCE OF
TOURISM
1.1 Tourism brings well-being to the whole province

Tourism has been the focal point area of the development of Lapland all the way from the
beginning of 1980’s. Large investments, active development of operation environment and steady
growth in demand have made tourism one of the most essential industries of Lapland. Investing in
tourism has been worthwhile since a large amount of new jobs have sprang up in the industry. After
all, tourist industry has contributed remarkably to the development of Lapland and in many regions,
tourist enterprises are practically the only employers in private sector. Tourism helps the remote
districts to stay populated by increasing economic growth and creating innovative entrepreneurship.
In addition, tourism demand signifies an extra demand outside the permanent population, which
renders possible, for instance, the existence of small retail shops and post offices. Moreover, tourist
services diversify the prospects for leisure time interests of the permanent population and improve
the quality of life.

In addition to the direct effects on income and employment, municipalities receive tax revenue from
tourism and the growth of tourist industry reflects with multiplier impact in other entrepreneurship,
for instance, in the construction sector. As an image intensive and international export industry
tourism creates positive public image of all Lapland and increases the knowledge of the province all
over the world. Furthermore, this furthers the growth and internationalisation of other industries. In
order for tourism to bring well-being to all Lapland, the utilisation of attraction factors in every part
of the province has to be rendered possible.


1.2 The effects of tourism income and employment are remarkable

The direct effect of tourism in income and employment are remarkable in Lapland but within the
province the effects have strong regional differences. Tourism is most important in tourist centres
and in their close vicinity. Based on the branch of business classification in use, the direct tourism
income in Lapland in 2000 can be estimated to have been at least 324 million euros (Figure 1).
Accommodation and nutrition industry have the largest share in this, 111 million euros, i.e. 34 %.
Retail shops get the second largest profit from the money use of tourists with 94 million euros, and
for that reason retail shops participate in the expenses of tourist marketing. Retail is followed by
passenger traffic services (13 %), tourist agencies (10 %) and service station business (7 %).
 Direct tourism income by branches of business in Lapland 2000



                                                                 Total 324
                                                                million euros




    Accommodation and nutrition 111 million € (34 %)
    Retail 94 million € (29 %)
    Passenger traffic and their support 42 million € (13 %)
    Tourist agencies and other tourist services 33 million € (10 %)
    Service station and repair business and fuel sales 22 million € (7 %)
    Recreation, culture and sports 17 million € (5 %)
    Rental and other services that provide for tourism 5 million € (2 %)




                                                                                                       4
Figure 1: Direct tourism income by branches of business in Lapland 2000.
(Toimiala Online)*


In the branches of business classification in use, programme services do not appear as their own
branch of business. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate the tourism income that is directed at that
branch. Significant part of the programme service enterprises fall under the class of recreation,
culture and sports services as well as tourist agencies and other tourist services.
Direct tourism employment in Lapland was at least 3230 person-workyears in 2000 (Figure 2). Due
to differences in profitability of manpower, the person-workyears do not divide among the branches
of business similar to tourism income. The share of accommodation and nutrition industry of direct
tourism employment is as much as 41 %, i.e. 1335 person-workyears. The second largest share of
employment goes to passenger traffic services whose share with 732 person-workyears is 23 %.
When the share of retail of the direct tourism income is 29 %, its share of tourism employment is
only 14 %. However, recreation, culture and programme services’ share of person-workyears of
tourism (8 %) is larger than its share of tourism income. In summary, it can be said that
accommodation and nutrition industry, passenger traffic services and recreation, culture and sports
services are far more labour-intensive branches of business than retail, tourist agencies and service
station business, in which, for instance, one cash register worker brings large sales.

    Direct tourism employment by branches of business in Lapland 2000



                                                                     Total 3230
                                                                    person-workyears




     Accommodation and nutrition 1335 pwy (41 %)
     Passenger traffic services and their support 732 pwy (23 %)
     Retail 442 pwy (14 %)
     Recreation, culture and sports service 246 pwy (8 %)
     Tourist agencies and other tourist services 232 pwy (7 %)
     Service station and repair services, and fuel sales 113 pwy (4 %)
     Rental and other services that provide for tourism 109 pwy (3 %)


Figure 2: Direct tourism employment by branches of business in Lapland 2000.
(Toimiala Online)*


1.3 Tourism is more important to Lapland than to other provinces

In Lapland, the significance of tourism as a source of work and income is remarkably greater than
the national average. Of all the provinces in Finland, the regional economic significance of tourism
is greatest in Lapland. It can be reliably detected, for instance, by examining the share of
accommodation and nutrition industry of the total sales and person-workyears of all branches of
business in 2000 (Figure 3)2.
2
   Matkailun aluetaloudelliset vaikutukset. Seurantaindikaattorit ja vuoden 2000 tulokset. Kauppa- ja teollisuusministeriön
kertomuksia ja selvityksiä 4/2002. Kauppa- ja teollisuusministeriö. Markkinaosasto.
* Estimations of tourism share per cents of satellite accountancy of tourism, based on the branches of business, have been applied in
the calculation of tourism income and employment. Tourism share per cent signifies the share of tourism demand of the total volume
of sales and employment of each branch of business. In this case, the tourism demand directed towards a specific branch of business
will be distinguished from the demand of local population. For instance, the tourism share per cent of retail is 20 % in Lapland. In
this case, it is seen that fifth of the sales of retail comes directly from the money use of tourists. As a whole, the tourism share per


                                                                                                                                      5
                          The share of accommodation and nutrition of the total sales and
                          employment of all branches of business according to province 2000
     Ostrobothnia
         Satakunta

  Central Ostrobothnia                                           Median whole
  Southern Ostrobothnia                                          country 1,4 %
  Nothern Ostrobothnia

     Finland Proper
      Kymenlaakso
         Pirkanmaa

     North Carelia
                                                                      Median whole
     Tavastia Proper
                                                                      country 3,7 %
  Eastern Uusimaa
  Päijänne Tavastia
           Uusimaa
     Central Finland

       South Carelia
  Northern Savonia
             Kainuu
  Southern Savonia
              Åland
           Lapland

                      0          1        2        3        4        5           6     7              8
   Employment
                                                                                           %- units
   Sales



Figure 3: The significance of accommodation and nutrition industry according to province 2000.
(Toimiala Online)
When the share of accommodation and nutrition industry of the total sales of all branches of
business in the whole country is 1.4 &, the corresponding figure is 3 % in Lapland. The share of
accommodation and nutrition industry of the person-workyears of all branches of business is 3,7 %
in the whole country but in Lapland, the employment effect is as much as 7,4 %. In Lapland, the
growth or dying down of tourism affects far more strongly to changes in income formation and
employment situation than anywhere else in the country. Information on the amount of
accommodation and nutrition industries, their sales and employment according to sub-regions and
municipalities can be found in the appendices of the strategy (Appendix 2).
In Lapland, the effects on income and employment that have been pushed into motion by tourism
and tourism demand are a fixed part of the regional economy and it is not meaningful to examine
tourism separated from other economic and social activities in the region. Tourism creates
opportunities for other industries but at the same time it is strongly dependent on them. This creates
synergic possibilities, for instance, between tourism and traditional industries, such as forest
economy, reindeer herding, fishing and the artisan sector.




cents used in the strategy can be viewed as quite moderate and therefore, the figures do not exaggerate the extent of direct effects of
income and employment of tourism.


                                                                                                                                     6
2 REALISED DEVELOPMENT AND THE PRESENT STATE OF TOURISM
2.1 Total overnights and the amount of foreigners are increasing

The total amount of registered overnights in Lapland has increased steadily since 1996 and in 2001,
the new top figure was 1,63 million overnights. This means 230 000 more overnights than in 1996,
the worst year of the 1990’s (Figure 4). Particularly, the amount of foreign overnights has increased
rapidly but we are still far away from the goal of million overnights that was set in 1994. Domestic
registered overnights have not increased since 1994 and the domestic tourism market share of
Lapland has slightly decreased. Foreigners’ share of total overnights of Lapland has increased and
according to the trend forecast, similar development will continue in the following years. The fact is
that tourism in Lapland is very international compared to other provinces in Finland. Overnight
figures according to sub-regions, municipalities and from the biggest tourist centres in 2001 can be
found in the appendices of the strategy (Appendix 3).
Statistics of accommodation in their present form do not show the whole truth about tourism
development. Registered overnights show only a part of the truth and many overnights go
unregistered*. Foreign overnights are registered far more extensively than domestic overnights. Day
trips that have increased in Lapland do not show in accommodation statistics. In peripheral and
rural areas, such as in most of Lapland, unregistered overnights are far greater in number than in
towns. In 1998, it was estimated that there are as many unregistered as there are registered
overnights in Lapland3. By calculating this way, we end up with altogether 3,2 million overnights in
2001. The real amount of overnights may be even far more greater since during the past few years
capital has been invested into cottage construction and individual rental cottages are mainly outside
registration. The number of recreational accommodation has increased in Lapland in the span of
1994-2001 as much as 25,6 % to 25 809 cottages. Moreover, the increase in visitors of the national
parks that are located in the province tells us about the attraction of Lapland. For instance, the
amount of visitors in the Urho Kekkonen National Park has increased from 60 000 visitors in 1992
to as many as 150 000 visitors in 20004.

              Registered overnights in Lapland in 1988-2001 and the trend
       2000
       1800
       1600
    Th
    ou 1400
    sa 1200
    nd
       1000
    ov
    er  800
    ni  600
    gh
    ts  400
        200
         0
         1988198919901991199219931994199519961997199819992000200120022003200420052006

        Total         Domestic         Foreign


Figure 4: Registered overnights in Lapland 1988-2001 and the trend.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)

3
  Lapin matkailu 1998. Selvitys Lapin matkailukapasiteetista, matkailukysynnästä ja välittömästä matkailutulosta vuonna 1998.
Lapin Matkailumarkkinointi Oy. Art-Travel Oy.
4
  Mökki kansallispuiston laidalla. Loma-asukkaiden näkemyksiä Pyhätunturin kansallispuiston käytöstä ja kehittämisestä. Saarinen, S
& Vaara, M. Rovaniemen tutkimusasema. Metsäntutkimuslaitoksen tiedonantoja 845, 2002.
* For instance, according to official statistics, 539 280 overnights accumulated in Fell Lapland in 2001, but when indirectly
calculated with the help of water consumption, there must have been approximately 3 million overnights. The differences with
accommodation statistics are quite remarkable.


                                                                                                                                 7
2.2 Leisure time tourism increased more rapidly than tourism connected with work

The increase in tourism in Lapland is strongly based on leisure time tourism, i.e. actual tourism. The
difference to town districts of Southern Finland is great. In 2001, as much as 81,9 % of registered
overnights in Lapland accumulated from leisure time tourism when the share of tourism connected
with work was only 17 %. Since 1994, the share of leisure time tourism of registered overnights in
Lapland has increased approximately 7 %. Correspondingly, the share of tourism connected with
work has decreased the same amount.

The Åland Islands is the only province in Finland where the share of leisure time tourism is greater
than in Lapland. From the perspective of tourism marketing, it is easier to affect the direction of
leisure time tourism than tourism connected with work. In practice, only conferences and similar
events are in the sphere of influence of marketing measures in tourism connected with work since
other kind of work tourism is bound to salary.


2.3 Growth in summer demand is a possibility

Christmas tourism and the winter season are success stories in Lapland but summer demand has
died down. When examining, for instance, the long-term development of the utilisation levels of
hotel rooms, one can say that despite successful winter, the decreased tourism demand in the
summer has signified a slight decrease in the utilisation levels of the whole year (Figure 5).
Furthermore, a strong increase in capacity has affected on the development of utilisation levels, of
which merely a fraction is registered. The increase in capacity has been based on the rapidly
growing winter demand.

            The utilisation levels of hotel rooms of Lapland and
            registered accommodation capacity
       70                                                                 10000
                                                                          9500
       60
                                                                          9000    R
 uti   50                                                                 8500    oo
 lis                                                                              m/
       40                                                                 8000
 ati                                                                              ca
                                                                          7500    bi
 on    30
 le                                                                       7000    n
 ve    20                                                                 6500
 l-                                                                       6000
 %     10
                                                                          5500
       0                                                                  5000
            83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02

        All year                     January
        July                         Registered capacity



Figure 5: The utilisation levels of hotel rooms in Lapland and registered capacity.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)

During 1983-2001, the utilisation level of hotel rooms in Lapland in July has decreased 10,7 %,
whereas the utilisation level of January has improved 15,3 %. The utilisation levels of the whole
year have decreased only slightly in the time span in question, since strong development of winter
tourism has compensated poor summer demand. The utilisation levels of July have significant peaks
during the years 1988-89 and 1993-94. The reason for strong summer demand in 1993-94 was
mainly the exchange rate of the Finnish mark which was beneficial for foreigners. Moreover, it


                                                                                                    8
made tourism in Lapland cheap in the eyes of foreigners. In those years, summer tourism of
foreigners in Lapland was strong and particularly the citizens of the former East Germany were of
great significance. As a matter of fact, what comes to many other nationalities, the summer demand
of tourism in Lapland was going through the good years. The significance of East Germans was
greatest in Rovaniemi and close to the western border but not so much in the eastern parts of the
province or, for instance, in Saariselkä.
The decrease in the amount of visitors in summer knocks the bottom out of the all year profitability
and economic well-being of enterprises. The closing of business for summer and, thus, trimming the
expenses is the only possibility for several enterprises to keep their business profitable on all year
standards. This fact does not further the increase of round-the-year jobs in the industry and the
activation of summer demand has to be one of the focal point areas of the development in the next
few years. The summer of 2002 gave clear signs of the picking up of demand, and one has to
believe in the positive course of development in future summers. In June-August 2002, far more
overnights than in the previous year were registered in Lapland. The growth reached 16,6 % in July
and the growth accumulated 9,2 % even in June. People want to visit Lapland even in the summer,
and Lapland as one of the summer tourism regions of 2001 got the best general grade of all the
provinces in Finland. Furthermore, those who spend their vacations in Lapland are the most willing
to return5.


2.4 Germany and Great Britain are the main foreign market

According to overnights statistics, the most important foreign market of Lapland is still Germany
but the importance of the Brits have increased rapidly, particularly in Christmas tourism (Figure 6).
During the Christmas season 2002/2003 as many as 62 000 tourists arrived in Lapland with charter
flights. The third most important country of departure of foreign tourists is France, followed by
Russia, Norway, Holland, Japan and Switzerland. The Swedish are important close to the western
border in particular, but staying with relatives and friends causes their overnights hardly to show on
official statistics.

                   Lapland’s foreign market 1996-2001
          140000
    Re
    gis   120000
    ter
    ed    100000
    ov
    er    80000
    nig
          60000
    hts
          40000

          20000

              0
                   Germany Britain   France   Russia   Norway   Holland   Japan   Switzerland

          1996        1997       1998
          1999        2000       2001


Figure 6: Lapland’s foreign market 1996-2001.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)

The development of overnights between 1996-2001 has been very positive with all of the eight most
important nationalities except the Germans, and the internationalisation of tourism in Lapland

5
    Kesän kotimaiset matkailualueet 2001. Taloustutkimus Oy. 2001.


                                                                                                    9
rapidly continues. The opening of the border station in Salla sets great hopes on the increase in the
Lapland tourism of the Russians. In the future, the significance of potential market, for instance, in
China is great and tourism offerings of Lapland have to be on display at the opening market right
from the beginning.


2.5 Units are small - sales have increased greatly

Measured with sales, as many as 68,7 % of all businesses of tourist enterprises in Lapland were
those enterprises whose sales were under 168 000 euros in 2000. Based on the number of personnel,
92,6 & of businesses can be classified as very small enterprises, i.e. those that employ maximum 9
people6. However, the smallness of businesses affects the enterprises’ ability to invest in
development work. Therefore, the organisation and co-operation of tourist entrepreneurs are
important in order to, for instance, gather joint marketing resources that are sufficiently strong.
Succeeding in this requires leaders and co-ordinators. Although tourist enterprises are still fairly
small in size, the past few years have witnessed the concentration of business either in the hands of
strong family businesses or chain stores. The largest programme service enterprises in Lapland are
the largest in Europe in their branch of business.

The sales of tourism industry of Lapland has rapidly increased7. The sales of accommodation and
nutrition industry have increased approximately with the annual rate of 5 % unadjusted for inflation
in 1995-2001 (Figure 7). The increase in person-workyears in the branch of business has been
approximately 3 % per year. The development of sales and pay roll in accommodation and nutrition
industry in Lapland has been almost identical with the development of the whole country since
1995.
               Sales of accommodation and nutrition in Lapland 1995-2001
       300

         250
    mil
    jlio
    n 200
    eu
    ro 150
    s
         100
                                 The average annual growth
                                    (1995-2001) appr. 5 %
         50

          0
                1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
               Sales
               Trend forecast (Sales)



Figure 7: Sales of accommodation and nutrition industry in Lapland 1995-2001.
(Toimiala Online)

Compiling of statistics on programme services is problematic because of the branch of business
classification in use. However, the sales have even doubled in some enterprises in the branch of
business of programme services. A significant part of the programme services/safari enterprises of
Lapland are located in the classes TOL 633 and 9272, which are also classes for tourist agencies.

6
  Lapin matkailuklusterin rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Ennakointitutkimuksen esiselvitys. Lapin elämysteollisuuden osaamiskeskus.
Terhi Turkia. Rovaniemi. 2001.
7
   Esim. Lapin matkailuklusterin rakenteesta ja kehityksestä. Ennakointitutkimuksen esiselvitys. Lapin elämysteollisuuden
osaamiskeskus. Terhi Turkia. Rovaniemi. 2001.


                                                                                                                              10
The increase in sales in these branches of business has been on the average as much as 33 % per
year in Lapland in 1995-2000. In 2000, the sales value was 40 million euros and work contribution
accumulated 330 person-workyears. The enterprises of programme services include very different
kinds of enterprises and those that are in different stages of business. The largest programme service
enterprises offer tourist agency services as well. The development trends of sales and pay roll of the
branch of business TOL 633 (tourist agencies and others tourist services) represent the rapid growth
the sector of tourist agencies and programme services (Figure 8). The volumes of sales and
employment of the branch of business in Lapland have increased 2,5 times since 1995. Since 1998,
the development has been quite astonishingly rapid compared to the whole country.


             Tourist agencies and other tourist services
             1995-2002 (July)
       320


       280
    In
    de 240
    x
    (1
       200
    99
    5=
    10 160
    0)
       120


        80


        40
             1995     1996        1997     1998        1999       2000     2001       2002
              /1       /1          /1       /1          /1         /1       /1         /1


          Sales (Lapland)                Pay roll (Lapland)
          Sales (The whole country)      Pay roll (The whole country)


Figure 8: Tourist agencies and other tourist services 1995-7/2002.
(Suhdanteet, Tilastokeskus)



2.6 Development work emphasises investments
In Lapland, approximately 72 million euros have been used in the tourist projects partly funded by
the EU since 1995 to May 2002 (Table 1). Approximately 30 million euros have been used in
infrastructure that benefits tourism and in equipment purchase. The second largest share of funds
has been invested in the measures of tourism marketing, almost 11 million euros. Approximately 10
million euros have been used in planning strategies and other similar things. In addition to actual
tourist projects, projects that indirectly support tourism, such as improvements of roads and the
development of the artisan sector, are important from the point of view of tourism industry.
Project action of tourism has been criticised as un-co-ordinated throughout the country. State
Economy Controller’s Office has criticised the abundance and disconnectedness of public
investments used in tourism and has stated that significance of tourism as an industry and a
phenomenon has been estimated all too great8. The sum of money used in tourist projects sounds
big but in practice, the classification of a project as a purely tourist project is difficult. However,
other industries than actual tourism have been created on the plea of tourism, and in many projects,
the need has arisen rather from the local population than from actual tourism reasons. According to
a research that has been conducted for the Ministry of Trade and Industry, the average size of a


8
    Matkailun kehittäminen. Tarkastuskertomus 9/2002. Valtiontalouden tarkastusvirasto.


                                                                                                    11
project has been as big in Lapland as in other provinces9. Even small projects can be very
productive and the benefits can be concrete. It is far too simple to condemn a project as bad merely
because of the smallness of project size. The fact that tourism has received a great public support in
Lapland is due to the great significance of the industry in the industry structure of the province.

    Tourist projects of Lapland that are partly funded by the EU 1995-2002
Theme                                                                 Total budget (€)
1. Tourism infrastructure and equipment                                     29 825 646
2. Tourism marketing and distribution channels                              10 712 617
3. Plans, strategies etc. that concern tourism                              10 092 064
4. Traffic and accessibility                                                 8 126 903
5. Product development of tourism and programme
                                                                             5 748 030
services
6. Tourism co-operation and networking                                       3 842 465
7. Education and quality                                                     1 926 087
8. Environment and sustainability                                            1 530 940
9. Security                                                                    119 064
TOTAL:                                                                     71 923 817

10. Projects that indirectly support tourism                                10 209 696
11. Industries connected with tourism                                        4 635 377

Table 1: Tourist projects of Lapland that are partly funded by the EU 1995-2002.
The enterprise services of the Employment and Economic Development Centre of Lapland (TE-
keskus) has granted support of total 21,4 million euros for the branches of business of tourism
industry in 1995 – May 2002 (Table 2). State Economy Controller’s Office has criticised the
inapplicability of the business subsidies of tourism particularly in Lapland10. According to the State
Economy Controller’s Office, the support has led to the development of overcapacity with public
support and at the same time, foreign demand and winter have been developed at the expense of
domestic demand and summer.

       Business subsidies of tourism granted by the enterprise services of the
       Employment and Economic Development Centre of Lapland 1995-2002

                                                      Granted                       Secured jobs
Branch of business                                  support (€)         New jobs
55 Accommodation and nutrition                      10 757 388               278               468
60 Overland traffic                                    121 558                 7                10
61 Water traffic                                              0                0                 0
62 Air traffic                                           7 030                 0                 0
63 Traffic service, tourist agencies                 1 311 111                97               145
74 Other business services                           1 039 971                74                87
92 Recreation, culture and sports services           7 996 462               322               480
93 Other service                                       121 356                 0                 0
                                        TOTAL: 21 354 876                     778           1 190
Table 2: Business subsidies of tourism granted by the enterprise services of the Employment and Economic
Development Centre according to the branches of business.

9
   Matkailun julkisen rahoituksen määrä ja kohdentuminen Suomessa. Kauppa- ja teollisuusministeriön tutkimuksia ja raportteja
19/2000. Markkinaosasto. Oy Edita Ab. Helsinki.
10
   Matkailun yritystuet. Tarkastuskertomus 23/2002. Valtiontalouden tarkastusvirasto.


                                                                                                                          12
First of all, it has to be stated that most of the investments that increase tourism capacity of Lapland
have been realised with private funds, although the share of public support has been undeniably
significant. Secondly, it has to be noted that concentrating on the most strongly growing season and
on the most rapidly growing customer segments is economically justified. Moreover, State
Economy Controller’s Office states in its report that the authorities have not had enough
information on the effects that supporting tourism has on the development of the industry,
employment and the competitive ability of enterprises. Half of the granted support has been directed
towards accommodation and nutrition industry. Thus, according to estimates, the existence of 468
jobs has been guaranteed and the creation of 278 new jobs has been promoted. The second largest
amount of support, approximately 8 million euros, has been granted to culture, recreation and sports
activities. In the branch of business in question operates most of the programme service and safari
enterprises of tourism, whose increase in sales and employment has been very positive. All in all,
the business subsidies have saved 1190 jobs and created 778 new jobs for tourism industry. In the
future, it is important to direct business subsidies in taking care of the development and growth of
the enterprises that have operated for a long time along with creating new enterprises.
In addition to the support granted by the enterprise services, the employment services of the
Employment and Economic Development Centre of Lapland has invested in the operation
environment of tourism in 1999-2002 by granting 30,5 million euros of employment-based
investment contributions. Employment-based investment contributions of state have had effect on
the creation of over 800 jobs of a permanent nature. The employment-based contributions have
been directed in the development of tourist centres in Lapland and the passenger terminals of
airports in particular, which has considerably sped up the realisation of enterprise-led tourist
projects.


2.7 Market position and competitors of Lapland

In domestic market, Lapland has lost a little of its market share during the past years if measured
with registered overnights. If the unregistered service supply is considered, it can be said that the
domestic demand has shifted from registered accommodation supply to unregistered supply, such as
cottages. In Finland, the market position of Lapland is strong in the winter and particularly, in the
product groups of downhill skiing, cross-country skiing and snow mobiling. As far as downhill
skiing activities are concerned, the toughest competitors of the big centres of Lapland are Ruka and
Vuokatti in Northern Finland, Tahko and Koli in Central Finland, and Himos and Messilä which
answer to the demand of the market around the capital area.

For the part of the future, the domestic market position of Lapland depends first of all on how we
are able to hold on to the competitive ability of the winter activities compared to other snow
guaranteed regions of Finland. What comes to downhill skiing, Lapland has a permanent natural
geographical competitive advantage compared to other parts of the country. But as far as cross-
country skiing and snow mobiling are concerned, the competition will get tougher in the next few
years. However, in the winter, the strength of the tourist centres in Lapland is their diversity.
Considering the domestic market of a whole year, the challenge of Lapland is to get more summer
tourists. The strengths of Lapland in domestic summer tourism can be found in nature resorts and
nature interests. Night of the midnight sun, closeness of the Arctic Ocean, great fells, national parks
and wilderness regions as well as, for instance, hiking and fishing are the strengths of the summer
of Lapland.

What comes to foreign tourism from abroad to Finland, Lapland has a strong position in its most
important product groups compared to other provinces. Lapland has been especially successful with


                                                                                                     13
foreign Christmas tourists. Lapland has good chances to strengthen its position with foreign
summer tourism from abroad to Finland with cottage vacations, hiking and fishing in particular.
Canada, which is one of the international competitors of Lapland, offers very similar products both
in summer and in winter but from the perspective of the European market, the advantage of Lapland
is better accessibility. Other non-European competitors are, in principle, all resorts that attract
tourists with exotic, nature and nature interests. These countries include, for instance, New Zealand
and Kenya11.

The toughest competitors of Lapland in Europe are the Alpine countries, Norway and Sweden for
the part of winter activities. Lapland is unable to compete with incomparable downhill skiing
possibilities with the Alpine countries but a trip to Lapland in the winter is always connected with
attraction factors that spring from northern exoticness, nature, nature phenomena, Christmas, Santa
Claus and the special features of culture. Particularly, exoticness and northern location bring round-
the-year competitive advantage to Lapland. The development of winter tourism in Norway and
Sweden will increase, from the point of view of Lapland, the competition of international winter
tourism in the long run. The closest alternative for the tourist centres of Lapland is found in Åre,
Sweden, which is the largest downhill skiing centre in the North. In the same latitude with Åre,
there are many big centres both in Sweden and Norway that directly compete with the centres of
Lapland. However, compared to the northern parts of Sweden and Norway, the tourism offerings of
Lapland are more of a good-quality when infrastructure is considered and more diverse when it
comes to the interest possibilities and services.
The core questions of the development of tourism in the Northwest Russia and Barents region are
the social stability of the region, the effects of the usage of natural resources and investments in the
basic infrastructure that tourism needs. The natural environment of the region offers good setting
for the development of tourism based on nature and winter activities. Lapland has to view the close
regions in the west, north and east not only as competitors but more clearly as regions of co-
operation. Connecting the exotic and services of Lapland, for instance, with the attraction of the
Arctic Ocean and the salmon rivers of the Kola Peninsula may give the tourist the added value
which will settle the competition in favour of Lapland.




11
     MEK Winter Tourism Strategy 2003-2008. Matkailun edistämiskeskus.


                                                                                                     14
3 REGIONAL PROFILES AND REGIONAL STRUCTURE OF TOURISM 2002
3.1 Tourism history of Lapland

Roots of tourism in Lapland and, especially, in the Tornio River Valley date from the 18th century
and from the early years of the 19th century. At that time, the North was the target of several
domestic and international expeditions12. Until the 20th century, the visitors of Lapland represented
two classic types of visitors, explorers and adventurers. What these visitors belonging to the elite of
their time had in common was a great interest in the people of Lapland, their way of living,
traditions, beliefs and the human landscape that had arisen as a result of the work of people13. At
that time, they were not so interested in the landscape and nature as such.

The development of actual tourism required improvement in the means of communication. In
addition to this, the changes that were brought along by social development worked on the values of
people and made them suitable for Lapland. It was not possible to travel from Rovaniemi to Kyrö,
i.e. the parish village of Ivalo, via one road until 1913. The road from Ivalo to Petsamo was
completed in 1933. As the amount of tourists increased, new tourist cottages were built and by the
beginning of 1930’s Petsamo had developed into one of the most attractive tourist resorts in
Finland14. Tourism of Lapland was becoming internationalised.

If the summer was the time for cars, the development of winter tourism required railway
connections, regular bus routes and good roads round-the-year. In the middle of 1930’s, the railway
took people to Rovaniemi and Kemijärvi, and at the end of the decade, a special express train from
Helsinki to Rovaniemi was deemed necessary. Spring snows attracted cross-country skiers and
downhill skiers. First fell skiing courses were organised in Hetta. Norway was the model for
downhill skiing, and winter season enthusiasm towards Lapland increased rapidly. The capacity of
small tourist cottages was not even nearly sufficient and Lapland needed to have hotels. When
private sector did not start to invest, the responsibility for the improvement of accommodation
conditions in Lapland rested on the shoulders of a state-owned tourist association. The construction
of the tourist hotel Pallastunturi began in 1936. In addition to Pallas, fell skiing activity brought
skiers searching for tan to Levitunturi fell, Yllästunturi fell, Muonio and Hetta as well as to the
region of Saariselkä, whose significance for tourism were only on the level of suspecting, mostly
because of the poor connections.

Without the Rovaniemi market and the skiing race of Ounasvaara, Lapland would have been nearly
unknown to the population of the Southern Finland in the first decades of the century. In 1936, the
Pohjanhovi hotel on the banks of Ounaskoski rapids was completed and it quickly became the
symbol of Rovaniemi and tourism of all Lapland. The prerequisites for tourism in the province were
created by 1938 and because they had started from scratch, the development felt amazing. On the
whole, before the war, Lapland was a tourist resort mostly for the wealthy and speciality-seeking
part of the population, and the interest in Lapland was more and more based on the special features
of nature and the possibilities for active interests.
The years after the war were quiet15. Most of the infrastructure of tourism in Lapland was destroyed
in war and the construction had to begin from the start. From the point of view of tourism, the
heaviest loss was the cession of Petsamo to the Russians and the end of the tourism of the Arctic

12
   Lumen ja suven maa. Suomen matkailumaantiede. Vuoristo K-V, Vesterinen N. WSOY. Helsinki. 2001.
13
   Lapin matkailun evoluutio alueellis-yhteiskunnallisena ilmiönä. Aho, S. Teoksessa: Matkailu alueellisena ilmiönä. Toim. Aho, S.,
Ilola, H. Oulun yliopisto. Pohjois-Suomen tutkimuslaitos. 1995.
14
   Tuhansien järvien maa. Suomen matkailun historia. Hirn, S., Markkanen, E. Gummerus. Jyväskylä. 1987.
15
   Lapin matkailun evoluutio alueellis-yhteiskunnallisena ilmiönä. Aho, S. Teoksessa: Matkailu alueellisena ilmiönä. Toim. Aho, S.,
Ilola, H. Oulun yliopisto. Pohjois-Suomen tutkimuslaitos. 1995.


                                                                                                                                15
Ocean Road. In 1950’s, the wealth of people increased throughout the country and tourism in
Lapland began to form into a hobby and a way of life also for the so-called common people. Along
with the increase of private cars, summer tourism in Lapland increased and families travelled
around from one place to another. Camping flourished and overnights in camping grounds doubled
in a good decade from the beginning of 1960’s16. Skiing as a hobby increased rapidly and a ski
vacation in Lapland slowly became a permanent part of the yearly rhythm of a Finnish family.
From the beginning of 1960’s, tourism in Lapland can be clearly perceived as an industry because
at that time, the prerequisites to offer services on a large scale as an alternative for a trip to the
South began to be real17. The tourist cottages built by the state were replaced by private enterprises
whose quality standard and service equipment served the needs of a modern tourist. By the end of
1970’s, the quality of tourist services in Lapland was at least satisfactory in the most important
resorts. Accommodation capacity increased rapidly, and in addition to this, enterprises and different
kinds of communities built exclusive accommodation in the fell centres for their employees to use
and for the entertainment of their guests. The value of land at foot of the fells grew rapidly.
Construction firms bought land and built holiday apartments after the municipalities had taken care
of their responsibility of planning.
The oil crisis in 1970’s affected quite strongly on tourism in Lapland and construction investments
died down for few years. After the energy crisis at the beginning of 1980’s, tourism picked up all
over the country, also in Lapland. At the same time, it was becoming common to think that if
society supported the industry of tourism, the high regional unemployment would be alleviated18.
The appreciation of tourism as the industry of Lapland grew and great expectations of growth were
directed towards the industry. Prosperity that was brought along by favourable economic
development laid a foundation for expectations of growth. Holiday real estate investments of
enterprises and communities began to grow again in the fells of Lapland, where a rather special,
even from the international point of view, network of “barkless pine snag mansions” sprang up.
The investments of 1980’s came to a stop at the deep depression of the beginning of 1990’s and did
not starts again on a large scale until in the middle of the decade. At that time, it was realised that
the tourist needs more than a fully equipped barkless pine snag cottage at the foot of a fell. Fell
centres continued their development towards full service holiday resorts. At the same time, the
offerings of programme services liable to charge rapidly increased and a new wave in the tourism
development of Lapland began.


3.2 Regional structure has developed into tourist centre oriented

In 1990’s, tourism in Lapland has developed into tourist centre oriented and as a whole, Lapland is
a typical peripheral tourist region with several centres that attract and where Rovaniemi functions as
a regional centre. (Map 1). Regulated by attraction factors and limited by road network, the
regional structure of tourism has turned into fell centre oriented. Tourism that takes place via the
border stations has its own significance in the regional structure and it is very busy from time to
time. Operational spheres of influence formed by airports and tourist centres are the starting point of
the regional structure and the vicinity of airport is a noticeable competition factor. In addition to
actual tourist centres, Lapland has many individual tourist resorts and sights, the most popular of
which are located near important transit traffic roads. The rest of Lapland is practically outside of
the great tourist flows.
16
   Kaihon kotimaa. Lapin matkailun lappikuva. Niemi, T. Lapin yliopiston täydennyskoulutuskeskuksen julkaisuja 58. Lapin
yliopisto. Rovaniemi. 2000.
17
   Matkailu elinkeinona ja yrityksenä. Kinnunen, M. Teoksessa: Lappi (osa 1). Suuri, kaunis, pohjoinen maa.
18
   Lapin matkailun evoluutio alueellis-yhteiskunnallisena ilmiönä. Aho, S. Teoksessa: Matkailu alueellisena ilmiönä. Toim. Aho, S.,
Ilola, H. Oulun yliopisto. Pohjois-Suomen tutkimuslaitos. 1995.


                                                                                                                                16
Preservation areas and national parks and the hiking infrastructure that they offer are a major
attraction factor in tourism and from an international perspective, the preservation area network of
Lapland is exceptionally vast. The tourist use of the national parks and the preservation areas that
have service equipment has great amount of unutilised potential. With careful planning, tourism and
preservation objectives set for the regions can be fitted together. The National Board of Forestry
plays a central part in this.




                                                                                                 17
Map 1: The regional structure of tourism in Lapland 2002.




                                                            18
3.3 Sub-region based comparison
Most overnights in Fell Lapland

Over half a million overnights were registered in Fell Lapland in 2001 which is third of the
overnights of the whole Lapland (Figure 9). On the second place is Northern Lapland where the
statistics show approximately 400 000 overnights. Rovaniemi region is on the third place with
good 300 000 annual overnights. The development of the amount of overnights in the past few
years has been most rapid in Eastern Lapland where the trend forecast shows good growth
prospects19. In the sub-region of Kemi-Tornio and the Tornio Valley, overnights have not increased
since 1993. Registered overnights have decreased in the Tornio Valley.
               Registered overnights by regions 1993-2001 and trend forecast
        600


     Th 500
     ou
     sa 400
     nd
     ov
     er 300
     nig
     hts 200

        100


          0
               1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

          Rovaniemi          Northern Lapland
          FellLapland        EasternLapland
          Kemi-Tornio        Tornio Valley


Figure 9: Registered overnights by regions 1993-2001 and trend forecast.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)

The linear trend forecast is based on the calculation according to which development will continue
in the same manner as in the past years in average. In that case, the forecast may predict negative
development. However, one has to start from the idea that tourism development has to continue its
growing course in all regions of Lapland, and that the growth objectives will be realistically set in
every regional strategy, by paying attention to the growth prospects and the development resources
in use.
What comes to registered accommodation capacity, the highest average price is in Kemi-Tornio
where overnights cost on the average 42 euros in 2001. (Figure 10). The high average price of the
Kemi-Tornio region is explained with strong work tourism when most of the overnights are hotel
overnights. The second highest average price for overnights is in the Rovaniemi region. In other
sub-regions, the average price of overnights was poorer than in the whole of Lapland. The average
price is lowest in the Tornio Valley, less than 20 euros. In all sub-regions of Lapland, the average
price of overnights has increased between 1999-2001.




19
     Luosto belongs to the sub-region of Northern Lapland and is not counted in the numbers of Eastern Lapland.


                                                                                                                  19
             The average price of registered overnights by regions
     45
     40
     35

eu 30
ro 25
as(
€) 20
     15

     10
      5
      0
           Kemi-Tornio   Rovaniemi All Lapland   Fell Lapland Northern Lapl. Eastern Lapl. Tornio Valley

  1999        2000       2001


Figure 10: The average price of registered overnights by regions.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)


Rovaniemi is the most international of the regions

The internationalisation level of tourism is measured with the share of foreign overnights of total
registered overnights. From this point of view, Rovaniemi region is the most international region
and as much as 56 % of overnights were international in 2001. (Figure 11). Moreover, in Northern
Lapland, the growth is sought from the highly international market and the internationalisation level
of 2001 was 40 %. In Fell Lapland, where the internationalisation level is 28 %, the
internationalisation happens the most rapidly of all places.

The internationalisation level of tourism by region 1993-2001 and trend forecast
    60


    50

 %-
     40
 uni
 ts
    30


    20


    10


     0
            1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

          Rovaniemi             Northern Lapland
          Fell Lapland          Eastern Lapland
          Kemi-Tornio           Tornio Valley


Figure 11: The internationalisation level of tourism by region 1993-2001and the trend forecast.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)

In Eastern Lapland, the internationalisation level is the smallest and in 2001, the amount of foreign
overnights was merely 12,8 %. However, the trend forecast of the internationalisation level in


                                                                                                           20
Eastern Lapland promises the second most rapid growth immediately after Fell Lapland. Except for
Kemi-Tornio and the Tornio Valley, the amount of foreign overnights is clearly increasing all over
Lapland. The internationalisation level of tourism in Kemi-Tornio was practically the same in 2001
and in 1993. The development in the Tornio Valley has been exceptional compared to the whole
province since the amount of foreign overnights has decreased as much as 10 % in the time span
that has been studied.


Tourism share of leisure time is the greatest in Eastern Lapland

The share of leisure time overnights of total overnights is the greatest in Eastern Lapland where as a
many as 93 % of overnights occurred during leisure time travelling in 2001 (Figure 12). On the
other hand, the share of leisure time tourism is the smallest in Kemi-Tornio where only 40 % of
overnights were leisure time tourism and as much as 58 % were connected to work tourism in 2001.
However, the position of Kemi-Tornio as a work tourism oriented sub-region differs greatly from
other regions of Lapland.

The leisure time tourism share has increased as much as 16 % in the Rovaniemi region during 1995-
2001. Instead in the Tornio Valley, Fell Lapland and Northern Lapland, the share of leisure time
tourism has decreased when tourism connected with work has increased relatively quickly. For the
part of Northern Lapland and Fell Lapland, the increased meeting and congress tourism in the fell
centres might have something to do with this. On the scale of all Lapland, tourism has a strong
emphasis on leisure time and the difference with the capital area is great. The connecting of leisure
time and work tourism is a strong trend.

     Leisure time tourism share by region 1995-2001 and the trend forecast
    100

    90


 %- 80
 uni
 ts 70
    60

    50

    40

    30
          1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006
     Rovaniemi          Northern Lapland
     Fell Lapland       Eastern Lapland
     Kemi-Tornio        Tornio Valley

Figure 12: Leisure time tourism share by region 1995-2001 and the trend forecast.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)



3.2 Regional profiles

Kemi-Tornio and the Tornio River Valley

The location of the tourism region formed by the sub-region of Kemi-Tornio and the Tornio Valley
is excellent for traffic. Three main traffic routes of tourism go through Kemi, the first goes through



                                                                                                   21
Tornio to Sweden, the second to north via the E8-road, which is famous for sport fishing and rapids
scenery, and the third, which is called highway no.4, goes to Rovaniemi and to Central and Eastern
Lapland. The objective of the development project of the E8-road is tourist route status and in the
future, Northern Lights Highway is believed to signify a positive development push for all tourism
that is on the sphere of influence of the road. The tourism strength of the region is busy transit
traffic, the utilisation of which is one of the key questions of the development of tourism.
Approximately 70 % of all private cars that arrive in Finland through land arrive through the border
stations of Tornio and Aavasaksa, and traffic is busy also on other riverside border stations20. Sea
connection and harbours are still almost completely unutilised in tourism. Development projects
connected with peatland tourism and obstacle free tourism have been started. Due to strong industry
and central position in logistics, tourism and development possibilities of the industry in Kemi-
Tornio region differ greatly from the other regions in Lapland.

The landscape of Kemi-Tornio and the Tornio Valley is characterised by maritime scenery, river
scenery and low areas under cultivation. Here and there are also hill landscapes and Aavasaksa
reaches the height of 242 metres. The bogs and watersheds of the region are rich in avifauna which
creates the necessary conditions for bird watching. The Tornio River Valley and Aavasaksa have
been named national landscape (Photograph 1). The rich cultural heritage and expedition history of
the region offer material for the development of cultural tourism, and the grand rapids of the Tornio
River are beautiful sights. Kukkolankoski is the most well-known of the rapids. In the tourism
strategy of the Tornio Valley, partnership, wilderness and eco-tourism, event and cultural tourism,
obstacle free tourism and the utilisation of new technology in tourist services have been defined as
the focal point areas21. A unique attraction factor is the combination of national border and the Polar
Circle. For example, the Green Zone –golf course utilises the national border. The transit traffic of
the highway no.4, avifauna, cultural heritage, stone age and bogs create possibilities for the
development of tourism in the municipality of Tervola. Simo has beautiful and cultural historically
notable villages.




Photograph 1: Summer night in the Tornio River.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)

At the top of Kemi-Tornio overnights statistics is Kemi, the town “of snow and ice”, whose tourism
specialities are the famous snow castle and the tourist icebreaker, Sampo. Strong industry signifies

20
     Lumen ja suven maa. Suomen matkailumaantiede. Vuoristo K-V, Vesterinen N. WSOY. Helsinki. 2001.
21
     Tornionlaakson matkailustrategia 2006. Tornionlaakson Napapiiri. Pellon ja Ylitornion kunnat.


                                                                                                       22
busy commuting and offers possibilities not only for the development of meeting and congress
tourism but for incentive tourism. Kemi is a member of the Winter Cities –world organisation
which attempts to develop tourist events, activities, research and conferences connected with
winter, snow and ice.

Tornio, located at the mouth of the Tornio River, forms an international twin town with the Swedish
town, Haparanda. The twin town has busy transit traffic. Shopping tourism cross the border has
traditionally been a speciality of the bottom of the northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia. Fishing,
which forms an attractive theme of tourism, has good prerequisites on the sea area, at the mouth of
the Kemi River, in the Tornio-Muonio River, Simo River and on the vast lake district of the Tornio
Valley. The objective of Perämerenkaari –co-operation together with Sweden is to develop into the
most significant fishing centre of Europe. The key question in the development of fishing tourism of
rivers is to fit the salmon fishing, which takes place at the sea, together with the recreational fishing
from rivers. This needs to be done in order to let the fish get into upstream to be caught. The fishing
of salmon from rivers has a wider significance for the summer tourism of Lapland and for the
development of the vitality of riversides. Therefore, one has to be actively involved in shifting the
focal point of salmon fishing to tourist and recreational fishing that takes place on the river. In
addition to fishing, the timber floating tradition of the rivers has a notable significance value from
the point of view of tourism.


The Rovaniemi region

Rovaniemi is the centre of tourism in Lapland because of its location and excellent traffic
connections. As the capital of Lapland, Rovaniemi serves tourists with diverse culture offerings and
basic urban services along with actual tourist services. The history of Rovaniemi is closely
connected with the settlement history and the development of social life of the whole Lapland.

Rovaniemi is one of the most popular and international tourist cities of Finland. Attraction has a
close connection to the utilisation of the exotic of the Polar Circle and the image of Christmas22.
Only for a few decades ago, Rovaniemi was just another halting-place among many for those
travelling to northern fells and Nordkapp. However, even in those days, the flow of tourists halted
for at least for a moment near the Polar Circle on the Rural Commune of Rovaniemi. Afterwards,
this geographically interesting location has been actively utilised by connecting it to the exotic of
Christmas and Santa Claus (Photograph 2). Outstanding investments have been realised alongside
with the highway oriented service station and nutrition services. The objective of the investments
has been a joint magic circle of Christmas. Measured with sales, the most noteworthy resort after
the Santa Claus’ Village is Santapark which aspires for better profitability than before with its new
business concept. It is strategically important for the whole Rovaniemi region to actively develop
the content of Christmas with the starting points of genuineness and Finnishness complemented
with the own Christmas culture of the main customer groups.

Arktikum and the University of Lapland with their international visitors are a firm part of tourism in
Rovaniemi. The town scenery is enlivened with the outstanding river views of the Ounas River and
the Kemi River. The services of programme service enterprises fulfil even the most extraordinary
needs of tourists. Charter –activity and incentive tourism is intense. Ounasvaara offers good
opportunities for tourism based on nature and active interests. Moreover, a service centre that
emphasises sports activities and well-being is developing in the area.


22
     Lumen ja suven maa. Suomen matkailumaantiede. Vuoristo K-V, Vesterinen N. WSOY. Helsinki. 2001.


                                                                                                       23
There are many single sights on the side of the rural commune and smaller centres of tourist
services mainly near the most important roads. The most important tourist resort in Ranua is a very
successful Ranua Wildlife Park which is popular among school groups and families in particular.
The tourist significance of the peatland reserve of Litokaira in Ranua is increasing, especially from
the point of view of wilderness wandering, because of Life –project.




Photograph 2: Santa Claus and his reindeers are met in the Polar Circle.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)



Eastern Lapland

Kemijärvi is the centre of the population and basic services of Eastern Lapland. At the same time, it
is the northernmost town in Finland. The most important entity of tourism in Eastern Lapland
consists of the fells Luosto and Pyhä which nowadays form the Pyhä-Luosto – tourism area.
According to the vision of the Pyhä-Luosto –strategy, Pyhä-Luosto is among the five leading
international tourist centres of Finland in 2006. Tourist services that are centred on the pedestrian
villages of two fells and based on the special features of the surrounding nature form a unique entity
in Lapland. The customers of Pyhä-Luosto value the genuineness of the area, way of service and
operation based on sustainable development23. According to the vision, Pyhä-Luosto is the quality
leader of the tourist centres in Lapland. The business of tourist enterprises is professional and
profitable. Many new investments that are in accordance with the Pyhä-Luosto strategy and based
on a regional plan of an international level are made in the area.24.

The fell Pyhä that has developed on the edge of the Pyhätunturi National Park is one of the most
valued downhill skiing resorts in Finland and it is particularly popular among the downhill skiers
who like challenging slopes. What is more, the slope and ski product of Pyhä is highly competitive.
Nature, diverse possibilities for activities and events have brought along summer demand to Pyhä.
Events arranged in traditional environment utilise watershed, clean water, clear ice and arctic light.
The events in a ravine in Pyhä in nature’s own “amphitheatre” have proved attractive. It is possible

23
   Luosto 2006. Kehittämis- ja investointiohjelma kaudelle 2000-2006. Sodankylän kunta, Lapin TE-keskus/työvoimaosasto, Oy
Viisikko-Femman Ab. Lokakuu 1999.
24
   Pyhä-Luosto –strategia 2006.
* Luosto sijaitsee Sodankylän kunnassa ja Pohjois-Lapin seutukunnassa.


                                                                                                                             24
to develop Lake Pyhäjärvi into a top level international lake fly fishing resort, and the golf course
that is planned in the Suvanto village would increase the diversity of the area.

Characteristic of Luosto* are fine building stock based on barkless pine snag and natural stone,
international customers, Europe’s only amethyst mine open for tourists, northern lights and diverse
programme services, a good example of which is the Christmas product. From the skiing and
downhill skiing products of Luosto, particularly cross-country skiing has received recognition.
Engine enterprises have brought along new faith in growth prospects and round-the-year activity.

In summary, the objective of Pyhä-Luosto is to differ from other resorts in Lapland by 2006,
particularly with the following attraction factors: the atmosphere and services of two fells
complementing each other, nature activities located in the middle ground of the fells, the Pyhä-
Luosto National Park which is easily attainable and merchandised in an exemplary manner, the
amethyst mine as well as established themes and events. The slope product of Pyhä-Luosto is
superior for active skiers in Finland and Pyhä-Luosto ski product (slopes and tracks) on the whole is
competitive with the big domestic ski centres. When the regional plan of an international level is
realised, it renders possible good quality and functionality in the development of the infrastructure
of the area.

Furthermore, traditional ski centres of Eastern Lapland are the fells Suomutunturi and Sallatunturi.
For the part of Suomutunturi, the problem is the lack of distinct leadership responsibility but there is
potential for development. Sallatunturi is a middle-sized ski centre on Finnish scale and the
development has been positive in the past few years. The location in the vicinity of a border
crossing point is advantageous for Salla and Eastern Lapland. Korvatunturi Fell is known as the
home fell of Santa Claus. Posio has had its share of publicity through the television series Suuri
Seikkailu, and the municipality strongly believes in the possibilities of development of eco-tourism.
Pentikmäki is a popular visiting place and the Korouoma gorge valley is a magnificent nature sight.
(Photograph 3). Over half of the Oulanka National Park is situated in the municipality of Salla and
the park is one of the most notable attraction factors of the eco-tourism of Eastern Lapland.
Important factors for Salla, Suomu and Posio are co-operation on the direction of Kuusamo and
Ruka, for example, within the framework of the regional centre co-operation of Northeastern
Finland as well as the utilisation of Kuusamo airport.




Photograph 3: MagnificentKorouoma is perfect for rope climbing.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)


                                                                                                     25
The vast wilderness areas in the municipalities of Savukoski and Salla in Eastern Finland form their
own fascinating entity. Wilderness offers possibilities, for example, for long-term hiking and an
alternative for those seeking for absolute peace. What is more, Eastern Lapland has chances for the
development of fishing tourism.


Northern Lapland

The fells and wilderness of Northern Lapland opened for tourism after the Arctic Ocean Road was
completed in 1933. Due to that, Petsamo and Ivalo became also internationally known summer
tourist resorts. In addition to that, the fells of the region are excellent for skiing in the winter and
hiking in the summer. The colourful Sami culture and traditions of gold panning give their own
noteworthy colour to the tourism of Northern Lapland.

Number one tourist resort in Northern Lapland is Saariselkä which is not only a downhill skiing
centre but especially popular among cross-country skiers and hikers (Photograph 4). Moreover,
diversity is the basis for the popularity of Saariselkä. The natural environment offers many nature
sights and Saariselkä is also a popular place for meetings and congresses. The leading principles for
the future of Saariselkä are controlled growth, strengthening of the product image and
internationalisation. Lively village culture is a part of the vision. Saariselkä wants to invest in the
attention to environmental issues in particular. The vision of Saariselkä in 2020 is to be the leading
holiday resort of arctic nature services, exercise and well-being in Europe. The possibilities are
clean and unique nature, exotic location at the far edge of Europe as well as good standards of basic
services and a joint desire to develop25.

Other popular visiting places in Northern Lapland are, for example, Tankavaara Gold Village and
the Sami Museum Siida in Inari. The areas of Kiilopää and Kakslauttanen have a long and colourful
tourism history. Furthermore, the attraction of Northern Lapland is based on individual resorts that
are connected with local history and cultural heritage, such as the wilderness church at lake
Pielpajärvi and numerous resorts connected with war history. What is more, several events such as
the Kaamosjazz festival have become quite popular. In the municipality of Utsjoki, tourism is
concentrated on the summer and is based on arctic nature, the Sami and border culture and the
vicinity of the Arctic Ocean and the Teno River.




25
  Saariselkä 2020. Arktisten luontopalvelujen, liikunnan ja hyvinvoinnin lomakeskus. Saariselän yleiskaavan ja toiminnallisen
kehittämisen suunnitelma. 30.6.2000. Matkailun Kehitys Lappi Oy.


                                                                                                                          26
Photograph 4: Restaurant Huippu at Kaunispäätunturi fell – 437 m above the sea level.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)

The UKK National Park is one of the busiest national parks in Finland. In 2000, 150 000 visitors
were registered at the UKK National Park. For now, Lake Inarinjäri is almost an unutilised
attraction resource. It constitutes an arctic lake district that is even internationally unique. In
addition to Lake Inarinjärvi, the reservoirs of Porttipahta and Lokka are attractive from the point of
view of fishing in particular. The most legendary resort of river fishing is the Teno River, in
addition to which other rivers and numerous small brooks of Northern Lapland attract fly-fishers to
hunt for trouts and graylings. The arctic charr from fell lakes attracts ice fishermen in the spring.
The objective of the development of tourism in Northern Lapland is to become the leading provider
of tourist experiences based on clean nature and the Sami culture in the arctic region. It is perceived
that there are good chances for thematic routes outside the fell centres. Thus, the nature and culture
offerings of the region can be put together into routes and the small resorts can be part of the
whole.26.


Fell Lapland

The development of Fell Lapland has been rapid since the Second World War. The western body of
the region is formed by the range of fells of Pallas-Ounastunturi and the range of fells of Ylläs-
Levitunturi that rises in the south. Differences in altitude are very great considering the
surroundings and from place to place they reach altitudes of over half a kilometre. The region of the
Western Fell Lapland has magnificent landscape and one of the first national parks of Finland was
founded on Pallas as early as 1930. Most of the fells in Finland and all of the great fells are located
on the region of Fell Lapland. There are approximately 2000 kilometres of connected and official
snow mobiles tracks that connect with the snow mobile tracks of Sweden and Norway.

In the present, tourism in Fell Lapland is known particularly for the two great tourist centres, Levi
and Ylläs. In addition to these, the area of fells Pallas and Olos has a centre of tourist services
which includes Hotel Pallastunturi, the national park information centre, the village of Raattama,
Lake Jerisjärvi and the skiing resort of the Olostunturi fell. The tourism offerings of Yllästunturi fell

26
     Pohjois-Lappi 2006. Aluekehitysohjelma vuosille 2000-2006. Pohjois-Lapin alueyhteistyön kuntayhtymä. 1999.


                                                                                                                  27
are concentrated on the north side of Yllästunturi fell in Äkäslompolo and on the other hand, on the
south side of the fell in Lake Ylläsjärvi. The tourist centres that are located on different sides of 718
metres high fell are operationally in close contact and the aim of the connecting road project of the
two centres is to be completed in 2006. After the connecting road is completed, the tourist route
“Road of fells” leads from Lake Ylläsjärvi to Hetta and along the route one can find almost all the
enterprises of Fell Lapland and the most splendid nature sights. The accommodation capacity of
Ylläs has rapidly increased and at the same time, services have become more specialised. The
image is based on downhill skiing and cross-country skiing and in Ylläs, one can also find, for
example, the longest slope in Finland and a vast track network for cross-country skiing. The starting
points of attraction are diverse nature exercise services and culture offerings based on local
tradition27. The vision is to become internationalised and to develop into a round-the-year resort by
investing in culture offerings and summer activities28. The national park project of Ylläs-
Pallastunturi fells is under discussion and the plan is to found a park in 2004. A development
project connected with the tourist utilisation of Suur-Teuravuoma peatland has been started.

The tourist centre of Levi is located in an excellent place in the vicinity of Kittilä airport along the
road leading from Rovaniemi to Muonio and onwards to the arm of Finland. The range of fells that
starts from Ylläs continues all the way to Levi ending in 531 metres high Levitunturi fell which has
been efficiently taken into tourist use. The strengths of Levi are great accommodation capacity,
numerous slopes and diversity of tourist services as in Saariselkä. In autumn 1999, a slope that
fulfilled the requirements of the Alpine Ski World Cup was opened and in winter 2000, the first
gondollift in Finland was taken into use. After the fashion of other tourist resorts, Levi has a vast
network of snow mobile, skiing and hiking tracks. At the moment, the third development plan in
succession is being drawn up in Levi.

A regional entity, where hiking and actual tourism touch each other, has developed in the area of
the arm of Finland in the north-western parts of Fell Lapland. An actual tourist centre has not been
developed. The attraction is based on long skiing season, ruska which means colourful time in
autumn, nature resorts and central position in the region of North Calotte. The tranquillity of the
region brings significant added value to the whole tourist image of Fell Lapland. From the
perspective of hiking, the area is unique in Finnish conditions since the differences in altitude are
great and most of the area consists of treeless oroarctic vegetation. The area has a relatively dense
network of wilderness huts and reserved huts and the wilderness areas are popular among the hikers
who want challenges. The rivers and brooks are abundant with fish (Photograph 5). Hetta is one of
the oldest tourist resorts in Lapland. Kiela Naturium centre in Muonio includes interactive
multimedia unit and an aquarium of fish from the wild.
During the past decades, a tourist centre has developed by the road side in Kilpisjärvi to serve both
the busy transit traffic caused by the border crossing point and hikers who are heading for the
nearby areas. The development of overnights has been rapid in Kilpisjärvi and the summer tourism
has been strong compared with other places in Lapland. Malla Nature Reserve is known for unique
fell vegetation and the Kilpisjärvi Biological Station of the University of Helsinki is situated in
Kilpisjärvi. Saana fell rises to a height of 556 metres above Kilpisjärvi and 1029 metres above the
sea level. The Fell Lapland Nature Centre is located in the village of Hetta in Enontekiö.




27
   Ylläs on ykkönen. Ylläksen matkailun ja maankäytön kehittäminen lyhyellä ja pitkällä aikavälillä vuoteen 2010 asti. Matkailun
Kehitys Lappi Oy. 1998.
28
   Ylläs on ykkönen –työpaja. Äkäshotelli 12.2.2002. Suomen Matkailun Kehitys Oy.


                                                                                                                             28
Photograph 5: Rivers in the arm of Finland offer catch for fly-fishers.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)




                                                                          29
4 STRATEGY TO YEAR 2006
4.1 Megatrends

Economy and politics

The development of tourism is closely connected to the development of social life and the great
changes that take place in the operation environment. The economic conditions reflect quickly in
the tourism demand and the demand is very flexible concerning the funds in hand and the cost of
supply. The increase of tourist arrivals of international air traffic is estimated to be 4 % per year and
despite slight fluctuations, tourism is perceived as an industry of fairly stable growth.

In social development, the changes in economy and politics go hand in hand. Within the euro area,
the ability to compare prices has improved and at the same time, the tourist has been freed from the
transaction costs and exchange rate risks. Tourism in Finland has been estimated to profit from
common currency rather than have drawbacks. It is crucial how the euro establishes its position as a
part of the world economy, since changes in the exchange rates immediately influence the price of
tourism that is directed to Lapland from outside the euro area. For example, if the euro is strong
compared to the yen, from the point of view of Japanese tourists, the tourism offerings are more
expensive than when the euro was weak. In addition to exchange rates, the inflation of the euro area
instead of the Finnish mark and the development of interest level that reflects in the cost of
investments affect tourism in Finland.

The size of the units that produce tourist services has grown strongly. The centralisation of tourist
agency services has been particularly strong but fusion in air traffic is also common. It is desirable
that foreign investors are interested in Lapland since this would bring private foreign capital for the
development of tourism in Lapland. In addition to hotel services, tourism is monitored by transport
operators, and airline companies are continuously searching possibilities for new profitable routes.
Air traffic is going through worldwide changes and as the supply increases the competition in the
industry is stepping up also on the Finnish market. In the tourism air traffic, customers value direct
connections from departure country to the destination. Direct connections in tourism are all the
more important competition factor in tourism.

From an international perspective, Finnish taxation is still strict and employer’s contributions are
high. Finland is an expensive tourist country. Within the Union, particularly commodity taxation is
pressured into harmonisation which would mean tax reductions in several product groups in the
case of Finland. However, there are no tax reductions in sight in fuel taxation, for example. Instead
of commodity taxation, the expensiveness of manpower is probably a greater challenge considering
the competitiveness of Finnish tourism industry. Since tourism is a labour dominated industry
sector, large expenses transfer to the prices of services for the tourist to pay. In Lapland, the
enterprises participate in an experiment in which the enterprise is freed from the social security
contributions for a fixed time. As a work dominated industry, tourism profits tremendously from the
experiment. In addition to high employer’s contributions, the value added taxation in Finland is
rather strict. For example, the VAT of food service is 22 % in Finland, whereas in Spain the
corresponding tax is 7 % and only 6 % in Holland29. The legislation that controls accommodation
and nutrition industry is getting more strict and in programme services, the statutes are only in the
process of forming.



29
    Modernista postmoderniin. Matkailun toimintaympäristön muutos lähitulevaisuudessa. Kauppa- ja teollisuusministeriön
tutkimuksia ja raportteja 25/2001. Samuli Leveälahti.


                                                                                                                    30
Security political stability is the crucial prerequisite of tourism30 and the events in New York on
September 11th 2001 added to the value of security issues. International terrorism and the measures
connected to the prevention of it has affected strongly on tourism which has been seen, for example,
as tightening security measures at airports. The Schengen treaty has increased the freedom of
movement of people within the Union, whereas the border formalities on the outer borders of the
Union have been tightened. Finland and Lapland have been deemed safe tourist areas in an
international comparison. There are several projects in Lapland that deal with the improvement of
the security of tourism and the authorities make regular inspections concerning security. In the
latest account of the security of the tourist centres in Lapland, the security of tourist centres was
deemed very good31.

Political stability and the development of social life in Russia is an important issue for tourism in
Lapland. Simply in the Murmansk region, there is a market of million people and as the wealth
accumulates, the growth prospects of tourism from Russia to Lapland are great. The opening of the
border station of Salla creates good opportunities for the growth of tourism between Finland and
Russia, and the construction projects connected with the utilisation of energy and raw material
resources of the Kola Peninsula increase the work traffic through Lapland. In addition to projects in
Russia, the investments connected with the utilisation of the northern energy resources of Norway
create opportunities for the tourism industry and retail in Lapland by increasing, among other
things, transit traffic. Furthermore, the development of new markets, for example, in China opens
up markets of huge size. Thus, the challenge is to get the new markets interested in Finland and
Lapland as a tourist resort. The negotiations of the European Union over the furthering of foreign
tourism of the Chinese population are estimated to be completed in February 2003. The attempt is
to have a so-called ADS agreement between China and the EU so that Chinese recreational groups
will get a tourist visa to the EU countries.


Socio-cultural changes

In several industrialised western countries, the population growth is either on the verge of halting or
is developing a downward trend. At the same time, the age structure faces great changes and the
amount of people over 50 years increases strongly. The wealthy “seniors” that are in much better
shape than before are a growing customer group. Along with demographic factors, the changes in
the values and attitudes of people, which are concretely visible in the lifestyles of individuals and
even whole nations, have a tremendous effect on tourism. There are so-called “old” and “new”
tourists (Table 3)32. It is especially important to follow closely the change trends in the most
important departure countries for Lapland and to adjust the service production to suit the changing
and possibly completely new needs.

Nowadays, the destination is one of the biggest factors that influence the decision to travel, whereas
in the traditional sun holidays, the tourist resort did not have that great an importance in the past
decades. Experiences, exoticness and activity appeal to the younger tourist segments. In addition,
genuine local culture is all the more valued. In this case, it should be thought whether or not the fell
centres of Lapland want to have a network of international fast-food chains in their area or will the
needs of the tourists be satisfied with traditional recipes of Lapland and with the efforts of local
entrepreneurs. Moreover, smaller and more tranquil resorts are needed in order to answer to the
demand of tourists alongside with the big tourist centres that represent “mass tourism” in the scale

30
   Corporate Strategy for Tourism. First Edition. Tribe, J. 1997. International Thomson Business Press.
31
   Matkailukeskusten turvallisuusselvitys Lapin läänissä vuonna 2002. Lapin lääninhallitus.
32
   Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies. Poon, A. 1993. CAB International.


                                                                                                          31
of Lapland. For example, urbanisation as a continuous trend has greatly changed the holiday
expectations of people.

“New tourism” is characterised by plurality and the tourist entrepreneur is more often faced with
actual choices. How to relate, for example, to cultural and sexual minorities. The morality, attitudes
and set of values of business will be all the more important factors in tourism in the future.


                                “Old tourists”                      “New tourists”
 The Tourists          Homogenous, predictable             Spontaneous, unpredictable, hybrid
                       Security in numbers                 Want to be different from the crowd
                       Everything prepaid, pre-arranged    Want to be in control
 Motivations           Travel is a novelty                 Travel is a chore
                       Destination did not matter          Destination is travel’s raison d’ etre
                       Quality of services not important   Quality, value for money a premium
                       Search for the sun                  Experience something different
                       Escape from home and work           Vacation as an extension of life
                       Just to show that you have been     “Just for the fun of it”
 Attitudes             Here today, gone tomorrow           See and enjoy but do not destroy
                       West is best                        Appreciation for the different
                       Superiority                         Understanding, better informed
                       Impose western values on hosts      Know how to behave
 Interests             Lie in the sun                      Get up and get active
                       Get sunburnt                        Keep clothes on
                       Like attractions                    Like sports
                       No special interests                Special interests
                       Eat in hotel dining room            Try out the local fare

Table 3: ”Old” and ”new” tourists.
(Poon, 1993)



The development of technology

The rapid development and applications of information technology change the traditional means of
action of tourism in many ways. New technology improves the effectiveness of production and
makes the communication faster and easier. From the point of view of the customer, these changes
improve the quality of services and may even signify a rise, spreading and establishment of new
concepts of service in tourism industry33. As an example of development, is the information and
reservation systems of tourism that are built in the global network. The utilisation of new
technology is possible not only in marketing and sales but also in product development.

Hotels, restaurants and programme service enterprises have to get equipped with modern devices of
information technology in order to offer their customers a possibility to read their email among
other things. Modern facilities of information technology are the prerequisite for the combining of
work and leisure as well as telecommuting, which is one of the challenges of the development of
tourism and living in the remote districts. The utilisation of technology demands special skills from
tourism manpower and the challenge needs to be answered to by organising education. However,
not all the customers use the newest applications of information technology, and in the future, the
traditional brochures and tourist guides of tourism are still needed.

As on-board-computers and mobile internet become more common, the possibilities to
communicate tourism offerings in real time increase. In the future, the screen of the on-board-
computer may give great amount of information on the tourist services on the route and their
33
     Tourism, Technology and Competitive Strategies. Poon, A. 1993. CAB International.


                                                                                                    32
availability. One can make a reservation and even pay for the service with a cell phone. In the
suburban traffic of the capital area, one can pay the fare with a text message even now. The
development of technology is visible also in production methods. For example, in nutrition services,
the usage of self-service applications have increased which has signified the increase in the
productivity of manpower. The development of technology has great effect on movement and
measured with the time that travelling demands, world has shrank to a fraction in a couple of
centuries. The high-speed bullet trains signify an even more faster land connection between places
and this robs passengers from the airline companies, especially between the central European cities.
From the point of view of tourism of Lapland, the accessibility is a crucial competition factor and
air traffic is in an important position. Railways are used mainly by domestic tourists and foreign
tourists who travel to Lapland via Helsinki. In that case, railway is a rather noteworthy alternative
for air traffic. In Lapland round-trip, a private car is the best choice because of poor public transport
connections, and in this era of modern air-conditioned cars, the driving and travelling convenience
is very different than a few decades ago.


Environment and nature preservation
The social visibility of environmental views has increased remarkably since the 1960’s. Sustainable
development refers to development in which the future generations have at least equal living
conditions and natural resources in their disposal than the population living now. The World
Tourism Organisation, WTO, has defined sustainable tourism development in the following way34:
”In sustainable tourism development, the needs of the present tourists and resorts will be met and
the possibilities for the future will be ensured. The attraction factors and resources of tourism are
taken care of in such a way that culture, ecology and diversity of nature do not suffer from it ”.




Photograph 6: The delicate nature of Lapland requires taking environment into account.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)

The tourism of Lapland is based on nature and taking the environment into account in an extensive
manner is necessary in the development of tourism (Photograph 6). In tourism, environmental
effects are caused by service equipment, tourism traffic and activities. A tourist enterprise should
view the costs caused by taking environment into account as investments. In the long run, actions
according to sustainable development signify savings in costs when, for example, the energy and
34
     Agenda 21 for The Travel and Tourism Industry. World tourism Organisation. 1995. Madrid.


                                                                                                      33
material flow needed in production are minimised and waste is recycled. Environmental ethical
actions are becoming all the more important competition factors and the modern tourists vote for
sustainability with their actions. The so-called eco-tourism is a trend that is gaining strength. The
vast wilderness, silence, tranquillity, vacant areas and the vastness of the landscape will become
golden attraction factors and alternatives for those who do not want to go to mass tourist resorts.
More intensive dialogue is needed also outside the actual preservation areas in order to increase the
diverse use of forests and waters. In addition to natural environment, tourists’ interest in original
and cultural-historically notable constructed environment in increasing. Due to this, it is important
to take care of the quality of constructed environment and cultural landscapes. This not only
increases the comfort of local population but also signifies the rise of appealing landscapes and
milieus of tourism.
Carrying capacity refers to the limit of maximum tourist use without causing impermanent damage
to the environment, local community or tourists. Carrying capacity depends on the characteristics of
the tourist region and the exceeding of it has caused, for instance, polluted beaches, landscapes
damaged by erosion, slum development, congestion, noise, traffic jams and unattractive
architectonic solutions35.


4.2 Starting points of development

Internationalisation and accessibility

Tourism in Lapland is becoming internationalised. Market share is being increased in domestic
market but in the long run, growing customer flows come from abroad. In addition to strong market
areas, the development of potential market, such as in China, is being followed. In the close market
areas, there are signs of growth in the demand coming from Russia and Norway. Furthermore, the
opening of the border station in Salla creates growth possibilities for the tourism industry of Eastern
Lapland in particular. Market in Sweden is particularly important for the enterprises that operate
close to the western border. The special needs of international customers are considered in product
development and the visibility of Lapland is increased remarkably with marketing in the departure
countries.

Market oriented internalisation is strongly supported and foreign tour operators and other interest
groups are brought to Lapland for visit. Lapland is impressively on display in international
exhibitions. Particularly, the know how of international sales and distribution, which also supports
the small enterprises’ access to foreign market, is increased. Lapland is an active participant in the
international seminars and conferences of tourism research.

Internationalisation and the improvement of accessibility of Lapland go hand in hand. The starting
point is the overall functionality of traffic systems and the logistic compatibility of different means
of travelling. Development measures have to concern air traffic, railways, highway traffic as well as
traffic at sea and inland water transport.


Tourist centres as the engines of the regions

Tourism in Lapland is developed in a region oriented manner by establishing development work for
the natural strengths, characteristics and possibilities of each region. The distinct position of tourist

35
  Socio-cultural and Environmental Aspects of International Tourism. Edgell, D.L. 1992. Teoksessa: Van Lier, H.N., Taylor, P.D.
1993. (toim.). New Challenges in Recreation and Tourism Planning. Elsevier Publications.


                                                                                                                            34
centres as engines is recognised and the investments of the centres as well as the development of
operation environment should be secured also in the future. A tourist centre-led way of thinking
does not exclude the areas outside the centres, where tourist enterprises that are successful and
important for the province, operate. Areas outside the centres offer a tranquil and natural alternative
for big centres and thus, increase the diversity of tourism offerings in Lapland. Nevertheless, public
support channels first and foremost through tourist centres and tourist concentrations in order to
cause sufficient effect. In that case, there are five regional entities that are the objects of intensive
public financing in the province: 1) the entity formed by the fells Levi, Ylläs, Olos and
Pallastunturi, 2) the area of Saariselkä, 3) the area of the fells Pyhä-Luosto, 4) Rovaniemi and 5)
Kemi and Tornio with the nearby areas. The municipalities of Salla and Posio are an integral part of
the development of tourism in Lapland. Co-operation towards Northern Ostrobothnia to the
direction of Ruka fell, for example, within the framework of the regional centre co-operation of
Northeastern Finland is important for these municipalities. Salla is a tourist centre which is in
strong investment and growth phase and in which the significance of the Russians and the border is
great. The Eastern Finland –work group appointed by Ministry of the Interior examines extensively
the development of Eastern Lapland along with tourism. The report will be completed during the
late winter 2003.

The level of tourist centres is a remarkable means of co-operation for enterprises. Tourist centres
reach the critical mass important for the operation, after which the development starts to feed itself
and renders possible the specialisation of services and functions. Through this, an efficient division
of labour is made possible among the enterprises. Everyone does not need to do everything and
thus, the entrepreneurs can focus on their special skills. From the point of view of the tourist, tourist
centre is a diverse and compact resort which is easy to market. Investments have concentrated very
strongly on centres, and the development of operation environment of the capital that is already
invested is an important issue.

In the tourist centre-led means of development, the challenge is to integrate the surrounding areas
into the growth of centres. In that case, those projects that search for co-operation models and
develop purchase networks between the tourist centres and entrepreneurs, which operate in the
surrounding areas, are supported. Through the networks, the areas profit from the growing customer
flow of the centres which render possible the cost-effective marketing of the services that are on the
area of influence of the centres. The trend is that all the more customers of the tourist centres make
short-term trips to the resorts in the surrounding area. Route networks and theme-oriented tourism
make the co-operation concretely possible. Different kinds of theme tourism and trips from tourist
centres is directed to a wide area to the resorts networking with tourist centres.

The support of profiling is closely connected to the region and tourism oriented way of thinking. In
that case, the competition would not be directed at exactly the same customers. Thus, the overall
tourism offerings of the province diversify as the areas have their own specific products and
customers. The needs of the consumers are developing into more and more diverse and because of
this, the next few years will face a demand for quite unique services directed at a narrow customer
segment. Tourist centres move masses and surrounding areas offer peace and genuine lifestyle.
Attraction factors and strengths are very different so the committed and loyal co-operation between
centres and surrounding areas is the resource of all Lapland. In the increasing of summer tourism,
the areas outside the centre have an especially great significance because summer tourism in
Lapland is more nature-based than winter tourism and it seeks its way out of the centres.




                                                                                                      35
Co-ordination of project action and the principles of public support

Interaction and co-ordination are increased in tourism projects. In this way, overlapping work is
avoided and synergy benefits can be created between projects. It is not practical to start many
similar and competing projects with public support. Entrepreneur oriented interests and needs are
the basis of project action. Furthermore, it is important to focus all the more clearly on creating
permanent course of action instead of facing the ceasing of action when the project funding stops.
Regional Council of Lapland shares the role of the co-ordinator with the tourism team of the
financiers, in which financing authorities co-operate in the stage of project handling. Project
handlers request a statement from the team especially on sizeable projects. Information on projects
should be available for everyone in the internet and regular meetings among projects are arranged in
order to increase interaction.

Lapland Tourism Strategy controls project action in order to produce entities with sufficiently
strong effects. A through account work is to be required in projects. The accounts should show
entrepreneurs’ commitment to projects, interaction with other development measures and to
unambiguously explain the results and objectives of the action to beneficiaries. The interaction of
the industry and authorities is regular in project action and the development work is realised in a
theme-based way by answering to the needs and challenges set by markets. Interaction is
particularly intensive between projects similar to each other. Top projects, which are realised on the
level of the whole province, and regional action are being fitted together in order to avoid
overlapping work. Projects that are smaller in size complement the large entities of the level of
province and region. Project action and public support should not distort competition.


Round-the year tourism

Round-the-year tourism is the objective of tourism development since all-year and permanent jobs
can be created only through round-the-year demand which is the advantage of both the employer
and the employee. For the enterprise, permanent employment signifies a more committed employee
and thus, the quality standard of services and products improves. Moreover, enterprises are willing
to invest in a permanent employee by offering, for example, education that improves the skills and
the know how. In addition, the round-the-year tourism slows down the turnover of manpower in
enterprises and thus, the recruiting demands less time. Periodic and temporary employment suit
some of the tourism employees but most of them aim for permanent and round-the-year
employment. Permanent job makes it possible to settle and start a family on the place. This way
municipalities get tax revenue and new inhabitants and thus, a positive circle begins.

Although round-the-year tourism is a crucial objective, the main emphasis of the development
measures is still on the winter season when the enterprises obtain a high outcome. Along with
winter, development resources are directed in active summer campaigning and in the product
development of the summer season. The long range objective is to make the summer of Lapland
comparable with the winter season. Prerequisites for this exist. Furthermore, the measures taken in
order to enliven spring and autumn demand are important. In developing the summer, merely the
tourist centre-led way of development is not sufficient but an extensive branding of nature interests
outside the centres is needed. Summer tourism in Lapland is not as centre oriented as winter
tourism. The summer tourist wants to travel, explore and find, whereas the winter tourist enjoys
staying in one place and seeks for entertainment. The significance of cottage construction and
cottaging is great because this brings more round-the-year users for services.




                                                                                                   36
Events have a great importance in increasing round-the-year tourism (Photograph 7). Events attract
those people in the area who would not otherwise arrive. Networking of events and the continuous
development of content is important in order to produce sufficiently extensive and attractive entities
considering, for example, the summer round-trips. In the next few years, the Finnish Tourist Board
(MEK) will invest strongly in summer marketing by searching for an attractive image, for example,
from water, space and air along with events.




Photograph 7: The amphitheatre of Pyhätunturi fell.
(Lapin Markkinointi Oy / Lapland Gallery)

In the point of view of summer tourism directed in Lapland, there are many possibilities in fishing.
Examples of this are the great interest in the Tornio-Muonio River caused by few exceptionally
good salmon summers and the continuously high visitor rates in the Teno River. When talking
about the fishing hobby of tourists one should distinguish those, whose actual interest is fishing
from those to whom fishing is only a small part of the trip. When it comes to those, whose actual
interest is fishing, fishing tourism is the right term. In this case, the activities connected with fishing
are the main reason for the trip and the tourist resort is chosen on the basis of the conditions it offers
for fishing. Thus, fishing can be sold to a tourist as a part of an extensive holiday package or as a
theme holiday.

Streaming waters, lake districts and sea districts on the bottom of the northern part of the Gulf of
Bothnia offer possibilities for fishing in Lapland. All these have good prerequisites for the growth
of tourism based on fishing. If the fish steps will be built in the Kemi-Ounas River and the proposed
salmon rise scenario will be realised, good opportunities for tourism industry to develop products
that serve fishing tourists will be created in all the Kemi-Ounas River area and all the way to the
Lake Ounasjärvi in Enontekiö. The increase in the fishing tourism in the summer would
considerably increase the round-the-year tourism demand in Lapland. Moreover, fishing tourism
might bring the needed development push for tourism in the municipalities of Tervola, Keminmaa
and Simo. In addition to the Kemi-Ounas River, the important issues in regards of the fishing
tourism of streaming waters are the securing of salmon stocks in the Tornio-Muoni River, the Simo
River and the Teno River and the active further development of fishing tourism. The situation of the
Tornio-Muonio River and the Simo River as fishing tourist resorts will improve in proportion as the
regulation of sea fishing reaches the level required for the strengthening of wandering fish stocks.
This requires successful co-operation with Sweden and international solutions connected to salmon



                                                                                                        37
fishing. In the Teno River, the threat is the possible spreading of fish diseases, and the prevention of
this threat requires co-operation with the Norwegian authorities.



The role of the actors and the division of labour

The group of tourism actors is very extensive. In regards to elimination of overlapping and the
efficient use of development funds, the issues concerned with the roles of the actors and the division
of labour are a crucial strategic starting point. Tourist enterprises take care of the actual business,
and the authorities and development organisations further the success of enterprises and attend the
legal duties that are part of their branch of administration. Figure 13 is the starting point for the
organisation of action.

The efficient use of distribution channels and the co-ordination of marketing actions is important in
order to ensure that no tourism entrepreneur is alone in the world with their products. Furthermore,
the marketing message coming from Lapland should be coherent and clear. In addition to taking
products to the market through direct customer relationship of enterprises, they can be taken to the
world through tourist centres, regional organisations or, for example, through entrepreneur
associations who do joint marketing. Considering the overall picture, it is important to have
working regional organisations in all areas. Organisations that are too small or overlapping each
other are attempted to join together to make them workable and co-operative. Lapin Markkinointi
Oy, which operates as a provincial marketing company, is in close co-operation with the Finnish
Tourist Board (MEK) bringing along national marketing resources to work for Lapland.

Co-ordination of the authorities’ actions and interaction with industry concerning tourism is carried
out through daily interaction as well as through a consultative committee, which consists of the
tourism team of the authorities, the tourism committee of Lapland Chamber of Commerce as well as
the representatives of regions, the road district and the National Board of Forestry. The research and
know how of tourism is co-ordinated by a tourism research programme that has been developed in
extensive co-operation. Defending of interests, which is connected to crucial issues in regards to
tourism industry, is decided on in the tourism committee of Lapland Chamber of Commerce.




                                                                                                     38
                                                                             Central administr.-, politics-
                                                                             , EU-, internat.- relations
                           MARKETS
                           Tour operators

                                                                                 Authority action and
                                                                                   support politics
                                                                             Consultative committee
                                                                             - Authorities (tourism team)
                                                                             - Industry (tourism committee)
                      MEK + traffic service                                  - Regions (regional organisation)
                                                                             - Lapland Road District
                                                                             - National Board of Forestry
                                                                             - Secretarial and leadership
                                                                             (Regional Council of Lapland)
                     Wide-area co-operation                                        Strategic work, outlining

                      Lapin Markkinointi Oy

                                                                                 Other interest group
                                                                                        action
    tourist centres/regional organisations/associations                      - Sub-regions
                                                                             - Municipalities
                                                                             - Village committees

                                                                             - University of Lapland
                                                                             - Polytechnics
                            enterprises                                      - Vocational institutes
                                                                             - LEO/Elämysinstituutti
                                                                             - Research stations etc.
                                                                                   The tourism research
                         PRODUCTS                                            programme of Lapland


Figure 13: The organisation of the development of tourism in Lapland and the roles of the actors.


4.3 Vision, objectives and aims

Vision of tourism in Lapland

  Lapland is an exotic, safe and international land of stories and round-the-year action
  known for its skilled entrepreneurs, quality standard of services, diverse activities, cultural
  offerings and clean wilderness. Lapland is a strong brand and it communicates the tourist
  about experiences and peaceful and natural way of living in the north. For a tourist,
  Lapland is The Power of Life! The tourist centres of Lapland are distinctly profiled and the
  genuine and individual tourist offerings of the areas surrounding the centres add to the
  attraction of Lapland. Tourism in Lapland is based on nature and the province is known as
  the model region of sustainable tourism. Environment is taken care of and the production
  of services rests on the province’s own know how and skills. Lapland is a recognised
  centre of know how of tourism.




                                                                                                                 39
Objectives

Objective 1: The growth of the tourism directed in Lapland brings along all the more income and
jobs, and positive effects spread through the whole province. In addition to direct effects, the
multiplier impacts and synergy advantages caused by tourism are significant for several industries.
Tourism is one of the top industries in the development of Lapland and it creates conditions for
regionally balanced development of the whole province. Tourism demand maintains good traffic
connections and basic services.

Objective 2: Profitability of enterprises has improved in a round-the-year basis and the amount of
skilled entrepreneurs as well as the size of the enterprises have increased. The level of business
skills of the entrepreneurs is high. Enterprises make growing income and invest in research and
development actions. The enterprises that operated only during the seasons in the past have become
round-the-year enterprises, and innovative services and product entities that increase the attraction
of Lapland are created in the co-operation networks between enterprises. Moreover, the success of
engine enterprises draws the smaller enterprises into growth.

Objective 3: A trip to Lapland signifies the power of life and the tourist wants to come again and
again. Tourist services of Lapland are more attractive than in the competitive areas and they are
easily found and bought. The accessibility of Lapland via traffic connections is good and it is easy
to come to the province. The customer’s expectations concerning his/her trip to Lapland will
exceed.

Objective 4: In Lapland, the principles and values of sustainable tourism are being followed. Skilled
entrepreneurs take tourists to nature and the harmful environmental effects of tourism are
eliminated in every stage of the product’s existence. The attraction of the environment will prevail
and the advantages of tourism will be channelled also to the local population. Tourism promotes
nature preservation and increases the knowledge of people of northern nature, culture and the way
of living. Nature tourism’s possibilities as a trainer of attitudes have been utilised. Local
characteristics are utilised in tourism with a manner that is sustainable and saves the genuineness of
the characteristics. Security is high on every stage of the trip.



Aims

Registered overnights

Domestic overnights grow at an annual rate of 2 %. Thus, the figure of 1 176 000 overnights will be
reached in 2006 as well as an increase of 111 000 overnights compared to 2001 (Figure 14).
Foreign overnights increase more rapidly than domestic and in these, the annual growth rate of 4 %
will be reached. Thus, in 2006, the figure of 689 000 overnights will be reached. This means 123
000 more foreign overnights that in 2001. In 2006, total 1 865 000 overnights will be registered in
Lapland. At that time, the increase of 234 000 overnights will be reached. This signifies an annual
growth rate of 2,7 %. In the foreign overnights of Finland, the market share of Lapland will increase
into 15 per cent in year 2006 which signifies an addition of 1,5 % to the market share of 2001. The
domestic market share of Lapland will increase into 10 per cent in 2006 which signifies an addition
of 1,1 % compared to the situation in 2001.




                                                                                                   40
                                              Rekisteröityjen yöpymisten tavoitteet vuoteen 2006
                            2000
                            1800                        yhteensä 1 865 000 yöpymistä v. 2006
                            1600
                            1400
 tuhatta yöpymistä




                                                                           1 176 000 kotimaista yöpymistä v. 2006
                            1200
                            1000
                                    800                                      689 000 ulkomaista yöpymistä v. 2006
                                    600
                                    400
                                    200
                                     0
                                              1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

                                              Yhteensä
                                              Kotimaiset
                                              Ulkomaiset
                                              Trendiennuste (Yhteensä)
                                              Trendiennuste (Kotimaiset)
                                              Trendiennuste (Ulkomaiset)

Figure 14: The objectives of registered overnights until the year 2006.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)

The overnights of the summer season will be set a special target so that the summer tourism in
Lapland is given a start in the career of stable growth. The aim is to reach a growth of 120 000
overnights with the annual growth rate of 4 % and 699 000 overnights in 2006 (Figure 15).
                                               Kesä-syyskuun rek. yöpymisten tavoitteet vuoteen 2006
                                     800

                                     700                                       669 000 yöpymistä v. 2006

                                     600
                tuhatta yöpymistä




                                     500

                                     400

                                     300

                                     200

                                     100

                                          0
                                               1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006

                                              Kesä-syyskuu
                                              Trendiennuste (kesä-syyskuu)


Figure 15: The objectives of the registered overnights in June-September until the year 2006.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)



The utilisation rate of hotel rooms

The utilisation rates of hotel rooms in Lapland are below the average of the country. In 2001, the
utilisation rate of hotel rooms in the province was merely 41,5 %, whereas in the whole country, the
corresponding figure was 49,4 %. Despite the growth of capacity, the aim is to raise the utilisation
rate of hotel rooms to the level of the country by 2006 in order to improve the round-the-year
profitability of enterprises. In that case, the utilisation rate of 50 % will be reached and thus, the
utilisation rate will improve on the average 1,7 % per year (Figure 16). In addition, a special aim
will be set for the utilisation rate of the summer season. The aim is to stop the decrease that has
been going on for years and to turn it into a strong growth by 2006.


                                                                                                                    41
                                                Lapin hotellihuoneiden käyttöastetavoite vuoteen 2006
                                      70
                                                                                                      Tavoiteura +1,7 % vuodessa,
         koko vuoden käyttöaste-%




                                                                                                        v. 2006 käyttöaste 50 %
                                      60

                                      50

                                      40

                                      30

                                      20

                                      10

                                          0
                                              1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006



Figure 16: The objective of the utilisation level of hotel rooms in Lapland until they year 2006.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)


The sales and personnel of accommodation and nutrition industry and programme services

The sales of the accommodation and nutrition industry were 211 million euros according to advance
information in 2001 (Figure 17). The aim is to increase the sales of the industry with the annual rate
of 5,5 % unadjusted for inflation. In 2006, the sales of 275 million euros will be reached. In
programme services (TOL 633 and 9272), the sales value of 71 million euros will be reached with
the annual rate of 10 % by 2006. This is 31 million euros more than in 2000.


                                           Majoitus- ja ravitsemistoimialan liikevaihtotavoite vuoteen 2006
                                    350

                                    300
                                                                          Liikevaihto 275 milj. € v. 2006
 miljoonaa euroa




                                    250

                                    200

                                    150

                                    100

                                     50

                                      0
                                              1995   1996   1997   1998     1999   2000   2001    2002      2003   2004   2005   2006
                                          Liikevaihto
                                          Trendiennuste (Liikevaihto)


Figure 17: The sales objective of accommodation and nutrition industry until the year 2006.
(Toimiala Online)

In 2000, 2590 person-workyears were completed in the accommodation and nutrition industry of
Lapland (Figure 18). Due to the increase in the profitability of manpower, the aim of growth set to
the manpower is lower than in the sales. The objective is to increase the employment of
accommodation and nutrition 3,5 % per year according to the trend forecast. In that case, 3200
person-workyears are completed in the industry in 2006. In programme services (TOL 633 and



                                                                                                                                        42
9272), manpower will increase 6 % per year and the work contribution of the industry will increase
from 333 person-workyears in 2000 to total 472 person-workyears in 2006.
                                 M ajoitus- ja ravitsemistoimialan työvoimatavoite vuoteen 2006
                        4000
                        3500                               Työvoima 3200 htv v. 2006
                        3000
    henkilötyövuotta




                        2500
                        2000
                        1500
                        1000
                         500
                             0
                                  1995   1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006

                                 Henkilötyövuotta
                                 Trendiennuste (Henkilötyövuotta)


Figure 18: The employment objective of accommodation and nutrition industry until the year 2006.
(Toimiala Online)


The average price of a hotel room

The average price of a hotel room is lower in Lapland than in the whole country in average and in
the past few years, the difference has increased for the benefit of the whole country (Figure 19).
The aim is to raise the average price of a hotel room in Lapland to the level of the whole country. In
that case, the average price of a hotel room is 90 euros in 2006 which, according to the forecast, is
the average price throughout the country. Particularly the average prices of hotel rooms in Lapland
rise in the summer which raises the average price calculated for the whole year. The average prices
raise also in other forms of accommodation. The rise in the average price of hotel rooms does not
signify raising of the price of a trip to Lapland out of reach of a regular domestic consumer. The
accommodation offerings of Lapland offer numerous alternatives of different price level.

                             Lapin hotellihuoneen keskihintatavoite vuoteen 2006
                       100

                                                              Keskihinta 90 € v. 2006
                        90

                        80
 euroa (€)




                        70

                        60

                        50

                        40
                              1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
                             Lappi                                   Koko maa
                             Trendiennuste (Lappi)                   Trendiennuste (Koko maa)

Figure 19: The average price objective of a hotel room in Lapland until the year 2006.
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)




                                                                                                                      43
Ski lift ticket sales

According to the estimate of Finnish Ski Area Association, the lift ticket sales of tourist centres in
Lapland were approximately 10,4 million euros in the season 01/02 (Figure 20). The aim is to
increase the lift ticket sales 6 % in each season. In that case, the value of sales will be 13 million
euros in the season 05/06.

                           Lapin hissilippumyynnin tavoitteet vuoteen 2006
                    16
                                                    Tavoiteura +6 % vuodessa,
                    14                                myynti 05/06 13 milj. €

                    12

                    10
      milj. euroa




                     8

                     6

                     4

                     2

                     0

                         94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 99/00 00/01 01/02 02/03 03/04 04/05 05/06
                                                       kausi


Figure 20: The ski lift ticket sales objectives of Lapland until the year 2006.
(SHKY)


4.4 Strategic policies

Marketing and distribution channels

Strategic objective

The marketing of tourist services in Lapland is cost-effective and targeted. Furthermore, the retail
sector participates in the costs of tourism marketing. For the part of public money, the focus of
marketing is abroad. Lapland is on display on opening markets, for example, in China. The total
marketing of the Lapland level is secured and Lapin Markkinointi Oy acts as a provincial marketing
company. The most significant operations on the wide-area level are the overall co-ordination of
marketing and product development, brand work on provincial level as well as the development and
maintenance of the net portal that collects together the tourist services of the province. The starting
point of operative measures are formed by the opportunities offered by markets and the products
Lapland’s entrepreneurs. Co-operation with the Finnish Tourist Board and with the actors in the
regional level is close. The net portal has good links to the regions and enterprises and the
development of the portal makes it easy for foreign customers to find information on the products
that Lapland offers. The net portal is being developed into a full service channel of information and
buying. In addition, marketing research in co-operation with the Finnish Tourist Board is conducted
as a measure of provincial level. What comes to media visitors, a model of action will be created.
With the help of it, the whole image of the province will benefit extensively from the visits directed
to Lapland. Lapin Markkinointi Oy co-ordinates joint measures for tourist centres and regions. In
that case, the centres and regions carry out only the measures that concern their own area. The
efficiency of the marketing measures of the Lapland level are being measured and followed
regularly. Internal marketing and reporting is a prerequisite for productive work.



                                                                                                    44
Under the Lapland trend, one can find distinctly profiled tourist centres and regional offerings. In
addition to the action on the Lapland level, public support is directed in the co-ordinated and
extensive action on the regional level. Strong and extensive regional organisations operate
effectively on all regions and the co-operation of the regional organisations with Lapin
Markkinointi Oy is fruitful. Overlapping work is not done and the workability of the marketing
chain from the level of enterprises to the consumer is very well co-ordinated. The development
work of tourism strives for common planning models and practices. The co-operation of Lapland
and the Finnish Tourist Board is intensive on every level. The starting point of the public financing
of tourism marketing is the fact that the farther away the action is from the daily actions of the
enterprises, the greater is the intensity of public support.


Products and product development

Strategic objective

Lapland and profiled tourist centres are products and strong brands. Product development is a
continuous planning and follow-up process which takes place mainly on the level of enterprises and
tourist centres. Products are developed in a customer oriented manner and exceeding the traditional
boundaries of industry, they are developed into good-quality entities by following the feedback
from market. The objective is improved customer loyalty and profitability. Products are distinctly
defined and priced so that they render possible the use of effective resellers and profitable income
for the producer. Due to a distinct planning process, the products are marketed at the right time
considering the sales process of markets. On the provincial level, prerequisites for product
development are created by increasing the know how of product and customer groups and market
areas. The culture, tradition and stories of Lapland bring along content and this is extensively
utilised in tourism.

The main emphasis of the leisure time tourism of winter is in Christmas and in different theme trips.
Christmas and Santa Claus are the internationally most well-known product group of Lapland. The
Christmas season is considerably longer than at the present and the competitive advantage
connected with Christmas has been increased in regards to other regions in Finland. In addition to
cross-country skiing and downhill skiing, products connected with dog and reindeer teams and
snow mobiling are strongly on display among the winter products. Ice, snow, coldness and arcticity
are extensively utilised in the product development of tourism. Services connected with winter
testing are of high quality.

The main emphasis of the leisure time summer tourism is in round-trips and theme trips.
Particularly, the branding of the theme trips in the summer have been invested in order to make it
easy for the customers to plan their trips according to their own interests. By branding the season of
unfrozen ground and with all-year product entities, the operation can work round-the-year. In
addition to leisure time tourism, business tourism brings along round-the-year customer flow to
Lapland. Business tourism is mainly concentrated on meeting, congress, incentive and event
tourism which has increased in the summer season in particular. The demand of the products
connected with active interests is growing. It is even studied that a reindeer is one of the central
images that are connected with Lapland, and the tourism and programme services connected with
reindeer are diverse, of high quality and round-the-year. Tourists value the genuine local culture all
the more which creates possibilities for those engaged in traditional reindeer herding to develop
reindeer tourism as an extra industry. The utilisation of geological resorts has possibilities
particularly in summer tourism.



                                                                                                   45
In the product development of tourism, future innovations and product development that unites
branches of business are given an opportunity. In that case, the possibilities of design, entertainment
industry and ICT-sector are being all the more intensively utilised based on anticipation and trend
researches in order to build innovative tourist products and product entities. Connected to this is
also the development of nature and science centre tourism based on scientific research by utilising,
for example, the achievements of atmosphere and space research. In the product development of
tourism, environmental values are closely combined to products and the minimising of the harmful
effects of products is based on life span thinking. The opportunities offered by the increase in
telecommuting are utilised in product development.



Infrastructure and land use

Strategic objective

The infrastructure that serves tourists is of good-quality, sufficient in numbers, applicable to the
milieu of the environment, respective of the old building stock and in keeping with its use.
Moreover, the tourism infrastructure serves the local population. The state-maintained hiking
infrastructure that serves tourism can be utilised by the industry. The co-operation of enterprises
and the National Board of Forestry is intensive. The basic starting points of development such as
the financing of the water purification plants of tourist centres will be secured. The adequacy and
maintenance of routes needed by tourism will be taken care of and the functionality and
compatibility of the routes will be guaranteed with careful planning. The dog and reindeer teams of
programme services have their own functional routes. The demand of nature exercise is increasing
rapidly. Thus, good-quality, diverse and extensive routes for different forms of exercise will be
needed in the whole of Lapland. One should be able to get to terrain via routes from the core areas
of tourist centres. The significance of close routes will be emphasised.

The use of preservation areas that already include service equipment can be intensified by raising
the quality and capacity of the service equipment in the close vicinity to centres in particular. The
roles of regional financiers and the project co-operation of the National Board of Forestry with
other actors are emphasised in the financing of the investments required by hiking services. The
amount of the so-called wild caravanars will be reduced in the roadsides and resting places by
developing camping services into more attractive and more good-quality services.

The interests of tourism are widely recognised in planning, and tourism will be fitted together with
other forms of land use. The interests of tourism in connection with forestry measures and
protection decisions will be looked after. Sufficient regional reserves are made for the spreading of
the present tourist services and the needs of tourism are taken into account in the land use of the
resorts that are potential both due to their location and attraction. In Lapland, tourism is a part of the
overall planning of land use, and intensive tourism should be centralised on planned areas.

The community structure of tourist centres develops in a co-ordinated manner and distinctive cores
are formed in the centres. Outside the cores, community structure organises by functionally
specialising and the farthest out is “the circle of action” that works as the area for local hiking and
programme services. “A spirit of place” suitable for the profile of each tourist centre is created with
good-quality milieu planning. The traffic systems of tourist centres are planned as a whole and the
functionality of street network is viewed from the perspective of light transport and mass transport
in particular. Regional plans guarantee the overall view of the development of tourism and direct
the investments to be compatible in regards to both each other and natural environment. Favourable


                                                                                                       46
development of the centre requires the good-quality of the environment also outside the centre.
Apartments are built for the employees of tourist centres.



Accessibility and traffic

Strategic objective

The interests of tourism, commerce and industry require functionality of traffic system and the
growth of tourism demand has a crucial position in the improvement of the accessibility of the
province. Direct regular flights without intermediate landings have improved the competitive
position of Lapland in tourism market. Furthermore, the growth of demand and its division more
and more evenly throughout the year have generated new regular air traffic. Regular airline services
are supported by charter flights that are flexible in regards to demand. Several airline companies fly
to Lapland. Access traffic from airports and railway stations to tourist centres runs smoothly and the
road connections between centres are of a high level. Accessibility and functionality of traffic
connections is good also within tourist areas and centres. The traffic network with North Calotte is
being developed considering the needs of tourism. Car-carrier express train connection and night
express trains to Lapland have been preserved and the amount of trains have increased.
Modernisation and expanding of the railway network has become current due to the round-the-year
growth of tourism demand. Moreover, the electrifying of the railway network of the route Oulu-
Kemi-Rovaniemi is completed by the end of year 2004. The reformation of sleeping-cars is
important for tourism in Lapland. Theme trains of tourism run from Helsinki to Lapland during the
busiest seasons and a significant part of the tourism traffic of Fell Lapland is organised via railway
through the station in Kolari. Furthermore, for the part of Eastern Lapland, the significance of
railway traffic and the Kemijärvi station have increased. Railway traffic of Lapland is regular,
round-the-year and sufficient extra equipment is in use during the season. The utilisation of
travelling time, for example, in the form of programme services and work is successfully connected
with a train trip.

Road network is in good condition and the Lapland Road District takes the interests of tourism into
account in its work. Flight/car –products have achieved enormous popularity. Transition tourism to
Russia, Sweden and Norway is busy. The needs of old people and disabled are taken into account
according to the principles of obstacle free tourism in tourism traffic and resorts. The marking and
guidance of tourist resorts is clear, logical and multilingual and the authorities are flexible in taking
into account the guidance needs of enterprises. The possibilities that modern telecommunication
offers to traffic are rapidly utilised in Lapland. In traffic planning, the significance of local
landscapes for the comfort and aesthetic of the trip is taken into account. On the whole, the
travelling chain to Lapland with its different connections is functional and of a high level following
the “from door to door” principle.


Research and know how production

Strategic objective

Development of tourism is based on researched information. Furthermore, a permanent structure of
tourism research and know how production that serves industry, authorities and education has been
created in Lapland. The co-operation of industry with educational institutions, research stations and
tourism studies of the University of Lapland has become more intensive in a significant way and


                                                                                                      47
enterprises utilise research information in the development of their operation. The tourism research
of Lapland is organised by a research programme, in which needs and research resources meet. The
research programme has been prepared in extensive co-operation. Research activities are co-
ordinated and have good financing. Tourism studies at the University of Lapland is the engine of
tourism research of Lapland. In addition, tourism is an object of research also in other departments.
For example, in the Faculty of Law, there has been specialisation in the research of tourism
jurisprudence by investing in the mapping of the problems connected to the taxation practices of
tourism entrepreneurship and investing in the development of new models of action.

Along with the official statistics, information of the unregistered capacity and overnights that take
place in it is produced. The attempt is to affect the national statistics system by giving new
viewpoints on statistics criteria and practices. To extend the compiling of statistics into unregistered
capacity and to take programme services into account as their own branch of business in the branch
of business classification are the concrete steps of the first phase. The role of regional organisations
in the production of information is crucial. The direct and indirect effects of tourism industry on
regional economy are being followed regularly and the follow-up information is produced not only
by administrational units but also by tourist centres. Marketing research, consumer behaviour of the
tourist and production of other information needed for the basis of the marketing and product
development have been invested in. In addition, the environmental effects of tourism are being
clarified and the methods of ecological tourism and environmental construction are being
developed. The sector of programme services as its own branch of business has been brought under
the statistics. The tourism research of Lapland is internationally recognised and the results of the
work are being published regularly. The results of the research and the know how are available for
anyone in a joint www-data bank of tourism.



Education, manpower and know how

Strategic objective

The level of know how of the tourism manpower in Lapland is being increased. Employees are
educated and skilled and the level of know how and the development of new facilities are taken care
of with continuing education. It is all the more easier for the tourism industry of Lapland to recruit
new skilled people and the increase in the round-the-year tourism demand indicates more and more
round-the-year and permanent employment. In that case, the possibilities to move permanently to
the target area of tourism have considerably increased. At least, the key persons of an enterprise are
able to have round-the-year employment.

Manpower is educated round-the-year based on anticipation and by taking into account the needs of
the industry and working life. Know how in business operations and marketing are important in
every sector of tourism. Particularly, the entrepreneurs’ level of know how in business operations is
taken care of. In addition to traditional occupational facilities, the guide training, language
proficiency, ice and snow construction, cultural and local knowledge, nature and environmental
knowledge, performing and interaction skills, the ability to act as a tour conductor and leader, and
the branding know how are invested in.

Lapland is known for the quality of education and innovative solutions. Tourism education runs
through the year taking into account the seasons of industry. In that case, for example, the students
can work in the busiest time of the winter season, and continue their studies when it is more quiet.
Teaching is offered also in the summer. A considerable part of the studies can be completed by


                                                                                                     48
learning in work and it is possible to use a longer time to take the degree if necessary. Thus, the
interaction between working life and studies is all the more intensive.

The interaction between educational institutes and the industry is regular and the educational
institutes have profiled themselves distinctly. Enterprises and employees meet at the recruitment
exhibitions that are held regularly and through the recruitment servers offered by the information
network. Several employment relationships start already during the studies through apprenticeship
and dissertations.



Security and sustainability

Strategic objective

Lapland is the model region for sustainable tourism development and the educated entrepreneurs
have committed themselves to the nature and environmental values of tourism in their operation.
Tourist services that operate according to sustainable development increase the nature and
environmental knowledge of their customers and further the development of a way of thinking
sympathetic to nature. In this manner, tourism promotes nature preservation. Tourists are guided to
move in a manner that is respective towards nature. In that case, the skills of the entrepreneur or the
guide are the starting point for everything. The energy and material flows that tourism needs have
been minimised and the Lapland brand tells the consumer about the environmental-friendly values
of tourism industry. The waste management and recycling of tourism have been organised in an
exemplary manner and the principles of litterless hiking are followed in Lapland. Moreover,
sustainable tourism development signifies the good-quality, pleasantness, aesthetic and safety of
constructed environment as well as favouring the own products of the province such as local food.

In the home district region of the Sami people, a person lives as a part of nature that is sensitive and
slowly regenerating fell and timber line area. Due to these reasons, the entity of the industrial
operations and the recreational use of nature are adjusted to the carrying capacity of nature in the
utilisation of the natural resources of the home district region of the Sami people. Reindeer herding
and other so-called traditional industries of the Sami people have a strong economic and cultural
significance in the Sami area. In the home district region of the Sami people, tourism is furthered as
an industry based on nature and culture that complements the traditional industries of the Sami.

From the point of view of the tourist, security in Lapland is high. Preventive measures in issues
crucial to security, such as slope and fire safety and rescue and evacuation planning, have been
carried out in tourism. Joint norms are followed in programme services and the security skills of
entrepreneurs and employees are cared for with training. If observed from an international point of
view, security threats have increased in European tourist resorts. Taking security aspects into
account and being prepared for risks require extensive co-operation of authorities and enterprises
that exceed the administrative borders in the region of the whole North Calotte. In improving the
security in tourism, the new technology is being utilised by taking into use the network of
wilderness telephones based on wireless communication technology. The security of camping
grounds has been improved.




                                                                                                     49
Quality and joint course of action

Strategic objective

Tourist services of Lapland are known in the world for their quality standard. The development of
quality and the maintenance of the obtained level is based on an integrated quality system, in which
most of the tourist enterprises of Lapland participate. Quality improvement action rests on Laatu
1000 -project (Lapland Quality) of MEK, the Finnish Tourist Board, and corresponding systems.
Taking care of the high quality standard of tourist services is especially important during the fastest
growing seasons, such as Christmas. The strong growth of volumes and short-term maximising of
the income cannot lead to the negligence of quality. One needs to value the customers and to tend to
exceed the expectations that the customers have on their trip to Lapland.

The central policies connected with business operations have been settled and the following of the
joint rules benefits not only the whole industry but also the individual entrepreneur. These kinds of
things are, for example, the reservation and cancellation conditions that are followed throughout
Lapland.


4.5 Execution and follow-up

Execution of the strategy is continuous. Regional Council of Lapland, where works a person who is
responsible for the execution of tourism strategy, is responsible for the co-ordination of execution
and the follow-up of implementation. Tourism team of the authorities, the tourism committee of
Lapland Chamber of Commerce, Lapland Road District, the National Board of Forestry and the
representatives of regions gather once a year, for example, in connection with the Tourism
Parliament to evaluate the execution of the strategy and the updating of focal points as well as other
current issues that deal with the development of tourism. Furthermore, other specialist members can
be summoned to the follow-up meetings if necessary. Regional Council of Lapland prepares the
follow-up meetings and summons all concerned.

The annual Tourism Parliament of Lapland will become a permanent practice and the parliament
will be carried out in different parts of the province mainly with the efforts of regional actors. The
execution of the strategy for the part of the most crucial entity of issues will be more accurately
defined in the programme contract of tourism. In addition to this, the financing needed for the
measures will be shown in the programme contract of tourism.


4.6 Evaluation of the effects

The planning process of the Lapland Tourism Strategy has been carried out in an interactive
manner. Along with five regional days and the joint Tourism Parliament of Lapland, interaction and
connections to entrepreneurs, authorities and other persons concerned have been intensive and
regular. Strategic work has been displayed in the media. In addition to this, it has been possible to
follow the progress of the process in the internet, in which a free discussion forum in connection
with work has been in use. All in all, approximately 400 persons have participated in the strategic
work in its different stages.

The execution of the Lapland Tourism Strategy forwards the tourism industry of Lapland in a
controlled manner, creates jobs and promotes positive development in the province. When the
objectives are realised, 1 865 000 overnights will be registered in Lapland in 2006 and compared to



                                                                                                    50
the year 2001, the increase of 233 000 registered overnights will be achieved. The sales of, for
example, accommodation and nutrition industry will increase to 275 million euros and 3200 person-
workyears will be completed in the industry. Furthermore, sales will grow rapidly and jobs will
increase on other branches of business of tourism industry. Development is the most rapid in
programme services. The profitability of tourist enterprises will improve and tourism is all the more
round-the-year in Lapland.

Strategy furthers the taking care of the attraction factors, and environmental aspect is part of all
tourism development as a penetration principle. In many resorts, tourism furthers the achievement
of nature preservation objectives. In addition to economical and ecological aspects, the execution of
the strategy furthers socially and culturally sustainable tourism development. The advantages of
tourism will be channelled to the local population as increased income and jobs.

The concentration of tourist flow in the tourist centres brings along both advantages and
disadvantages. Moreover, what is positive is the fact that concentration renders possible the
efficient utilisation of municipal engineering, for example, in waste water management. The
emphasis of tourist flow in air traffic and big tourist centres is a negative aspect that threats to
wither the services of transit traffic. As the number of tourists increase, the quality of services and
products will be put to trial. The decrease in quality is a risk factor during strong growth. Taking it
into account requires intensive investing in the securing of the quality.




                                                                                                    51
5 SUMMARY
Tourism is an industry of vital importance to Lapland and the regional economic significance of the
industry is greater than anywhere else in Finland. Tourism development of the past few years is
characterised by strong internationalisation and the share of foreign overnights of total overnights
has increased. Germany and Britain are the most important foreign markets. Leisure time tourism
has grown more rapidly than tourism connected to work. Strong seasonal variations keep on causing
problems for the round-the-year profitability of enterprises as well as for manpower. However, the
summer of 2002 brought along a strong message of the activation of the summer demand and for
the tourism industry in Lapland, the summer is an opportunity that is worth investing in. Tourism
income and employment have increased year after year and the increase has been the strongest in
the programme services of tourism. The development action of tourism has had its emphasis on
investments, and in the projects of the development of the operation environment, the focus has
been on marketing, product development and education.

The attraction of Lapland is based on natural environment and the special cultural characteristics of
the north. Based on these, an extensive network of tourist services has been built. Big tourist centres
work as junctions in the network. Furthermore, the regional structure of tourism has developed into
tourist centre oriented and the centres have distinct positions as engines. As a strategic starting
point, public support to tourism industry is channeled first and foremost through tourist centres but
the areas around the centres are also part of the development action. The challenge is to integrate,
for example, with acquisition networks, the enterprises and resorts of the surrounding areas into the
growth of tourist centres. The starting point is that big tourist centres and the surrounding areas
support and complement each other and together form the tourist attraction of Lapland. In Lapland,
tourism is developed in a regionally-based manner by basing the development work in the
possibilities that rise from the special characteristics of each region. Particularly, the profiling of
regions and centres is supported.

Other strategic starting points are strong internationalisation, guaranteeing of good accessibility and
functionality of traffic system, increasing the co-ordination and co-operation of project action into
an even more round-the-year industry and the questions connected with the division of labour and
the clarification of the roles of the actors. Total marketing on provincial level should be secured but
along with this, support is directed in co-ordinated and extensive action on regional level. The most
important thing is the overall co-ordination of marketing measures and the efficient utilisation of
distribution channels in order to get the products to the market in the most possible cost-efficient
and extensive way.

The objectives of the execution of tourism strategy are the growth of tourism income and
employment, the improvement of round-the-year profitability and income of enterprises, safe,
controlled and sustainable tourism development as well as tourists that are more satisfied than ever
before, which signifies their desire to return to Lapland. The tourism vision of Lapland is to develop
into a strong and internationally known brand. Lapland is a land of stories and round-the-year action
known for its skilled entrepreneurs, quality standard of services, diverse activities, cultural offerings
and clean wilderness. Lapland is The Power of Life!




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                                                                                                 54
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1: The control group of tourism strategy


Actual members:
•Executive Director Esko Lotvonen/Regional Council of Lapland (Chairperson)
•Development Director Ossi Repo/Regional Council of Lapland (Vice Chairperson)
•Researcher Sami Laakkonen/Regional Council of Lapland (secretary)
•Director Pirkko Saarela/Employment and Economic Development Centre of Lapland (member)
•Director Olavi Parpala/Environment Centre (member)
•Specialist planner Päivi Ekdahl/State Provincial Office of Lapland (member)
•Managing director Yrjö-Pekka Kurki/Lapin Markkinointi Oy (member)
•Managing director Timo Rautajoki/Lapin Chamber of Commerce (member)
•Managing director Paavo Holopainen/Riekko-Hotellit Oy (member)
•Managing director Kari Jussi Aho/Pyhätunturi Oy (member)
•Managing director Leo Pitkänen/Lapland Hotels Oy (member)
•Managing director Jyrki Niva/Lapin Safarit Oy (member)


Specialist members:
•Regional Director Sakari Kokkonen/Natural Heritage Services of the National Board of Forestry
•Division Manager Anneli Harju-Autti/Employment and Economic Development Centre of
Lapland


Project supervisor:
•Project   planner Mervi Nikander/Regional Council of Lapland




                                                                                                 55
Appendix 2: Accommodation and nutrition industry according to sub-regions and
municipalities 2000


                                Accommodation and nutrition industry 2000
                       Places of business   Person-workyears       Sales (1000 €)
Kemi-Tornio region     148                  462                    35 297
Kemi                   65                   246                    18 280
Tornio                 53                   144                    11 164
Keminmaa               13                   44                     3 354
Tervola                10                   20                     1 856
Simo                   7                    8                      642
Rovaniemi region       164                  634                    52 495
Rovaniemi              109                  507                    43 814
The Rural Commune      48                   115                    7 503
of Rovaniemi
Ranua                  7                    13                     1 175
Tornio Valley region   32                   65                     4694
Ylitornio              17                   37                     2 591
Pello                  15                   28                     2 101
Eastern Lapland        71                   257                    17 787
region
Kemijärvi              25                   82                     6 071
Posio                  12                   18                     1 204
Salla                  19                   63                     3 476
Pelkosenniemi          9                    86                     6 370
Savukoski              6                    8                      665
Northern Lapland       122                  474                    40 856
region
Sodankylä              43                   129                    8 937
Inari                  60                   314                    29 595
Utsjoki                19                   30                     2 324
Fell Lapland region    150                  699                    55 019
Kittilä                57                   397                    29 849
Kolari                 54                   147                    12 617
Muonio                 19                   80                     6 257



                                                                                    56
Enontekiö                   20                   75                     6 293
(Toimipaikkarekisteri, Tilastokeskus)

Appendix 3: Registered overnights according to sub-regions, municipalities and tourist
centres 2001

                                    Registered overnights 2001
Region                                           Overnights
Kemi-Tornio region                               118 472
Kemi ja Tornio                                   Total 109 280
Keminmaa, Tervola ja Simo                        Total 9 192
Rovaniemi region                                 338 362
Rovaniemi                                        295 827
The Rural Commune of Rovaniemi, and              Total 42 535
Ranua
Tornio Valley region                             36 380
Ylitornio ja Pello                               Total 36 380
Eastern Lapland region                           192 953
Kemijärvi                                        26 749
Salla                                            99 042
Tourist centre of Pyhätunturi fell               50 077
Posio, Pelkosenniemi ja Savukoski                Total pl. Pyhätunturi 16 385
Northern Lapland region                          406 113
Sodankylä                                        99 041
Inari                                            298 090
Utsjoki                                          9 002
Tourist centre of Saariselkä                     233 990
Luoston matkailukeskus                           54 091
Fell Lapland region                              539 280
Kittilä                                          223 673
Kolari                                           124 621
Muonio                                           96 298
Enontekiö                                        94 688
Tourist centre of Levitunturi fell               196 787
Tourist centre of Yllästunturi fell              129 757
(Matkailutilasto, Tilastokeskus)


                                                                                         57
Map 1. The regional structure of tourism in Lapland 2002

(merkkien selitykset ovat samassa järjestyksessä ylhäältä alaspäin kuin kartassa)

EXPLANATIONS FOR SYMBOLS

- national frontier
- provincial border
- municipal border
- province and tourist centre
- town and tourist centre
- tourist centre
- municipal centre
- municipal and tourist centre
- border crossing point
- airport
- harbour
- road
- railway line
- tourist centre
- national park
- wilderness
- other preservation area
- salmon river
- Northern Lights Highway
- the Polar Circle

								
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