Clean Coal Technology for the future NEDO'sChallenge by ugc19505

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									                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


   Clean Coal Technology for the future
           NEDO’s Challenge


                            7-8 September 2006
                     Horizon Hotel, Bandung, Indonesia




                         Shunichi YANAI


         Environment Technology Development Department
New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization
                            (NEDO)

                                                                                        1




        Presentation Outline
                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization

1. Japan’s New Coal Policy
   - C3 Initiative Towards the Establishment of a Clean Coal Cycle
2. Concept of NEDO’s fossil fuel processing strategy
3. NEDO’s Projects in Progress
    (1) Coal Gasification Technology
          - EAGLE Project
          - BRAIN-C Program (Entrained Flow coal gasification Simulator ,etc.)
           (Basic Research Associate for INnovated Coal Utilization Program)


   (2) Coal Refining Technology
          - Hyper coal (ash-less coal) Production Project
   (3) Reforming Technology for Hot-COG
   (4) Coal Liquefaction Technology
          - Development in Japan
          - BCL Project
          - International Collaboration


                                                                                        2




                                                                                            1
Basic Concept of the New Coal Policy
                    in Japan (1/3)
                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization




  The following three perspectives are
  considered to form the basic concept based
  on the recent structural changes in the
  energy situation
   (1)Measures to facilitate a stable supply
      of energy and environmental protection
      in the whole of Asia
   (2)Medium- to long-term outlook with a
      focus on 2030
   (3)Deploying a comprehensive measure
      from upstream to downstream

                                                                                                                         3




    Basic Concept of the New Coal Policy
                        in Japan (2/3)
                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization




                Clean Coal Cycle (C3)

   3 policy targets                   5 basic directions
                                                                                        C3 Initiative (7 action plans)




 for new coal policy                of the new coal policy

                                Promotion of high-efficient
   Reduction of                 utilization
   environment load
                                Reduction/utilization of harmful
                                products
   Diversification of           Cultivation of new utilization
   energy supply                possibilities

                                Expansion of supply potential
   Securing stable
   supply                       Establishment of efficient
                                procurement environment



                                                                                                                         4




                                                                                                                             2
       Basic Concept of the New Coal Policy
                           in Japan (3/3)
                             New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



Clean Coal Cycle (C3) Initiative (7 Action Plans)

      Promotion of             Demonstration                     Promotion of
       innovative             of diversified CCT           CCT diffusion domestically
     CCT development                models                         and abroad

       Promotion of CCT for overcoming the environmental load


Construction of a flexible and robust                  Establishment of diversified
 Coal supply and demand structure                      Risk management methods


                                                                coal
 Improvement of environment for preserving stable low prices of coal

                                                   System efficiency improvement,
 Construction of a pan-Asian
                                                thoroughness of policy evaluation and
        coal network
                                                  reinforcement of public relations

         Construction of infrastructure for policy implementation

                                                                                                      5




       Concept of NEDO’s fossil fuel
                    processing strategy
                             New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



EAGLE project               H2 (for chemicals, fuel cells and fuels)                           Iron


                                                          Semi-reduced
                                       Hydrogen             iron ore
   Electricity                         production
                                                         Reduction

           gas turbine and
                                        CO+H2
           fuel cell                                         FT synthesis
Hyper Coal                                                                             ATL project
                               Gasification
            Coal refining

                                                           Gasification
                                                         simulator project


                                                                  Hydrogenation
                                Coal          Petroleum         (coal and heavy oil)         Liquid
Hyper coal project                                                                            fuels
                                                Biomass
                                                                                                      6




                                                                                                          3
           Coal Gasification Technology
            EAGLE Project (1/4)
                                 New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization

- Multi-purpose coal gasification technology development -
       Objectives & Schedule of the EAGLE Project
       Objectives & Schedule of the EAGLE Project
 (1) Development of an advanced coal gasifier
       - innovative oxygen-blown, entrained-flow gasifier with two-stage
          spiral flows in the gasification chamber
 (2) Establishment of high-efficiency coal gasification
                                              technology
 (3) Establishment of gas clean-up system for purification
      of produced gas to the acceptable level for fuel
      synthesis and fuel cell                      (Fiscal year)
1995     1996    1997    1998     1999     2000      2001      2002      2003     2004      2005   2006

FS/ Component Test                                          '02.3 Charging coal

   Basic design/Detail Design                                      '03.3 Start of operation
                                                                                         Present
                     Fabrication/Construction
                                                                             Operation

          EAGLE (Coal Energy Application for Gas, Liquid & Electricity)                                   7




           Coal Gasification Technology
            EAGLE Project (2/4)
                                 New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


                        Image of Gasification Furnace
                         Image of Gasification Furnace

    Upper
  Burners (4)               H2
                           CO
                           CO2
                                                Upper:O2 Lean
                                                 Coal→ Char
   O2                                            Char+CO2+H2O→CO+H2


  Coal                                               Down : O2 rich
                                                       Char+O2→CO2+H2O
                        CO2
                          H2O
     Lower
   Burners (4)                   gas        1200 1600
                                           Temp. (°C)
                    Slag
                                                                                                          8




                                                                                                              4
         Coal Gasification Technology
          EAGLE Project (3/4)
                           New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



           Photograph of EAGLE Pilot Plant (150 t/d)
           Photograph of EAGLE Pilot Plant (150 t/d)
                           Gas Clean-up
                                                                    Gasifier 150t/d



       Air
   Separation                     Incinerator
    Facilities




                   Sulfur Recovery
       N               Facilities                               GT House (8MW)
       150t/d Pilot Plant located in Wakamatsu laboratory of J-Power
                                                                                            9




         Coal Gasification Technology
          EAGLE Project (4/4)
                           New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


                      Project Targets and Results
                      Project Targets and Results
               Item                              Targets                         Results
                                                  >98
                                                  = %                             >99 %
 Carbon Conversion Efficiency
                                                                                  =
      Cold Gas Efficiency                         >78 %
                                                  =                               81 %
     Calorific Value (HHV)                 10,000 kJ/m3N                   >10,100 kJ/m3N
                                                                           =
  Continuous Operation Time                     1,000 hrs                     852 hrs
           Kinds of Coal                         5 kinds                        3 kinds
           Sulfide Compounds                    <1 ppm
                                                =                                <1 ppm
in Clean Halogenated Compounds                  <1 ppm                           <1 ppm
 Syngas                                         =
                Ammonia                         <1 ppm                           <1 ppm
                                                =
             Particulate Matter               <1 mg/m3N
                                              =                               <1 mg/m3N
  Total Operation Time :   4,338 hrs                        (as of June, 2006)
  Total Coal Consumption: 21,000 ton
                                                                                            10




                                                                                                 5
                Coal Gasification Technology
                 BRAIN-C Program (1/6)
                                              New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


       “Basic Coal Utilization Technology Development”
                       BRAIN-C Program
       (Basic Research Associate for INnovated Coal Utilization Program)

 1. Development of simulator for pressurized entrained-flow
     coal gasification
 2. Coal Data Base & Standard Coal Sample Bank        (Fiscal year)
                         1995       1996       1997       1998      1999       2000       2001       2002       2003       2004

Phase I
Phase II
  < Participants >
Academic (University)                                        Government agency & Foundation, Others
- Kyushu University    - Osaka University               - Japan Coal Energy Center (JCOAL)
- Waseda University    - Chubu University               - National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
- Kansai University    - Tokyo Institute of Technology - Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI)
- Gifu University      - Tokyo University of            - SRI International, NEA (Niksa Energy Associates)
- Kyoto University        Agriculture and Technology                               Private company
- Gunma University     - Tohoku University                     - Toray Research Center, Inc.      - Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.
- Akita University     - Toyohashi University of Technology - Hitachi, Ltd.                       - Ube Industries, Ltd.
- Niigata University   - Kitami Institute of Technology        - Mitsubishi Heavy Industries,Ltd. - Sumitomo Coal Mining Co., Ltd.
- Seikei University    - Nagoya University                     - Babcock-Hitachi K.K.,            - Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.
- Osaka University     - Kagoshima University                  - Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd.         - Delight Co., Ltd.
                                                                                                                                  11




                Coal Gasification Technology
                 BRAIN-C Program (3/6)
                                              New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


          Objectives of Coal Gasification Simulator Project
          Objectives of Coal Gasification Simulator Project
                   Item                                                 Development Target
1. Upgrading simulation model                    Development and upgrading of models necessary to
  (1) Reaction model                             develop a highly accurate simulation compatible with
  (2) Ash deposition model                       different kinds of coal and suitable for practical use
  (3) Heat transfer model
2. Verifying/upgrading                           Development and verification of a simulator that can
     the accuracy of simulator                   provide design support, optimize operating conditions,
                                                 and evaluate types of coal
                                                   - Estimated accuracy
                                                      at gasifier outlet :Temp.    within ±20℃
                                                   - Gas composition               within ±2%
                                                   - Reaction efficiency of coal within ±2%
3. Establishment of a                            Establishment of a database to make use of data on
    comprehensive database                       physical properties and reaction of each type of coal
                                                 Physic property/reaction data:
                                                                              100 kinds of coal (in total)
                                                                                                                                  12




                                                                                                                                       6
           Coal Gasification Technology
            BRAIN-C Program (2/6)
                                  New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


          Development of Gasification Simulation Model
          Development of Gasification Simulation Model
                                           Development of Reaction Models
Reaction Gas + Char                 1.Devolatilization Models     Coal +Char → Volatile + Char
                                    2.Char Reaction Models        Char + O2 →CO2 , Char + CO2 → CO
                                                                  Char + H2O →H2,CO
                                    3.Ash Behavior Models         Ash Generation, Adhesion, Deposition
                                    4.N, S, Alkalies, Halogen, Detrimental, Trace Elements, etc

                                             Integrated Simulation Models
             Heat
           Recovery                                         Reaction Models
             Unit
                                      Fluid Dynamic Models                Heat Transfer Models
                                                         Simulated Aspects
                                    1. Temperature Distributions           2. Carbon Conversion
                                    3. Composition of Reaction Gas         4. Gas Flow Patterns
Oxygen                              5. Particle Trajectories               6. Ash Behavior
             Gasifi
            -cation
           Furnace
                         Char
                                       Contribution to Commercialization of Highly
 Coal                                    Efficient Coal Gasification Technology
                                   1. Design of Gasification Furnace
                                   2. Influence on Gasification Efficiency and Thermal Efficiency
            Liquid                 3. Long-term and Stable Operation
             Slag                  4. Gas Cleanup and Environmental Characteristic
                                                                                                             13




           Coal Gasification Technology
            BRAIN-C Program (4/6)
                                  New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization




        Example of Analysis of Entrained-Flow Coal Gasifier
        Example of Analysis of Entrained-Flow Coal Gasifier
  Reaction Gas + Char




               Heat
             Recovery
               Unit




  Oxygen        Gasifi
               -cation
              Furnace
   Coal                    Char

                                                                                CO
                                     Gas Flow Rate       Coal Particle                            Temperature
              Liquid                                                       Concentration
                                      Distribution         Orbiting                               Distribution
               Slag                                                         Distribution
                                                                                                             14




                                                                                                                  7
         Coal Gasification Technology
          BRAIN-C Program (5/6)
                           New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


      Coal Data Base & Standard Coal Sample Bank
     Objectives of Coal Gasification Simulator Project
      Coal Data Base & Standard Coal Sample Bank
     Objectives of Coal Gasification Simulator Project
1. Establishment of a comprehensive database
 (1) Establishment of a database to make use of data on
     physical properties and reaction of each type of coal.
 (2) Physic property/reaction data: 100 kinds of coal (in total)
2. Standard Coal Sample Bank




 Storage Conditions for Standard Coal Sample                   Standard Coal Sample
                       (AIST)                                     (for distribution)
                                                                                           15




         Coal Gasification Technology
          BRAIN-C Program (6/6)
                           New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


 Summary of Decade’s Results in Basic Coal Utilization
 Summary of Decade’s Results in Basic Coal Utilization
                                Two Coal gasification simulators (RESORT
                                & FLUENT base) were developed to analyze and
                                predict thermal, chemical, and physical
                                phenomena in pressurized entrained-flow coal
                                gasifiers.

                                These solutions were then compared with the
                                data acquired from measurements at 2 t/d and
                                50 t/d (HYCOL) entrained flow coal
                                gasification pilot plants.

                                The simulator can predict the both
                                temperature profiles and ash deposition
                                profiles fairly accurately.


                                 These gasification simulators are now being
                                 used in the national coal gasification project
                                 in Japan.
                                                                                           16




                                                                                                8
        Coal Refining Technology
         Hyper Coal Production Project (1/6)
                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


             Objectives of the Hyper Coal project
             Objectives of the Hyper Coal project

• Development of ash less coal (less than 200ppm
  ash in coal) production technology

• Investigation of utilization technology for ash
  less coal
  –   Carbon material for iron or nonferrous metal smelting
  –   Blending coal for coke formation
  –   Fuel for pulverized coal firing
  –   Fuel for gas turbine   etc.



                                                                                        17




        Coal Refining Technology
         Hyper Coal Production Project (2/6)
                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


                 Schedule of Hyper Coal Project
                 Schedule of Hyper Coal Project

          2000        2005             2010              2015              2020
                  Establishment Demonstration
Production        of Production Commercialization
Stage             Tech.          100 t/d      5000t/d

                                  Iron or non-ferrous metal smelting
                                  (Substitute of coking coal & Slag reduction)

                                                Pulverized coal-fired power
Application                                     (Coal ash reduction, CO2 reduction
of Hyper Coal                                                ( ~10%))

                                    Gas turbine c/c power generation
                                    Research & Development      Commercialization
                                     (Coal ash reduction, CO2 reduction(~20%))



                                                                                        18




                                                                                             9
         Coal Refining Technology
          Hyper Coal Production Project (3/6)
                            New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


Hyper coal technology can produce ash less coal (less than 200ppm)
Hyper coal technology can produce ash less coal (less than 200ppm)

                The image of HyperCoal production
                The image of HyperCoal production

                                                       Soluble
                                                       matter              Hyper Coal

                 Heating                                             Solid/Liquid
                                Insoluble                                      separation
                                                         Ash
                                  matter                             Solvent recovery
     Coal
                 Solvent                                                Insoluble Coal
                                                                           (Byproduct)
 Coal and organic solvent      Coal structure is relaxed,              After the extraction,
 are mixed.                    and then organic parts of               the solubles (Hyper
     coal structure                    is
                               coal are extracted by the               Coal) and residue
                                     d and dissolving
                               solvent.                                (insolubles +ash) are
                                                                       separated.

                                                                                               19




         Coal Refining Technology
          Hyper Coal Production Project (4/6)
                            New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


         Hyper Coal Bench-Scale Uunit (0.1 t/d BSU)
         Hyper Coal Bench-Scale Uunit (0.1 t/d BSU)




                                                                                               20




                                                                                                    10
                                 Coal Refining Technology
                                  Hyper Coal Production Project (5/6)
                                                     New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


                     Coal solvent extraction (deashing) characteristics
                     Coal solvent extraction (deashing) characteristics
                       80 ~70%!!
  Hyper Coal Extraction Yield



                                                                                                      Stratford
                                70                                                                    Yanzhau
                                                                                                      Nantun
                                60                                                                    Upper Freeport
                                                                                                      Illinois #6
          [wt% daf]




                                50                                                                    Pittsburgh
                                40
                                30                                                                  HyperCoal
                                20                       Solvent :
                                                                                  CH3


                                10                       1-Methylnaphthalene
                                 0
                                  250      300     350   400     450
                                          Extraction Temp. [ oC]
                                                                                                                           21




                                 Coal Refining Technology
                                  Hyper Coal Production Project (6/6)
                                                     New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


                                Production and Utilization Flow of Hyper Coal
                                Production and Utilization Flow of Hyper Coal

                                              Solvent
                                                   Extract
                                       Solvent                  Ion                   Hyper
     Coal                             Extraction            Exchange
                                         (De-                  (De-                   Coal
                                       Ashing)             Alkalization)

                                     360 ~ 380 ℃                                                             Utilization
                                        1MPa                                                                 in Japan
                                                       Byproduct              Insoluble
                                                                                Coal



Mine-Mouth Power Plant                                         Coal producing country                         Japan
                                                                                                                           22




                                                                                                                                11
          Reforming Technology for Hot-COG
           - CLEAN FUEL from “Hot-COG” - (1/2)
                                  New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



In coke ovens, coke oven gas (COG) is generated during coking as a by-
product. To avoid the unfavorable deposition of tar, the COG’s high-
temperature heat energy is not effectively used.
This research and development aims at developing technologies to
produce synthesis gas that can be converted to clean liquid fuels, such as
methanol or DME , by reforming the high-temperature COG with tar
from coke ovens, thereby making use of the heat energy of the gas.
(1) Tar in “Hot COG” is converted to synthetic gas with high thermal efficiency.
(2) Clean fuel such as Hydrogen, Methanol and DME is produced from the gas.
(3) This technology contributes to reduction CO2 emission and energy saving.
                                        < This project is started in 2006 FY >
                                                                                            Dry Main
                                                                                           80 ℃                 COG
                                                                               Coke
                                                                               Oven



                                                                                                                 COG
                                                                                                                 Tank
                                               Cokes                              Fuel for Coke Oven


                                                                                                                             23




          Reforming Technology for Hot-COG
           - CLEAN FUEL from “Hot-COG” - (2/2)
                                  New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


                             COG
    Process for           Reforming                                Existing or Newly Developed Process
    Liquid Fuel           Technology
     Existing
     Process
                                  Reformer




                                                                                                 Off Gas
                                               Desulfurization
                                    COG




                                                                                                           Hydrogen
                                                                    Methanol
                                                                    Conveter




     Coal                                                                                                  Separation
                                                                                                             (PSA)
                                                                                   Methanol
                                                                                  Purification                 Hydrogen
                                 Dust
                                                                                                               Methanol

                              Hot Collecting Main                                   DME
                                                                                 Conversion                       DME
                              600 ~ 700 ℃


                                 Dry Main              COG
  Cokes                         80 ℃                                                                            COG
                                                    Purification
                  Coke                              Separation
                  Oven                                                                                      Tar,Diesel Oil

                                                                                                           Liquid Ammonia
                                                                                                                H2SO4
                                                                 COG
                                                                 Tank
                        Fuel for Coke Oven
  Existing Facilities                                                           In-house Use
                                                                                                                             24




                                                                                                                                  12
    Coal Liquefaction Technology
     Development in Japan(1/3)
                     New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



    Significance of Coal Liquefaction
    Significance of Coal Liquefaction

• Production of large amount of liquid fuels
  from coal that is evenly distributed in the
  world
• Energy security by diversifying energy
  source
• Contribution to environmental issue
• Contribution to development of industries
• Effective use of unused resources



                                                                                        25




    Coal Liquefaction Technology
     Development in Japan(2/3)
                     New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



 Principle of Direct Coal Liquefaction
 Principle of Direct Coal Liquefaction
                         Liquefaction             Separation                 Products
Catalyst
           H2                                          &
                                                 Fractionation
                      Temperature
                        Pressure

                                                                             Gasoline
    Coal

                                                                              Diesel

           Recycle            Heavy Oil
           Solvent




                                                                                        26




                                                                                             13
          Coal Liquefaction Technology
           Development in Japan(3/3)
                            New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization

Liquefaction Development in New Sunshine Program of METI
             Brown Coal Liquefaction (BCL)
             Brown Coal Liquefaction (BCL)
         Bituminous Coal Liquefaction (NEDOL)
         Bituminous Coal Liquefaction (NEDOL)
                          1980          1985         1990          1995        2000         2005
 Fundamental Research            Process, Material, Equipment, Catalyst
                                Process, Material, Equipment, Catalyst

 BCL Process
  50t/d Pilot Plant            Construction Operation
  BCL process Improvement                                   Improvement

 NEDOL process
  Supporting Research                             1 t/d PSU etc.

  150 t/d Pilot Plant                     Design & Construction           Operation


 Up-grading                                          Design & Construction        Operation

 International Collaboration
       Indonesia                                                            F/S
       China                                                                      F/S
                                                                                                   27




          Coal Liquefaction Technology
           BCL Project (1/3)
                            New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



         Feature of Improved BCL process
         Feature of Improved BCL process
 - Experience of 50t/d PP at Australia
 - High reactivity catalyst with low cost
 - New idea introduced from research results
  of Takasago Research Laboratory
               Bottom recycle operation for
                              increasing distillate yield
               In-line hydrotreating unit for
                              increasing product quality


                                                                                                   28




                                                                                                        14
          Coal Liquefaction Technology
           BCL Project (2/3)
                                    New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



         Feature of Improved BCL process
         Feature of Improved BCL process
Achievement
- Demonstration of
  brown coal liquefa
  -ction concept Oil
  yield of 52wt%
- Continuous operation
  of 1,700hrs
- Demonstration of high
  efficiency de-watering
  process
- Demonstration of
  solvent de-ashing
  process in high
  de-ashing ratio

                                                                                                             29




          Coal Liquefaction Technology
           BCL Project (3/3)
                                    New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



               Improved BCL Process Flow
                Improved BCL Process Flow
                                                             Inline
                         Hydrogenation                   Hydrotreatment
 H2                                                                     Recycle Gas
                          H2S Rich Gas                                  Compressor
                                 Recycle Gas H2                    H2           Off Gas        Purge Gas
        Slurry
                                                                               Purification    (Fuel Gas)
      De-watering
                                    Reactor
       Removed                                                                                  Light Oil
        Water                                                                                    Light Oil
                                               Separator
           Evaporator
                                                Fixed Bed                                     Fractionator
                    H2                          Hydrotreater
                                                 Separator           Separator                  Middle Oil
                                                                                                Middle Oil
                            Preheater
      Slurry              Slurry                                           Settler        Solvent
      Making              Feed PumpPressure
                                    Reducing           CLB
                                                                                         De-ashing
                         Catalyst                      Separator
  CLB Recycle
  Solvent Recycle                                                                       Sludge
                                                                                        CLB Run Down
  DAO Recycle
                                                                                                             30




                                                                                                                  15
              Coal Liquefaction Technology
               Up-grading
                                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



           Upgrading of Coal Liquefaction Oil
           Upgrading of Coal Liquefaction Oil
                                                                              Objectives

                                                                 Octane Number
                                                                                                     > 95
                                                                   (Gasoline)


                                                                                                   > 35
                                                                 Cetane Number
                                                                    (Diesel )
                                                                                                (>50 after
                                                                                                 blended)


                                                                      N,S in Oil               Satisfy JIS



                                                              Continuous Operation
                                                                      hrs
                                                                                                > 1,000 h
        40 bbl/d PDU plant
                                                                                                                      31




              Coal Liquefaction Technology
               International Collaboration(1/2)
                                        New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization



Collaboration between Indonesia and NEDO
Collaboration between Indonesia and NEDO
                                Fiscal Year
Content                                        1994    1995    1996   1997    1998    1999    2000      2001   2002




MOU between BPPT and NEDO                             1st               2nd                  3rd
Evaluation of Indonesian Coal

Collection of Engineering Data    by 0.1 t/d
BSU


Feasibility Study of Coal Liquefaction
Commercial Plant


Research Cooperation for Coal Liquefaction
Technology


Invitation and Training of Indonesian
Engineers




                                                                                                                      32




                                                                                                                           16
       Coal Liquefaction Technology
        International Collaboration(2/2)
                         New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization


Basic Conditions of F/S for a Commercial Coal Liquefaction Plant
Basic Conditions of F/S for a Commercial Coal Liquefaction Plant

         Process                          Improved BCL Process
                                 3,000t/d (1-unit), 6,000t/d(1-unit),
       Plant Scale
                                12,000t/d (2-unit), 30,000t/d(5-unit)
      Plant Location                  Kalimanta & South Sumatra
        Raw Coal                      Berau, Mulia & Banko coals
                                               Raw Materials
       Product Oil
                                          for Transportation Fuels
         Catalyst                       Limonite Ore in Indonesia
 Production of Hydrogen                Coal Gasification Process
    Financial Analysis          DCF(Discount Cash Flow)Method
                                                                                         33




                                                                                              17

								
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