MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH THE by agl27658

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									MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION:

STRATEGIES FOR COPING WITH
 THE PREDICTED EFFECTS OF
  GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE

    IF THE PREDICTIONS ARE RIGHT, WE
   WILL BE LIVING WITH THE EFFECTS OF
    GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE
            REST OF OUR LIVES
WE MUST ANTICIPATE OUR RISK
 GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE
• GLOBAL WARMING    • NOW, GLOBAL
  WAS ONLY            WARMING IS
  DISCUSSED IN A      INCREASINGLY
  HYPOTHETICAL        BEING REGARDED
  WAY FOR MANY        AS A CLEAR FACT.
  YEARS.            • IT IMPLIES
• IT WAS CON-         SERIOUS NEW
  SIDERED AS A        RISKS FOR
  THREAT FOR THE      PRESENT AND
  DISTANT FUTURE.     FUTURE GEN-
                      ERATIONS.
 MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION
• MITIGATION            • ADAPTATION
  ADDRESSES THE           ADDRESSES THE
  “FRONT END” OF THE      “BACK END” OF THE
  GLOBAL WARMING          PROBLEM.
  PROBLEM.              • IT INCLUDES ACTIONS
• IT INCLUDES ACTIONS     THAT WILL SAFE-
  THAT WILL PREVENT       GUARD A PERSON, A
  THE RELEASE OF          COMMUNITY, A
  EXCESS CO2              BUSINESS, OR A
  EMMISIONS.              NATION.
MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• ADAPTATION IS REQUIRED BECAUSE
  WE CAN NOT TURN OFF THE
  MOMENTUM OF GLOBAL WARMING IN
  A SHORT TIME.
• CARBON DIOXIDE REMAINS IN THE
  ATMOSPHERE FOR DECADES, AND ---
• OCEANS STORE HEAT FOR
  CENTURIES.
MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• MANY COUNTRIES ARE MAKING
  LARGE INVESTMENTS AND TAKING
  ANTICIPATORY ACTIONS NOW.
• LEADERS RECOGNIIZE THAT THE
  EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING WILL
  LIKELY INCREASE THE RISKS FOR
  PEOPLE, BUSINESSES, AND
  COMMUNITIES LIVING OR LOCATED IN
  COASTAL AREAS OR IN FLOODPLAINS.
     THE NETHERLANDS:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• AFTER 800 YEARS EXPERIENCE
  BATTLING THE NORTH SEA, THE
  NETHERLANDS HAS CREATED SOME
  OF THE STRONGEST FLOOD
  DEFENSES IN THE WORLD.
• PRESENT RIVER DEFENSES PROVIDE
  1-IN -250 YEARS PROTECTION
  LEVELS.
     THE NETHERLANDS:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• THE OOESTERSCHELDEKERING, A
  PART OF THE DELTA WORKS DAMS,
  DEFENDS AGAINST THE NORTH SEA.
• THEY ARE NOW BEING MADE
  STRONGER TO PROVIDE 1-IN-100,000
  YEARS PROTECTION INSTEAD OF
  1-IN-10,000 YEARS PROTECTION.
     THE NETHERLANDS:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• THE DUTCH ARE ALSO REVISING
  TRADITIONAL FLOOD MANAGEMENT
  THINKING.
• IN ADDITION TO CONTAINING THE
  FLOOD WATERS, THEY WILL ALLOW
  CERTAIN DESIGNATED LOCATIONS TO
  BE FLOODED.
• THIS TRATEGY IS CALLED, “LIVING
  WITH WATER.”
THE OOESTERSCHELDEKERING:
     THE NETHERLANDS
     THE NETHERLANDS:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• THE NETHERLANDS WILL COMMIT
  ABOUT $1.3 BILLION ANNUALLY TO
  INCREASE PROTECTION LEVELS.
• THIS INVESTMENT IS EQUAL TO
  ABOUT 0.2 PERCENT OF THE
  NETHERLANDS’ GDP.
          BRITAIN:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• THE BRITISH ARE IMPROVING AND
  EXTENDING THE “THAMES BARRIER,”
  A SET OF FLOODGATES ACROSS THE
  THAMES RIVER.
• THE BARRIER IS NOW BEING CLOSED
  10 TIMES A YEAR TO PROVIDE
  1-IN-2,000 YEARS PROTECTION OF
  LONDON FROM FLOODING CAUSED
  BY OCEAN STORM SURGES.
THAMES RIVER BARRIER
          BRITAIN:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• THE PREDICTED RISE IN SEA LEVEL
  BY 2030 IS EXPECTED TO REQUIRE AN
  INCREASE IN PROTECTION ALONG
  THE THAMES TO 1-IN-1,000 YEARS.
• THE ENTIRE SYSTEM WILL LIKELY BE
  REPLACED AND UPGRADED BY 2100.
           JAPAN:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• JAPAN IS ANTICIPATING MUCH MORE
  WATER FROM RISEING SEA LEVEL, OCEAN
  STORM SURGES, TSUNAMI WAVE RUN UP,
  AND EXCESSIVE PRECIPITATION FROM
  TYPHOONS.
• ITS “G-CANS PROJECT” HAS CREATED
  MASSIVE UNDERGROUND CONCRETE
  RIVER CHANNELS IN NORTHWEST TOKYO
  THAT FACILITATES MOVEMENT OF EXCESS
  WATER AWAY FROM TOKYO.
    JAPAN:
G-CANS PROJECT
           JAPAN:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• JAPAN HAS INSTALLED
  UNDERGROUND PUMPS THAT CAN
  PUMP 100 TONS OF WATER PER
  SECOND OUT OF RIVERS AND INTO
  THE HARBOR TO PREVENT FLOODING
  OF CTY STREETS.
• BUT, THIS SYSTEM IS ALREADY
  CONSIDERED TO BE OPERATING AT
  FULL CAPACITY NOW.
      BANGLADESH:
MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
       BANGLADESH:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• BANGLADESH, ONE OF THE MOST
  VULNERABLE PLACES ON EARTH TO
  GLOBAL WARMING, NOW REQUIRES USE
  OF CLIMATE CHANGE MODELS IN ALL
  FUTURE PLANNING AND DECISIONS.
• IT HAS BEGUN SWITCHING LAND USE FROM
  RICE FARMING TO PRAWN FARMING IN
  LOCATIONS WHRE SALT WATER IN THE BAY
  OF BENGAL IS NOW MOVING INLAND.
       BANGLADESH:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• BUT BANGLADESH IS ONE OF THE
  POOREST COUNTRIES IN THE WORLD.
• IT CAN NOT AFFORD THE
  INVESTMENTS REQUIRED FOR
  ADAPTATION MEASURES NOW
  UNDERWAY IN MANY INDUSTRALIZED
  COUNTRIES.
• INTERNATIONAL AID IS NOW
  BECOMING AVAILABLE.
       UNITED STATES:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• ADAPTATION IS NOW ON THE
  AMERICAN AGENDA BECAUSE OF
  HURRICANE KATRINA AND ITS IMPACT
  ON NEW ORLEANS AND THE GULF
  COAST.
• NEW ORLEANS HAS BECOME A
  LABORATORY FOR SCIENCE,
  TECHNOLOGY, HAZARD INSURANCE,
  AND PUBLIC POLICY.
     NEW ORLEANS:
MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
NEW ORLEANS’ LEVEE SYSTEM
       UNITED STATES:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• NEW ORLEANS’ LEVEE SYSTEM ONLY
  PROVIDES 1-IN-100 YEARS
  PROTECTION NOW.
• 122 LEVEES IN THE SYSTEM ARE NOW
  CONSIDERED TO BE INADEQUATE
  FOR MORE SEVERE EFFECTS
  EXPECTED IN FUTURE HURRICANES.
     LEVEE SYSTEM:
MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
       UNITED STATES:
  MITIGATION & ADAPTATION
• “DEFENSE IN DEPTH,” A THREE-LAYERED
  SYSTEM, HAS BEEN DEVISED TO PROTECT
  NEW ORLEANS.
• THE INNER LAYER CONSISTS OF
  HARDENED LEVEES AND FLOOD WALLS.
• THE MIDDLE LAYER IS COMPRISED OF A
  LARGE EXPANSE OF WETLANDS.
• THE OUTER LAYER CONSISTS OF BARRIER
  ISLANDS IN THE GULF OF MEXICO.
• EACH LAYER ACTS LIKE A SPEED BUMP TO
  ABSORB AND REDUCE THE ENERGY AND
  ADVERSE IMPACTS OF THE STORM.

								
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