Product Fact Sheet Fluorescent Lamps by sofiaie


									  Department of Ecology Bulletin: Lamps

                      GOALS:          1. To replace low energy efficient lamps with the highest
                    efficiency fluorescent lamps available.
                    2. To ensure that fluorescent lamps are disposed of by the lamp recycler on
                    state contract to prevent mercury release in the environment.
 Contract # 00802
 Expires 03/2011
 GA Staff
 Name: Tim Shay
 Phone: 902-7431

    •   Goal
    •   Brief Summary
    •   Health and Environment
           o Climate Change
           o Energy Efficiency
           o Product Longevity
           o Recyclability
           o Toxic Chemical Reduction
    •   Laws and Guidelines
    •   Performance
    •   Availability
    •   Cost
    •   Specifications
    •   Vendors
    •   Success Stories
    •   Resources and Web site
    •   Sources

Brief Summary
Energy efficient lighting can save facilities a significant amount of money.
However, this type of lighting contains mercury. There are several key actions
government agencies can take to choose and use environmentally preferable
lighting equipment.
    • Look for the most energy-efficient lamps available that meet your needs.
    • Choose low-mercury fluorescent lamps.
    • Use lamps with a long rated life.
    • Recycle spent fluorescent (and HID) lamps to prevent mercury releases
        during disposal.
Health and Environment
Climate Change- Screw-in compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) use
approximately 70% less energy than equivalent incandescent light bulbs. By
lowering energy use, there are fewer demands on power plants, thus reducing
greenhouse gas contributions to climate change.

Energy Efficiency
Lighting accounts for about 40% of the energy used in most commercial
buildings. Lighting equipment can also a primary source of heat gain and waste
heat in buildings. Fluorescent lamps are a popular indoor light source in
government buildings because they are 50-90% more efficient than incandescent
light bulbs.

Substantial cost savings can be achieved by switching from incandescent lighting
compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs). Further cost savings can occur by upgrading
linear fluorescents to modern high-efficiency models. For example, by replacing
a 60-watt incandescent bulb with a 19-watt CFL, your agency can save about
$50 in energy costs over the bulb's lifetime. See table showing which CFLs to
use as replacements for standard incandescent light bulbs and the resulting
energy savings, below. Go to for a savings calculator. Good
pricing in the state contract for lamps and ballasts means this is a good time to
make improvements.

   Incandescent Equivalent          Energy
   Wattage         CFL Wattage* Savings (%)
 40                11               72.5
 52                15               71
 60                19               68
 75                23               69
 90                27               70
 100               30               70
 135               40               70
*CFLs are all bare bulbs. Higher wattage CFLs may be needed if covered bulbs are used.

Product Longevity
A typical incandescent bulb has a rated life of 750-1,500 hours, while an
equivalent compact fluorescent bulb’s rated life is usually 6,000 to 12,000 hours.
Modern linear fluorescent lamps, such as T8s and T5s (using electronic ballasts),
have rated lives ranging from 15,000 to 30,000 hours. Choosing long-life lamps –
such as those with an XP, XL or PLUS designation – avoids costs associated
with procuring, installing and recycling these items. This saves time, money, and
reduces environmental impacts.
Fluorescent lamps can be crushed, and the mercury may be removed and
reused in other applications.

Toxic Chemical Reduction
All fluorescent lamps and most high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps contain
mercury, a heavy metal with highly toxic properties. Currently, about 500 pounds
of mercury are released into the environment in Washington State each year
from improper disposal of fluorescent lamps into landfills and incinerators. This
practice is one of the largest contributors to ongoing mercury pollution.

Humans are exposed to mercury partly through consumption of certain types of
fish. The Washington State Department of Health (DOH) has issued several
statewide fish consumption advisories due to mercury contamination. One in six
women of childbearing age has unsafe levels of mercury in her blood, according
to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).When lamps are recycled,
mercury can be captured through careful extraction techniques and reused in
other manufacturing processes.

Types of Mercury-added Lamps
 Fluorescent Lamps: used in business, schools, offices and homes
 Linear, circular and u-bent tubes
 Compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) – screw-in and pin-based models
 Fluorescent lamps found in some exit signs, appliances and furniture

 High-intensity Discharge (HID) Lamps: used in streetlights, floodlights,
 photography and industrial lighting
 High-pressure sodium
 Mercury vapor
 Metal halide

 Neon signs: used in retail and restaurants
Laws and Guidelines
Revised Code of             This law directs the Department of General
Washington (RCW             Administration (GA) to give preference to the
70.95M.060)                 purchase of products that contain the least amount
                            of mercury necessary for the required performance.
Executive Order 02-03:      This EO directs state agencies to modify their
Sustainable Practices By    practices regarding the purchase of goods and
State Agencies              services with goals of minimizing energy use,
                            shifting to non-toxic materials, and expanding
                            markets for environmentally preferable products.
Executive Order 05-01:      This EO directs state agencies to reduce their
Establishing sustainability energy purchases by 10% using all practicable and
and Efficiency Goals for    cost effective means including energy efficiency
State Operations            programs.
Governor's Directive 04-01: This directive mandates that all state agencies
Persistent Toxic Chemicals discard spent fluorescent light bulbs and tubes to a
                            lamp recycling vendor. “Low mercury” lamps
                            including high-intensity discharge lamps must be
                            recycled as well.

Matching the right fluorescent lamp to the right kind of fixture and ballast helps
ensure that it will perform properly and last a long time. When relamping, if the
ballasts are compatible they do not need to be changed. Newer ballasts are far
more efficient and do not contain PCBs that can be found in older models. Most
fluorescent ballasts last about 10 years. Once a large number of ballasts need
replacement, it is recommended that entire rooms are retrofitted with “Super T8”
lamps and high-efficiency electronic ballasts. This is the established procedure
for Ecology and GA. Otherwise maintenance workers would be challenged to
determine the correct lamp for each ballast.

Energy Star-certified CFLs are now offered on the State Contract 00802 and are
listed in Sylvania’s online catalog in a wide range of wattages, shapes and sizes,
including A-shaped lamps that resemble a classic incandescent light bulb,
globes, reflector floods, and decorative candelabra-style bulbs. Dimmable and
three-way CFLs are also available. Energy Star-certified CFLs meet strict
technical specifications that ensure energy savings, high light quality and long-
lasting performance. Additional Energy Star-certified CFLs are offered on the
State’s contract with Grainger Industrial Supply.

Below is a table showing some of the environmentally preferable CFLs available
on the statewide lamps contract that can serve as drop-in replacements for
typical incandescent light bulbs. Each recommended CFL is Energy Star certified
(although not all on the contract are) and has the lowest mercury available for
that wattage.

CFL          CFL      Sylvania CFL Ordering    Sylvania   Mercury   Rated     Energy
Wattage      Mean     Description*             Order      Content   Life      Star
             Lumen                             Number*    (mg)      (hours)   Certified?
             Output                                                           (Yes/No)
11              516   CF11/MINITWIST/1         29378      2.5        8,000       Yes
15              731   CF15EL/TWIST/BL/1        29289      8         10,000      Yes
19             1032   CF19EL/MINITWIST         29410      6.5       10,000      Yes
23             1376   CF23EL/MINITWIST/BL/1    29394      3          8,000      Yes
27             1505   CF27EL/TWIST             29390      3         10,000      Yes
30             1720   CF30EL/TWIST/BL/1        29392      3          6,000      Yes
40             2235   CF40EL/TWIST/2700K       29147      6.5        8,000      Yes
*Lighting products made by Osram Sylvania are shown because most of the
products on that contract are made by this company.

Lighting accounts for 30% to 50% of the energy used in most buildings.
Significant cost savings can result by switching to CFLs and by upgrading linear
fluorescents to modern high-efficiency models. CFLs use 30 to 50% less energy
than incandescent bulbs. By replacing a 60 watt incandescent bulb with a 13
CFL bulb, your agency will save $30 or more in energy costs over the bulb's
lifetime. Go to for a savings calculator. Good pricing in the
state contract for lamps and ballasts means this is a good time to make

The mercury content of fluorescent lamps varies from around 3 milligrams (mg)
in some CFLs and high-efficiency T8s and T5s up to 100 mg in some older T12s.
All mercury-containing lamps sold in the US must have a label indicating that it
contains mercury (Hg) but not how much. The most modern, energy-efficient
lamps also tend to have the lowest mercury levels. Two major US lamp
manufacturers have posted their lamps’ mercury content data on the Internet.
Both Osram Sylvania, the manufacturer featured on the statewide lamps
contract, and Philips Lighting offer online calculators designed to help architects,
lighting specifiers, and facility managers meet the US Green Council’s LEED for
Existing Buildings prerequisite for low mercury lamps. There is no similar
information offered by General Electric, whose lamps are featured by Grainger.

High-efficiency T8s
The statewide lamps contract offers T8s that are more energy-efficient, have a
lower mercury content and longer rated life, and emit a higher quality of light than
T12s and standard-grade T8s. See box below comparing specifications for
standard and high-efficiency 4-foot T8s available on state contracts.
Comparison of specs for standard and high efficiency 4 foot T8s on state
Mercury Mean     Nominal Rated          CRI Lamp Description
Max       Lumen Mean        Hours
(mg)      Output Efficacy   Instant
                 (Lumens/ Start, 3-
                 Watt)      hr)
6         2520   78.75      15,000      75    700 series, standard life,
6         2705   84.5       18,000      78    700 series, long life, FO32/7XX/XP/ECO
3.5       2850   89.1       24,000      85    800 series, long life, FO32/8XX/XP/ECO

Fluorescent Bulbs
Consolidated Electrical Distributors, Inc. (CED)
24909 104th Ave SE #202
Kent WA 98031
Arthur Van Gelder (206) 706-4929

Lamp Recycling
Ecolights Northwest, LLC
1915 South Corgait Drive
P.O. Box 94291
Seattle, Washington 98124
Craig Lorch, Manager (888) 214-2327 or (206) 343-7443

Success Stories
The Stafford Creek Corrections Center is retrofitting its facility with more energy-
efficient fluorescent lamps. Over the life of the 12,000 lamps in the facility, the
Center anticipates annual energy savings of at least $11,000. The discarded
lamps are being recycled through Ecolights.

Resources and Websites

California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) Fluorescent
Lamps and Tubes

Energy Star

Green Seal

       Linear Fluorescent Luminaires (September - October 2000)
      Energy-Efficient CFL Downlight Luminaires (November - December 2000)

Minnesota Department of Energy Information

RPI Lighting Institute

United States Department of Energy
Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP)

      Energy Cost Calculator for compact fluorescent lamps

      Energy Efficiency Recommendations for lighting technologies

      Greening Federal Facilities (Section 5.4 - Lighting)

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