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AP CHEMISTRY COURSE SYLLABUS COURSE OVERVIEW This course is a college-level chemistry course for competent and highly motivated high school students and is designed to be the equivalent of a college-level introductory chemistry course. The course is a second year chemistry course where general chemistry is a prerequisite. The overall curriculum follows the guidelines of the Collegeboard for AP Chemistry. AP chemistry differs significantly from your general chemistry course with respect to the kind of textbook used, the range and depth of topics covered, the kind of laboratory work done, and the time and effort required. The aim of this course is to provide you with the conceptual framework, factual knowledge, and analytical skills necessary to deal critically with the theoretical and practical applications of chemistry. MEETING TIMES: This course meets every other day for 90 minutes. This provides adequate time to perform laboratory activities on any given day. In addition to “normal” class time, students are required to attend one 3 ½ hour Saturday lab session each semester in order to fully complete the lab requirements set forth by the Collegeboard. THEMES: This course is centered on the 4 major themes, Structure of Matter, States of Matter, Chemical Reactions, and Descriptive Chemistry, listed in the AP Chemistry description. Within each of these themes, there will be topics that are extensions of subject matter learned in general chemistry as well some completely new topics that will be discussed in detail. LAB COMPONENT Students work in small groups to complete the labs. Labs involve setting up the lab, answering a series of pre-lab questions, performing the experiment, analyzing results and formalize their conclusion which we then discuss at the beginning of the next class period. Labs write-ups are completed in a lab notebook and turned in for grading following the discussion. Many of the labs are interfaced with computers and Vernier sensors to accurately collect and analyze data using temperature, pressure, pH, and colorimeters. Statistical analysis of data is emphasized. Interfaced labs utilize the Advanced Chemistry with Computers manual from Vernier Software. INDEPENDENT PROJECTS: In September an individual project is introduced. Students are required to design a long- term experiment; to test and define their variables; to analyze and draw conclusions; and finally to present their findings in both a written and poster format. Students have until March to complete their research project. Weekly checks on progress help ensure students are working continually on this project throughout the year. Students will then present their findings as a poster and demonstration at our school-wide Science Expo in May. Text: Chemistry – Zumdahl 5th Edition Chapters 1-17. Grading: Grades will be established based on the following weighted scale. Tests : 50% Homework/Class Activities: 30% Laboratory Notebook: 20% Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Review Topics covered in General (summer plus 1 weeks) Lab: Vernier: “Find the Chemistry Scientific Method, hypotheses, laws, theories, relationship” significant figures, Classification of Matter, (transposing graphical Writing Ionic and covalent compounds, solve data to linear problems involving basic stoichiometry, basic relationships to gas laws, basic periodic table relationships determine relationships between x and y. Work and solve basic stoichiometry problems using the mole concept and basic gas law Lab: Vernier “Beer’s problems using the ideal and combination gas Law law equations. Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules and Ions. (2 wk) History of AtomDalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Mechanical Universe: Atomic Mass, Mass Number, Isotopes, Ions, Models of the Atom Protons, Neutrons, Electrons Video. Chapter 7: Atomic Structure and Periodicity (2wk) Structure of Electromagnetic Radiation, Bohr Model, Matter Quantum Model, Quantum Numbers and orbital shapes Lab: Bohr Model Work and solve problems using Atomic Energy Levels of Structure Equations. Hydrogen (Spectral Lines) Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Periodic Trends for Ionization energy, Atomic radii, Ionic radii, electron affinities. Reasons for oxidation numbers based on Quantum model Chapter 8-9: Bonding: General Concepts And Orbital Bonding. (2wk) Lab: Bonds, Polarity Structure of and Solubility Matter (cont) Lab: “Liquid Chromatography” Lab: Vernier: Chapter 21: The Nuclear Atom (1wk) Radioactive decay and Types of Decay: Alpha, Beta, Gamma. half life Nuclear Reactions, Half-lives. Fission, fusion Lab: Vernier: Shielding (alpha, beta, gamma) Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Chapter 5: Gases (Conceptual and Labs: mathematical relationships) (2 wk) 1)Vernier “Gas laws Boyles, Charles, Avagadro’s Laws, relationships” Combination Law, Ideal Gas law. 2) Molar Mass of Dalton’s Law of partial Pressure Butane Lab Gas Stoichiometry 3) Diffusion Lab Kinetic Theory of Gases Root mean square velocity Deviations from the ideal gas law Work and solve problems using Gas Law equations: States of Matter Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Lab: Vernier: Freezing and Melting pt of water. States of Matter (cont) Chapter 10: Liquids and Solids: (2 wk) Explanation of boiling pts based on molar mass and types of bonding (London, dipole-dipole, hydrogen bonding) Structure of water in all three phases including relative number of hydrogen bonds in each phase. Connection to surface tension in liquid phase. Ionic solids, molecular solids, metallic solids, Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work network solids and their lattice structures. Phase change vs time diagrams for substances. Pressure vs. temp. phase change diagrams for substances and descriptions of critical points Lab: Mixing Solutions and triple points. Lab: Vernier Freezing pt depression States of Matter (cont) Chapter 11: Solutions (2 wk) Molality and Molarity conceptual and mathematical Mole fraction (math) Structure, pressure, temp effects on solubility Raoult’s Law concepts and mathematical Freezing pt depression, Boiling pt Elevation (math) Osmotic Pressure Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Non-ideal Solutions (math) Work and solve problems using solutions equations: Chapter 4: Reactions and Solution Lab: Vernier: Stoichiometry “Deterinining the Mole (3 wk) ratio in a chemical 1.Predicting and balancing reactions by reaction” Reactions recognizing, composition, decomposition, Lab: Vernier: single replacement, double replacement “Conductimetric reactions (review Gen Chem) Titration and 2. Balancing Molecular, Ionic and net ionic Gravimetric reactions determination of a Predicting precipitation reactions based on precipitatie solubility rules. (review Gen Chem) 3. Balancing Redox reactions including half- Lab: Vernier: reaction method. Oxidation-Reduction Titration: Reaction of Fe2+ and Ce4+ Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work 4. Acid-Base definitions based on Arrhenius, Lab: Vernier: Acid- Bronstead-Lowry and Lewis Concepts. Base Titration 5. Acid-Base Reactions including (Determining Stoichiometry concentration of unknown acid) Lab: Vernier: “Investigating Indicators” Chapter 17: Electrochemistry (3 wk) Reactions Galvanic and Electrolytic Cells Lab: Vernier (cont) Faraday’s Law “Electrochemistry: Standard Cell Potential, Voltaic Cells” Calculating Cell potential using Nernst Equation (math) and predicting direction of Lab: redox half reactions. Vernier”Electroplating” Work and solve problems using Electrochemistry equations: Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Chapter 3: Stoichiometry (2.5 wk) (80% review from Gen Chemistry) Empirical formula labs 1. Predicting and balancing reactions by Lab: “Tin(II) or Tin recognizing, composition, decomposition, (IV)Oxide” single replacement, double replacement Lab: “Formula of a reactions and net ionic reactions. hydrate” 2. Mole concept with reactions. Determining Mass, moles, volume @STP and non-STP Lab: “%Yield of a values. chem. Reaction” 3. Calculate empirical, molecular formulas, and percent yield for reactions and or lab activities. Chapter 13: Chemical Equilibrium (2 wk) 1. Equilibrium Constant and concepts 2. Le Chatelier’s Principle and direction of equilibrium shift based on changes in Lab: Vernier: conditions. “Determination of the 3. Equilibrium expressions in terms of equilibrium constant” Pressure and concentration (math) 4. Using ICE method to determine concentrations at equilibrium. Chapter 14: Acids and Bases (1 wk) Determining equilibrium constants for weak acids and bases. Reactions Chapter 15: Solubility Products (cont) Apply equilibrium concepts to Solubility. Lab: Vernier Determine solubility product for chemical Determining Ksp reactions Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Chapter 15: Applications of Aqueous Equilibrium (2 wk) 1. Calculating pK for acids and bases (math) 2. Calculating pH of strong, weak and Buffer solutions including math. 3. Acid-Base properties of Salts…neutral pH, Lab: Vernier pH acidic pH, basic pH conceptual and titration Curves mathematical 4. Titration curves for strong-strong, weak- Lab: Vernier Buffers strong, and weak-weak acid base reactions. 5. Hydrolysis applications Work and solve problems using Equilibrium equations: Reactions (cont) Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Lab: Vernier “Rate and Order of a Chemcial Reaction” Lab: Vernier “Rate determination and Activation energy” Reactions (cont) Chapter 12: Chemical Kinetics (2.5 wk) 1. Rate law concepts and equation Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work 2. Conceptual understanding of how temp effect the rate of reaction. 3. Determine the order of reactions (0,1,2) based on concentration vs. time graphs and based on tables of initial concentrations and rates or graphs of concentration vs. time 4. Concepts of catalysts 5. Determining half-life based on rate equations 6. Determining activation energy based on concentration data. Work and solve kinetics problems using Kinetics equations: Lab: Vernier Determining the Enthalpy of a chemical Reaction Lab: Heat of Vaporization of liquid Nitrogen Lab: Melting/Freezing of water. Reactions (cont) Chapter 6: Thermochemistry (2 wk) 1. Explain each of the 3 laws of Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work thermodynamics and their consequences and connections. 2. Enthalpy concepts and calculations. 3. Hess’s Law (enthalphy calculations) 4. Heats of vaporization and Fusion. 5. Calorimetry within one phase. 6. Multiple phase calorimetry Work and solve problems using Thermo equations. Chapter 16: Spontaneity, Entropy, and Free Energy (2 wk) Reactions 1. Spontaneity and change in Entropy (cont) 2. Entropy change in chemical reactions 3. Free Energy and Chemical reactions 4. Relationship between entropy, Enthalpy and Free energy (math) 5. Free energy and electric potential (math) Work and solve problems using the Thermodynamic equations Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Descriptive Lab: Vernier: Chemistry “Seperation and Qualitative Analysis of Cations” Lab: Vernier: “Seperation and Qualitative Analysis of Anions” Theme AP Required Topics Coursework/ Text Resource Laboratory Work Descriptive Chemistry (cont) Lab: Vernier: Synthesis and Analysis of Aspirin