3D Studio Drawing of Converted Coal Power Plant to Solar Combustion
Air. Developed by Jim Galaysn. Seattle, Wa.
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Other Related Web Pages Martin Nix is involved in:
Contact Information
martin_nix@yahoo.com (note underscore between martin and nix, ie martin_nix)
Martin Nix
P.O.Box 95173
Seattle, Wa 98145-2173
What is the Market Potential?
Abstract of the Invention
Prior Art
Summary of the Invention
Detailed Description
Commentary to Investors
Grant Proposal
Business Plan (Alliance of Angels Format)

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What is solar combustion air? To explain it simply, all fireboxes…wood stoves, ovens,
furnaces, and even fireboxes for coal burning power plants all require AIR. Air is made
of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and rare gases. Nearly 97% of mankind‟s energy in
someway or form comes from combustion of fossil fuel.

Combustion air, sometimes referred to as makeup air, is air that is used by a firebox and
the fossil fuel. Without air, no fossil fuel will burn. It is the burning of fossil fuels that is
creating the major source of carbon dioxide buildup in the earth‟s atmosphere…resulting
in global warming.

Oxygen in the air comes from solar energy. The sun hits the ocean, or rain forest, and the
sun‟s energy via photosynthesis creates oxygen from algae and plants. It is this
interaction between plants and the sun that creates oxygen in the air. Without that oxygen
no fossil fuel burner would work. In effect, all fossil fuel burning is subsidized by solar
produced oxygen.

Combustion air is normally sucked in by the flame. However, if the combustion air is
already hot, it means not as much fossil fuel needs to be burned. Preheating combustion
air is a common industrial process. Often times smelters will use the heat from melted
steel to preheat air to the natural gas flame. If for example, a wood stove has air blown
into it that is already hot, not as much firewood needs to be chopped.

Previously, U.S.Patent 5,308,187, invented a process where small amounts of heat from
solar energy heat a thermal mass, called a parking lot, to preheat air to a fossil fuel
burner. This provides warmer air to a fossil fuel burner, 24 hours out of the day, 7 days a
year, year round. The heat from summer sunlight is stored underground in the mass for
winter use. By preheating the air to a fossil fuel burner, it saves small but significant
amounts of energy. This has major impacts for coal burning power plants and oil
refineries….preheating the air from solar energy means less fossil fuel is burned.
Thus reducing the amount of Carbon Dioxide released into the atmosphere, and reducing
the amount of coal that needs to be mined.

Few know that to process gasoline, oil refineries burn fossil fuels. It takes energy to make
more energy. By retrofitting solar preheated combustion air to an oil refinery, it means
not as much fossil fuel needs to be burned to make gasoline.

Below is the text of a new patent improving upon U.S.Patent 5308187. A method of
converting coal power plants (and oil refineries) to be solar powered has now been
invented. This is patent pending.

Not only is solar energy used to make hot, compressed and high velocity air. So is wind
energy, hydropower, geothermal and biomass burning. Please take special note of one
technology, part of this patent called HelioHydroElectric Power. In effect, salt/alkaline
water deep within the earth is pumped to the surface. This creates evaporation ponds,
which increases the amount of local rainfall. The evaporation of water from solar energy,
creates hydrodams which can also manufacture combustion air for fossil fuel burners.
This technology is presently being developed jointly by Israel, Palestine, and the nation
of Jordan for the Dead Sea. This technology alone could reverse Global Warming.
Above is a photo of the Centralia Coal Burning Power plant,
in Centralia, Wa.

It is huge. It is a little known fact, but the amount of energy falling from the sun unto
parking lot paving alone will power the entire United States. Parking lot surfaces do get
hot, especially in places like Phoenix. This energy can be usefully used to reduce natural
gas consumption for perhaps hot water heaters or absorption cycle air conditioning. OIL
AND GAS JOURNAL estimates state that within the next two decades close to 30
TRILLION DOLLARS (U.S.) will be spent world wide on energy development. The vast
majority of it will be spent on development of energy from combustion of fuels such as
oil or gas or coal, and a little wood. This patented invention is a hybrid system, a
combination of both fossil fuel and solar produced air. Thus, is less expensive than
entirely solar operation, or coal-only, or oil/gas only operation. Many places in the world
such as North Africa, Mexico, Australia, and the American West have extensive solar
energy. Even in the Pacific Northwest, there are sunny periods. In fact, Wind Energy and
HydroPower as from rainfall, can be integrated with Solar Combustion Air. Thus, when
the sun is cloudy, wind and hydropower can also manufacture hot air. It is a little known
fact, but often the amount of sunlight falling upon a coal strip mine will power the entire
coal burning power plant. Thus the idea is to construct these "solar parking lot
pavements" on top of coal strip mines using recycled materials and local labor. This
would be done as part of the land reclamation process. In short, it is estimated that the
total cash flow over the lifetime of the patent would be over 10 trillion dollars worldwide,
with adequate investment and R&D. Unlike other technologies like cold fusion, almost
anyone with basic physics and economics can understand how it works.

A method of converting existing fossil fuel burners, to be assisted by pre-heated,
compressed and high velocity air, is developed. The pre-heated air for combustion is
manufactured via solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal, and biomass. An economical
approach is proposed where air is gradually heated and compressed with solar energy.
Greenhouses pre-heat air for flat plate type solar collectors, which in turn heat air for
solar ponds, which in turn heat air for solar collectors that use a vacuum, which in turn
heat air for more expensive parabolic dish type solar collectors or to concentrating
systems using a tower. Utilizing lower cost solar collectors to pre-heat air for higher cost
solar collectors help reduce the over all capital cost. It is common knowledge that
greenhouses, for example, can pre-heat air economically, but only for low temperatures.
However, greenhouse air can pre-heat air for more expensive solar flat-plate collectors.
Lower cost flat plate solar collectors and greenhouses can in-turn pre-heat air for more
expensive concentrating trough type solar collectors, or for more expensive parabolic
type solar collectors, or for more expensive point focusing solar systems. Thus, the total
cost is lower. The hot air can alternatively be made from wind turbines, which compress
ambient air and heat air with hot air ovens. Geothermal energy can be used to suck
ambient air, and then heat and compress the air. Hydropower can also be used to make
hot and compressed air. The burning of biomass can also be utilized to compress and heat
the air. This combination of energy systems guarantees availability of combustion air.
Wind energy tends to be available when solar energy isn‟t, while hydropower and
biomass energy can make up for the loss of energy when solar or wind is not enough.
Flywheels, attached to electric motor fans/blowers/compressors, move and compress the
air; thus air is moved when other energy sources are not available, 24 hours a day, year
round. Renewable energy is employed to power the fan/blowers/compressors. The
thermal mass of the pipes and ground is utilized to store the heat for night and winter use.
The net result is combustion air for a firebox is made available 24 hours a day, year
round. The combustion air is then piped long distances via heavily insulated pipes to
existing fireboxes. The hot air can be used for a coal burning power plant, a natural gas
steam boiler, an oil refinery cracking-tower, smelter or any other industrial high
temperature appliance. Alternatively, the pre-heated combustion air can be used for
conversion of natural gas household appliances as hot water heaters, dryers, furnaces, and
so on. The air transfers energy via three primary methods: compression, high
temperature, and high velocity. All three add up to efficient long distance transfer of
energy via insulating pipes. The goal is to develop hot air at approximately 10
atmospheres, or normal water pressures, and to develop hot air in the 750 F degree range,
and to move air at subsonic speeds in an insulated pipe. The goal is to displace the need
to burn as much fossil fuels, and to supplement the heat load with high temperature,
compressed and high velocity air. The net result is conversion of large-scale coal burning
power plants, oil refineries, and other industrial users to be less dependent on fossil fuel,
and less polluting.

Methods of making hot and warm air from renewable energies abound. Commonly
referred to as solar, wind, biomass, or geothermal, or tidal energy; renewable energy can
make hot air, compress air, and blow air. Nix in U.S. Patent 5,308,187 (issued May 3,
1994) outlines a method of reducing fuel consumption for a fossil fuel burner. Air is pre-
heated by solar energy, using a parking lot like surface. The transparent clear covering
heats an opaque thermal conducting mass. This thermal conducting mass then transfers
heat to underground pipes. The hot air is sucked into a firebox in a coal burning power
plant. The pre-warmed air reduces the amount of fuel that needs to be burned. The
invented device improves upon Nix, to include higher temperatures, and
higher compression of the air. This makes for a more efficient combustion, reducing the
amount of carbon dioxide created, and also reduces drastically the amount of fossil fuels
Patent 5,308,187. Shown is a parking lot surface that traps solar heat for underground
pipes, that pipe air for combustion to a coal burning power plant or a fossil fuel burner,
like a wood stove.

Cottle in U.S. Patent 608,755 (issued August 9, 1898) shows an early application of solar
concentrated heat. A tracking reflector concentrates sunlight into a window to heat rocks
to a high temperature.
McCabe in U.S. Patent 3,757,516 (issued September 11, 1973) illustrates how geothermal
energy can be utilized. A fluid is moved through a geothermal formation to make a hot
saturated vapor.
Rigollot in U.S. Patent 3,757,517 (issued September 11, 1973) shows a power plant that
uses stored compressed air for off-peak power.
Gaydos in U.S. Patent 3,815,574 (issued June 11, 1974) shows a solar collector that is
simple in design. Pipes buried in sand, with iron oxide, make a hot fluid. The sand is
underneath a clear glass surrounded by an insulating box.
Rushing in U.S. Patent 3,843,238 (issued October 22, 1974) shows a tension frame solar
reflector, which can be used to reflect more sunlight onto a solar collector, thus
increasing heat.
Glickman in U.S. Patent 3,903,700 (issued September 9, 1975) shows a sunshine
powered hydro electric power plant. The expansion of a working fluid drives a pump for
water. The water, when flowing downwards, generates electrical power.
Sadan in U.S. Patent 3,966,541 (issued June 29, 1976) shows a method of concentrating
salt brines with ponds that evaporate water with solar energy. The result is to optimize
recovery of chemicals.
Kapany in U.S. Patent 3,985,116 (issued October 12, 1976) shows a high efficient flat
plate type solar collector. Light is concentrated so as to create greater temperatures.
Bard in U.S. Patent 3,985,118 (issued October 12, 1976) shows a solar furnace using
concentrating fresnel lenses. Thus, steam is generated.
Oakes in U.S. Patent 3,985,119 (issued October 12, 1976) illustrates a line focus type
parabolic solar collector. The reflection from the parabolic onto a pipe target creates high
Jahn in U.S. Patent 3,998,206 (issued December 21, 1976) shows a point focus type
parabolic solar collector, or dish type. A tracking mechanism points the parabolic at the
sun, which then reflects the concentrated sunlight onto a spherical boiler with a shield,
creating very high temperatures.
Arthur in U.S. Patent 4,010,614 (issued March 8, 1977) illustrates a power plant that
pumps water uphill using solar energy. The water when traveling downhill generates
electrical power.
Coleman in U.S. Patent 4,026,267 (issued May 31, 1977) illustrates a solar energy
apparatus that uses lens to focus solar radiation unto fiber optics. This is used to heat a
heat sink for thermal storage.
Drew in U.S. Patent 4,038,964 (issued August 2, 1977) shows a parabolic solar collector
that uniquely has an interior flat plate solar collector. Thus, the solar collector is able to
capture not only direct sunlight, but also indirect sunlight (like from clouds). The entire
assembly is covered by glass, thus is able to trap short-wave solar radiation.
O‟Neill in U.S. Patent 4,069,812 (issued January 24, 1978) shows a prismatic, line focus,
fresnel lens solar concentrator. Light is focused onto a heat transfer pipe.
Scragg in U.S. Patent 4,070,861 (issued January 31, 1978) shows a solar reactor
combustion chamber, where concentrated sunlight is used to combust a chemical. The
heat and pressure then drives a turbine.
Derby in U.S. Patent 4,079,591 (issued March 21, 1978) shows a solar power plant,
which utilizes a sun tracking parabolic collector and a plurality of energy storage and
conversion devices. A compressed superheated gas is generated.
Bennett in U.S. Patent 4,080,957 (issued March 28, 1978) shows a solar collector that
boils a liquid inside an evacuated enclosure.
Fletcher in U.S. Patent 4,091,798 (issued in May 30, 1978) shows a non-tracking solar
energy collector system, where reflectors reflect light onto a system of vacuum jacketed
Knowles in U.S. Patent 4,119,085 (issued October 10, 1978) shows a solar collector tube
with an interior heat pipe.
Mahdjuri in U.S. Patent 4,122,831 (issued October 31, 1978) shows an elongated
evacuated transparent tube for collecting solar energy.
Keith in U.S. Patent 4,141,185 (issued February 27, 1979) shows a flat plate solar
collector with an interior evacuated passageway with cavities.
Keller in U.S. Patent 4,149,856 (issued April 17, 1979) shows a method of making a
gaseous fuel using sunlight and steam.
Korr in U.S. Patent 4,159,629 (issued July 3, 1979) shows a huge solar collector floating
on top of a floating boat. The water allows for effective tracking of heavy and large solar
collectors. An island in the middle has pipes carrying the working fluid from and to the
solar energy focus.
Seidel in U.S. Patent 4,167,856 (issued September 18, 1979) shows a solar thermal power
plant using an open-air circuit. The solar energy drives a compressor and a gas turbine.
Optionally, fuels can be burned in a combustion chamber.
Wood in U.S. Patent 4,171,876 (issued October 23, 1979) shows a large curved solar
parabolic using a plurality of straight rod-like elements. A tracking support structure
supports the reflector in the correct orientation to the sun.
Boblitz in U.S. Patent 4,172,442 (issued October 30, 1979) shows a tiered passage way
for heating a gas or liquid.
Sommer in U.S. Patent 4,172,443 (issued October 30, 1979) shows a tower with a
plurality of mirrors focusing the sun‟s rays to the top of the tower. Generated are very
high temperatures.
Zenty in U.S. Patent 4,177,120 (issued December 4, 1979) shows the art of converting
coal to a gas via solar energy.
Ratliff in U.S. Patent 4,184,479 (issued January 22, 1980) shows a greenhouse capable of
storing solar heat.
Penny in U.S. Patent 4,220,136 (issued September 2, 1980) shows a line focus type
parabolic solar collector that also is able to absorb solar radiation with an interior flat
plate solar collector.
Braun in U.S. Patent 4,211,212 (issued July 8, 1980) shows how solar energy can be used
to drive an absorption cycle refrigeration system.
Margen in U.S. Patent 4,227,511 (issued October 14, 1980) shows a solar collector
system that tracks the sun while floating on a liquid. The liquid also acts as thermal
storage of the sun‟s heat.
Maes in U.S. Patent 4,242,833 (issued January 6, 1981) shows a solar greenhouse for
cold climates.
Stone in U.S. Patent 4,251,135 (issued February 17, 1981) shows a tension frame solar
planar reflector. The triangular shape frame can be used as a heliostat for focusing the
sun‟s rays on top of a tower.
Yoshida in U.S. Patent 4,256,174 (issued March 17, 1981) shows a method of heating
and cooling sand using a system of heat exchangers.
Finckh in U.S. Patent 4,259,836 (issued April 7, 1981) shows a solar power plant using
an open gas turbine circuit. The solar power plant has a compressor, a solar heater, a
combustion chamber and a turbine and generator for heating compressed air.
Jubb in U.S. Patent 4,262,484 (issued April 21, 1981) shows a gas turbine, which uses
compressed air heated by solar energy.
Bachli in U.S. Patent 4,270,524 (issued June 2, 1981) shows a hollow evacuated tube
with an interior solar energy absorber.
Synder in U.S. Patent 4,276,122 (issued June 30, 1981) shows how solar energy can be
used to distill water.
Wood in U.S. Patent 4,295,709 (issued October 20, 1981) shows a parabolic
concentrating collector using a plurality of triangular reflecting panels, supported by a
tracking framework.
Hutchison in U.S. Patent 4,297,1981 (issued October 27, 1981) shows a trough line focus
type solar collector. Unique is a stressed skin monocoque construction.
Dobson in U.S. Patent 4,300,539 (issued November 17, 1981) shows a solar collector
made of glass fiber reinforced concrete.
Crandon in U.S. Patent 4,303,057 (issued December 1, 1981) shows a method of focusing
sunlight onto a swimming pool. It represents methods of heating water in swimming
pools at low temperatures.
Reinert in U.S. Patent 4,306,542 (issued December 22, 1981) shows a solar greenhouse
design, which removes unwanted heat.
Goldstein in U.S. Patent 4,318,393 (issued March 9, 1982) shows a porous surface
receiver placed on top of a tower. Heliostats focus the sun‟s rays onto the receiver.
Atmospheric air is used as the working fluid.
Jardin in U.S. Patent 4,326,501 (issued April 27, 1982) shows a solar furnace design.
Pipes are embedded in a tank for thermal storage.
Wirguin in U.S. Patent 4,328,788 (issued May 11, 1982) shows a heat storage pond using
a saturated aqueous saline solution for storage of solar heat.
Moore in U.S. Patent 4,328,791 (issued May 11, 1982) shows a tank for storing solar
heat, which is supplemented by a fossil fuel burner and firebox.
Mori in U.S. Patent 4,340,812 (issued July 20, 1982) shows a light energy collection
apparatus to focus the sun‟s rays into fiber optics.
Whiteford in U.S. Patent 4,358,183 (issued November 9, 1982) shows a solar reflecting
panel with a tensioning frame.
ElDifrawi in U.S. Patent 4,363,703 (issued December 14, 1982) shows a solar energy
desalination process for solar evaporation of salt water.
Wood in U.S. Patent 4,372,772 (issued February 8, 1983) shows a solar parabolic
reflector comprised of a plurality of triangular reflecting members.
Drost in U.S. Patent 4,394,859 (issued July 26, 1983) shows a central solar energy
receiver on top of a tower which uses fin shaped slats. Heliostats focus the sun‟s rays
onto the receiver.
Van der aa in U.S. Patent 4,421,099 (issued December 20, 1983) shows a solar collector
heat pipe with an evaporator.
Posnansky in U.S. Patent 4,421,102 (issued December 20, 1983) shows a quartz glass
pipe for concentrated sunlight.
Aiman in U.S. Patent 4,415,339 (issued November 15, 1983) shows a solar coal
gasification reactor to create gaseous fuel.
Platell in U.S. Patent 4,445,499 (issued May 1, 1984) shows a method of storing solar
heat in the ground using pipes.
Assaf in U.S. Patent 4,475,535 (issued October 9, 1984) shows a solar pond which is
Snook in U.S. Patent 4,481,774 (issued November 13, 1984) shows a solar canopy over a
canyon. The uprising of solar heated air drives large turbines.
Kitzmiller in U.S. Patent 4,514,914 (issued May 7, 1985) shows a method of converting a
typical electric or gas clothes dryer to be powered by solar heat.
Slemmons in U.S. Patent 4,515,151 (issued May 7, 1985) shows a fiber reinforced
concrete solar collector.
Dobson in U.S. Patent 4,559,882 (issued December 24, 1985) shows a biomass fuel
furnace. Heat exchangers remove moisture from the biomass. The air is preheated for
combustion via exchangers.
Sankrithi in U.S. Patent 4,581,897 (issued April 15, 1986) shows a solar power collection
apparatus that uses heliostats that focus the sun‟s rays onto a tethered aerostat.
Qader in U.S. Patent 4,582,590 (issued April 15, 1986) shows a method of heating oil
shale with solar energy. The resulting pyrolysis process creates an useful gaseous and
liquid fuel.
Bronstein in U.S. Patent 4,596,238 (issued June 24, 1986) shows an interiorly tensioned
solar reflector, which forms a line focus parabolic collector.
Percival in U.S. Patent 4,602,614 (issued July 29, 1986) shows a hybrid solar combustion
receiver for a hot gas engine.
Moore in U.S. Patent 4,649,899 (issued March 17, 1987) shows a turntable frame to track
the sun and to point solar cells at the sun.
Butler in U.S. Patent 4,671,025 (issued June 9, 1987) shows a greenhouse roof
construction method.
Hisken in U.S. Patent 4,786,205 (issued November 22, 1988) shows a method of
conserving water in remote locations.
Kurashima in U.S. Patent 4,786,795 (issued November 22, 1988) shows a method of
tracking the sun by floating solar cells on top of a liquid.
Tindell in U.S. Patent 4,841,731 (issued in June 27, 1989) shows a solar powered system
where hydrogen and oxygen are combusted, thus to drive a turbine. Photovoltaic cells
drive an electrolysis generator, which manufactures hydrogen and oxygen from water.
Wright in U.S. Patent 4,875,298 (issued in October 24, 1989) shows a pre-heater for a
clothes dryer. Valves are used to either draw air from solar heated attic space, or from
ambient air to the air inlet of the dryer.
Vanzo in U.S. Patent 4,910,963 (issued in March 27, 1990) shows a solar energy system
utilizing cyrogenic hydrogen and oxygen. Solar energy is used to power the electrolysis
and cyrogenic cooling equipment.
Andersen in U.S. Patent 4,979,494 (issued December 25, 1990) shows a parabolic dish
type solar collector used to cook food.
Bronicki in U.S. Patent 4,942,736 (issued July 24, 1990) shows how solar energy can
heat a gas for a gas turbine using a rotating ceramic.
Travis in U.S. Patent 5,058,675 (issued October 22, 1991) shows a method for destructive
distillation of kerogen. A large reflector, on tracks, focuses the sun‟s rays onto a boiler.
Michel-Kim in U.S. Patent 5,089,030 (issued February 18, 1992) shows a method of
gasification of a solid fuel, using a pre-combustion chamber and pre-heated air.
Pitt in U.S. Patent 5,161,520 (issued November 10, 1992) shows a solar powered steam
generator for pumping ground water for rural areas.
Vitale in U.S. Patent 5,228,293 (issued July 20, 1993) shows a solar to electric power
conversion system using a stirling cycle. An auxiliary fossil or biomass heater can be
used to supplement.
Karni in U.S. Patent 5,323,764 (issued June 28, 1994) shows a central solar receiver for
concentrated sunlight.
Rogers in U.S. Patent 5,325,844 (issued July 5, 1994) shows a lightweight tracking solar
collector of the point focusing type. Numerous plates focus the sun‟s rays via a bicycle
wheel type structure.
Bellac in U.S. Patent 5,384,489 (issued January 24, 1995) shows a wind powered
electricity generating system with a thermal fluid heated by a heater.
Bharatham in U.S. Patent 5,417,052 (issued May 23, 1995) shows a hybrid solar central
receiver. The power plant also uses molten salt as the heat transfer medium. Air is pre-
heated for a gas compressor.
Moore in U.S. Patent 5,444,972 (issued August 29, 1995) shows how a solar central
receiver can manufacture steam for a turbine. Alternatively, fossil fuel can be used.
Bronick in U.S. Patent 5,448,889 (issued September 12, 1995) shows a method of
producing compressed air using solar energy.
Edelson in U.S. Patent 5,454,853 (issued October 3, 1995) shows use of energy sources
like wind, solar, hydro, or off peak conventional power to manufacture steel.
Nix in U.S. Patent 5,488,801 (issued February 6, 1996) shows how a solar powered
photovoltaic fan can cool a solar greenhouse, and move air.
Johnson in U.S. Patent 5,551,237 (issued September 3, 1996) shows a method of
producing hydroelectric power, where solar produced steam is used to displace water
operating a hydro turbine.
Ross in U.S. Patent 5,685,151 (issued in November 11, 1997) shows a method of
concentrating solar heat using sodium chloride. A concentrating parabolic dish type
collector focuses the sun‟s rays onto the fluid.
Bronicki in U.S. Patent 5,704,209 (issued January 6, 1998) shows a method of
compressing and heating air for an externally fired gas turbine. Solar energy can also
supplement. Steam is generated.
Johnssen in U.S. Patent 5,707,762 (issued January 13, 1998) shows a method of
generating electricity from solar grown biomass.
Shuler in U.S. Patent 5,734,202 (issued March 31, 1998) shows a method of generating
electricity utilizing a re-circulating air tunnel. The kinetic energy of the wind stores
energy for electrical power generation.
Assaf in U.S. Patent 5,755,102 (issued May 26, 1998) shows a method of producing
power from concentrated brines. Evaporated water is flashed into steam for a turbine.
Cohn in U.S. Patent 5,857,322 (issued January 12, 1999) shows a hybrid solar and fuel
fired electrical system.
Falbel in U.S. Patent 6,019,319 (issued February 1, 2000) is typical of flywheel
technology, where energy is stored in a rotating mass.
Steinmann in U.S. Patent 6,141,949 (issued November 7, 2000) shows a process for using
solar energy in a gas and steam power station.
Bronicki in U.S. Patent 6,321,539 (issued November 27, 2001) shows a retrofit for
reducing the consumption of fossil fuel by a power plant using solar energy. Compressed
air is heated by solar energy, driving a turbine. Hot gases create steam.
Bellac in U.S. Patent 6,484,506 (issued in November 26, 2002) shows a solar power
enhanced combustion turbine. Air is cooled by solar energy.
Merswolke in U.S. Patent 6,672,054 (issued January 6, 2004) shows a wind powered
hydroelectric power plant. Wind turbines create compressed air. Large storage tanks are
used to regulate high-pressure liquid flow to a turbine electric generator.
Lawheed in U.S. Patent 6,672,064 (issued January 6, 2004) shows a system for
converting solar energy to electric and thermal energy.
Keeton in U.S. Patent 6,676,837 (issued January 13, 2004) shows a solar powered
aeration system that can keep lakes aerated for aquaculture.
Bronicki in U.S. Patent 6,694,738 (issued February 24, 2004) shows a retrofit system for
reducing fossil fuel consumption for a power plant using solar radiation.
Mehos in U.S. Patent 6,739,136 (issued May 25, 2004) shows a hybrid solar fossil fuel
receiver, which combines pre-heats the air-fuel mixture. A heat exchanger provides heat
for the hybrid arrangement.
Fairlie in U.S. Patent 6,745,105 (issued June 1, 2004) shows an energy distribution and
control network for hydrogen fuel.
All of the above art show that all the components necessary for the invented device exist.
Existing power plants, as coal burning power plants, smelters, oil refineries, and other
industrial plants can be converted economically to renewable energies using the
mentioned patented technologies. All of these technologies can be employed to pre-heat
air for combustion. When air is pre-heated, and compressed and piped long distance to a
fossil fuel burner, not as much fossil fuel is necessary to burn in an industrial firebox.
Alternatively, commercial and residential buildings can be converted to integrate pre-
heated, compressed hot air so as to reduce fossil fuel consumption. Typical appliances
like gas hot water heaters, gas clothes dryers, or furnaces can be converted to integrate
make-up air for combustion, where the make-up air is manufactured from renewable
energies. The disclosed invented device shows a new and novel method of creating
combustion air for use by mankind.

The invented device improves upon Nix, U.S. Patent 5,308,187 (issued May 3, 1994).
Nix claims a system of heating air with solar energy and for supplying air to a fossil fuel
burner. However, the system described only supplies air in the low temperature range. To
adequately power a large-scale power plant, a coal burning power plant will need
temperatures on upwards above 750 F degrees. Often the interior of a firebox of a coal
power plant can approach 1,000 F degrees. By pre-heating air to high temperatures, it can
reduce significantly the amount of coal burned. And also it will reduce the amount of
carbon dioxide gases generated, and reduce pollution. Alternatively, the same technology
can pre-heat air for common household appliances like a gas hot water heater. This
invented device is not unlike a common utility, like underground water, natural gas, fiber
optic, electrical power, or other utilities. It is proposed that the color code “deep purple”
be assigned for the invented device‟s pipes.
         It is common knowledge that hot air can be made from solar energy. Hot air made
from solar energy in the low temperature range (100 to 200 F degrees) is fairly
inexpensive. Often times apex heat of a greenhouse or house attic can be sucked into a
pipe. However, when hot air is manufactured in the 750 F or hotter range, concentrating
solar collectors can be very expensive. What is proposed is a system of different types of
solar collectors, each designed to gradually heat air, in stages. This will make production
of hot air more economic. Whichever type of solar collector, that is the most cost
effective for a particular temperature range, is used. More lower cost solar collectors pre-
heat the air for higher cost solar collectors.
         The goal of the invented device is to employ various energy sources, like wind,
solar, geothermal, tidal energy, or biomass energy, to manufacture hot air for combustion
24 hours a day, year long. The concept is to develop various modular systems, which then
can be picked and chosen, depending on local economics and land use. For example, if
the site for the large power plant has extensive solar energy, but lacks hydropower or
wind energy, then solar collectors can be emphasized. If however, the region is stormy,
with lots of rainfall, then hydropower and wind energy can be emphasized. Developed,
are approximately, but not necessarily, 100 ft by 100 ft land area size modules. Each
module is of one type of solar, wind, or geothermal, biomass, or hydropower (or other
renewable energy) systems. Each module is tailored to that particular degree range to
manufacture hot air. Whichever is most cost effective is built. For example, greenhouse
air is cost effective for warming air in the 100 F degree range, but ineffective at
producing temperatures in the 500 F degree range. Each step of the way, air is pre-
warmed by the module. The greenhouse air could pre-heat air to a higher temperature
solar collector, flat-plate or concentrator type. This allows for the use of lower cost low
temperatures solar collectors, thus downsizing the need to spend more money on higher
cost high temperature solar collectors.
         In order to power a large coal burning power plant, or other fossil fuel fire boxes,
it will be necessary to utilize large amounts of land area. It is proposed that these solar
collectors be constructed on top of “brown land” or land that has been environmentally
wrecked, like a coal strip mine. It is proposed that recycled materials, such as recycled
glass or fly ash, be used in the construction. As the coal is stripped from the land, this
solar collecting “farm”, would be built on top. This step can be done as part of the land
reclamation process. A parking lot like solar collecting paving, for example, can be
placed on top of the coal strip mine. Underneath pipes transport hot air from solar
collectors. The paving acts as mounting for solar collectors or wind turbines. The paving
also acts as a “hot blanket”. The goal is to keep underground pipes and ground hot. Often
times the amount of sunlight falling on a coal strip mine is several times more than the
electrical power generated. Often times the amount of sunlight falling on a lake behind a
hydro-dam is several times more than the electrical power generated.
         The net result is hot, compressed and high velocity air is manufactured for
combustion. These underground pipes are not typical; they will need insulation. These
pipes when transporting hot air, are surrounded by thick insulation, and are buried in dry
insulating soil. The goal is to use renewable energy to 1) heat air, 2) compress air, and 3)
make air high velocity. Thus the energy is captured and blown at the fossil fuel burner. It
is common knowledge that when air is hot, that air will expand. At sea level, and at 67 F
degrees, air has a density of approximately .075 pounds per square foot. However, when
air is heated to higher temperatures (at atmospheric pressure), the air can weigh as little
as .02 pounds per square foot. It is this principle that makes hot air balloons float. The air
expands and attempts to consume more volume.
         However, when air is heated in an enclosed volume, like a pipe, the air increases
in pressure. Alternatively, the air also flows at a higher velocity down the pipe. This is
not unlike a jet aircraft turbine. A jet aircraft engine will suck, compress, heat and blow.
It is proposed that renewable energies be employed to heat air, and also make the air
compressed and high velocity, much like a jet aircraft turbine.
         In order to capture the heat, the pipes must necessarily be heavily insulated. For
example, a one feet diameter pipe will necessarily be surrounded by 2 feet of insulation
(above R-100). This insulation will necessarily have to be shielded and made waterproof,
in that water via convection can rob the pipe of heat. Thus a double pipe system is
proposed. The interior pipe can be made of metal, much like that used for water pipe. The
metal pipe is surrounded by insulation. The exterior pipe is then made of cement or
concrete. Wherever practical, recycled materials are used.
        The net result is the energy is transported via three methods: 1) heated air, 2)
compressed air, and 3) high velocity air. At the fossil fuel burner the energy is recovered
from the air. The heated air is used to warm and make hot the fossil fuel. The energy
from compression is recovered at the fossil fuel burner, much like that of a spring being
recoiled. Finally, the velocity of the air is recovered. When air travels down a pipe, much
like a water pipe, the kinetic energy can be measured in foot-pounds. One foot-pound of
traveling mass would be a pound of air, traveling one foot. It takes several cubic feet to
make one pound of air, at atmospheric pressure. Compressing the air helps to create a
pound of air in a smaller volume. This compression also increases the temperature. The
key is when fuel is mixed with the hot, compressed and high velocity air; the fuel air
mixture is effective for combustion. By transporting energy via this method, it avoids
more expensive heat transfer methods as melted salts, or hot oil, or steam pipes. Air is a
cheap heat transfer fluid, commonly available. If for example, there is a leak of heat
transfer fluids, it would be expensive to replace. Air on the other hand is inexpensive to
        One major concern is when air is heated and compressed that it not cause the
pipes to start melting or cracking from the extreme pressure and heat. Air should not
travel faster than the speed of sound in pipes. Air should not be higher pressure that now
commonly used for water pipes. Consequently, it is proposed that air not be heated more
than 750 F degrees, or compressed more than ten atmospheres. But these temperature
ranges can be exceeded with special pipes and materials.
        It is common knowledge that a coal burning power plant can suck in tens of
thousands of cubic feet of air in a minute. A coal burning power plant can potentially
suck in 10,000 to 100,000 cubic feet of air in a minute. That is a lot of air. In order to
deliver the same amount of pounds of air, large insulated pipes would be necessary. It is
possible to use upwards to ten separate 3 feet diameter pipes for the pre-heated air to
meet the demand of a large coal burning power plant. With insulation each of these pipes
can approach ten feet in diameter, with close to 3 feet of insulation surrounding 3 feet
diameter hot air pipes.
        Presently, power plants must necessarily use parasitic electricity to power large
blowers that feed the flames of a firebox. With these insulated pipes, that parasitic energy
for these blowers would be unnecessary.
        With the air already pre-heated, it will necessitate the relocation of existing heat
exchangers and economizers. These insulated pipes do not eliminate the function of heat
exchangers or economizers, but reallocates their function. For example, with air already
hot before going to the firebox, the slow rotating economizer can now heat air for another
purpose. Pre-boilers, which pre-heat the main boilers water to the triple point, can have
the air pre-heated by the air from the economizer, instead. (The triple point is the exact
temperature and pressure where water is still liquid and steam). This triple point water is
highly pressurized. When placed into tubes buried in the coal power plants firebox, the
heat from the combustion and hot air flashes the water to make steam. The high-pressure
steam in turn drives the turbines to make electrical power. The goal is not to have exhaust
travel out the stacks above 300 F degrees, but recover the heat usefully. Exchangers and
economizers will necessarily have to be reengineered in function.
         It is envisioned that pre-heated combustion air may necessarily have to be piped
from long distances, not unlike long distance water pipes or electrical power lines, or
long distance pipelines. Thus it is proposed that large diameter transmission lines for
combustion air be developed. These transmission pipes could potentially pipe heated air
750 F, at 10 atmospheres, and upwards toward 1,000 feet per second. Key to these
transmission lines is to avoid placing them in moist soil. Water can potentially rob the
underground pipes of heat, thus cooling the interior hot air. But the concept of long
distance transmission for combustion air is feasible.
         Part of the reason for heavily insulating the pipes is that the air when it travels
through the pipe, it creates friction. The air molecules bounce off the surface of the
interior of the pipes. The higher pressure, the more the air molecules bounce. The friction
creates additional heat, thus heating the pipes even more. The pipes are not only heated
from the heat of the hot air, but also from the friction of the air moving against the pipe
surface. The goal is to make air so it flows laminar, not turbulent. Like a clarinet when
played, the pipes when cold will provide great resistance. But when the pipes are hot, the
resistance to the moving air will be greatly decreased. The purpose of the insulation is to
make sure the pipes remain hot, once made hot. Hot pipes make the moving mass of the
compressed air more slippery, or increase the viscosity. Cold pipes can act much like ice
blocking the flow of water. Cold pipes can make the air flow more turbulent, while hot
pipes can make the air flow more laminar. At startup, some of the heat from the air will
necessarily be used to make the pipes hot. It will take some energy to make the pipes hot,
but once the pipes are hot, the pipes will stay hot from the thermal mass. The hot pipes
should be an effective method of energy transfer. When air travels at 100 to 1000 feet per
second, it means that hot air can be manufactured from renewable energy farms several
miles away. It may be possible to transmit combustion air 50 to 100 miles away. For
example, when air travels at 100 feet per second, the air will travel 6,000 feet within one
minute, or about a mile a minute, or 60 miles per hour.
         The ambient air when sucked into the invented device does not have to be dry air.
It can be moist air, saturated, like humid vapor. Greenhouse air can be moist from plants
and evaporation of water. Thus air sucked in from the greenhouse can be moist and
humid. Sucking into the invented device moist saturated air makes for more efficient heat
transfer. Water has a greater mass, or specific heat than dry air. The water thus can carry
heat better. In effect, the invented device uses both water and air for heat transfer. The
added water also helps in the combustion of fossil fuel.
         Another feature of the invented device is the air can be processed so as to include
more oxygen. A greenhouse makes air oxygen rich from the oxygen producing plants.
The air can be sucked in from the greenhouses with this oxygen rich atmosphere. It is
common knowledge that plants make oxygen from breaking down carbon dioxide in air
via photosynthesis. The addition of moisture and oxygen to the combustion air is another
method of energy transfer. The invented device thus transfers energy five ways, instead
of just three: 1) heat, 2) pressure, 3) high velocity, 4) water vapor and 5) oxygen.
         Solar energy can also be used to modify, the local climate beneficially. With large
amount of paving area, and large amounts of solar collectors, the invented device will
create a huge watershed. The water from the watershed can be captured by hydro-dams.
The captured water can then be used by the greenhouses, or by agriculture. The
watershed will also help generate hydropower, which in turn can be used to make
additional combustion air.
        Of noteworthy consideration, there is a huge underground aquafier of salt/alkaline
water underneath the American West (and also African Sahara). This water is deep
underground, below sea level. Wells, for pumping this water to the surface can drill down
to access it. By using solar and wind-powered pumps, this salt/alkaline water can be
pumped to the surface. Once pumped to the surface, this salt/alkaline water can be placed
in basins or ponds. The water is evaporated by sunlight, helping to modify the local
climate, thus increasing the local rainfall and morning fog. This adds moisture to the
region, but also helps drought protect the local area. The added moisture helps local
agriculture, greenhouses, and also adds fresh water to hydro-dams. Commonly referred to
as heliohydroelectric technology, the use of underground salt/alkaline water resources
can help create additional combustion air. For example, a small hydro-dam can compress
ambient air via rotation of a hydro-turbine and fan/blower/impeller combination. A
second water hydro-turbine can generate electrical power. The resulting electricity heats a
heating element, which in turn makes the hot air from the other hydro-turbine hot. This is
not unlike a giant hair dryer. The condensation of morning fog and rainwater (that was
generated by the heliohydroelectric evaporation ponds) thus converts to heat, compressed
and high velocity combustion air. Thus artificial local rainfall can be created to make
combustion air.
        Optionally, wind energy can be used to make combustion air. Wind turbines can
generate electrical power, which in turn can power a resistive electric element. This
element can then heat ambient air for combustion in a “hot air oven”. The wind turbine
can also power blowers/impellers/fans, which blow the air through the hot air oven.
Flywheels can be coupled to the blower, thus when wind is unavailable, the stored
rotational energy of the flywheel will keep the air moving.
        The burning of biomass can also help create combustion air. The biomass,
perhaps from the greenhouses, would heat combustion air via an exchanger. This would
provide combustion air when solar or wind energy is less available. Unique is the concept
of a remotely located biomass combustor that could be located miles away from a large
power plant. The concept of use of exhaust to pre-heat air for combustion is not new, but
what is new is the concept of creating combustion air from a large distance away.
        Optionally, geothermal energy can be utilized to manufacture combustion air. A
rotating compressor would inject air into a hot geothermal formation via injection pipes.
A second pipe would extract the hotter air, and then drive another turbine. This “energy
recovery turbine” would then drive the rotating compressor. The resulting hot air is piped
via insulated pipes to the distant power plant.
        Optionally, hydrogen fuel can be made from solar, wind, or biological energy
sources. Thus, potentially fossil fuels could be replaced by hydrogen. All of these steps
make for a complete energy system to convert a large-scale coal burning power plant (or
other fossil fuel fire boxes). Coal plants can be very polluting. By converting the power
plants to renewable energy, it will eliminate the need for additional coal strip mining. It
will also help extend the life of existing coal strip mines, making for a very economically
combination. It will also help reduce the cost and size of air pollution equipment.
        It should be noted that each of these modules are incrementally installed. In the
first year, 10% of the power plant heat could be powered by renewable energy. The next
year 20% of the heat load would be converted. Each incremental step is built within a
period of time. As each incremental step is built, it is revenue producing almost
immediately, thus helping financing the project. For large coal burning power plants, it
will take several years to convert. During that period the cost of capital can be recovered,
before the next module is built. Incremental steps help recover the cost of construction
sooner. This invented device is a retrofit to almost any fossil fuel burning power plant.
It‟s primary intent is for “external combustion engines”, like steam plants, or hot water
heaters. It is not intended for “internal combustion engines”.
         All of the above make for a complete energy system that can be retrofitted to
almost any fossil fuel burner. Worldwide, nearly 97% of mankind‟s energy comes from
combustion of oil, gas or wood, or coal. Practically, any firebox can be retrofitted with
this device. In it‟s simple form, a wood stove can suck air from an exterior solar flat plate
collector. When air is sucked from outside, it is already hot, not cold, from the solar
collector. It means not as much firewood has to be chopped to heat a room. Another
example is a hot water heater. When air is sucked or blown into the firebox of a natural
gas hot water heater, it makes the water hot. However, at night or winter, small amounts
of fossil fuel can be burned to make up the heat difference. Thus, pre-heated air from
solar energy can supplement fossil fuels.
         Pre-heated air from renewable energies has applications more than just coal
burning power plants. It can be used for household appliances like clothes dryers, hot
water heaters, furnaces, building exchange air, food drying, cooking food, water
distillation or to power an absorption cycle air conditioner/refrigerator. Combustion air
can be useful for oil refineries in processing gasoline, plastics, or fertilizers. By
integrating solar and other renewable technologies, it allows for oil, gas and coal to be
used more as a material, than as a fuel. The addition of renewable energies to industrial
process heat will help extend existing geologic resources of oil, coal and gas, and also
help reduce the need for high cost exploration. In effect, the invented device will aid, not
replace, the existing fossil fuel industry. The invented device helps reduce air pollution,
and also drastically reduces carbon dioxide emissions.
         Key to developing the invented device is economics. Key is to integrate “dual
economics”. A greenhouse, for example, not only creates warm and moist oxygenated air,
it also produces plants, biomass and food. The greenhouse becomes self-financing, giving
combustion air as a bonus. A solar pond, of salt water, captures solar heat. The salt water
also creates moisture. The overhead inflatable greenhouse over the solar pond can
recover the moisture via distillation. The condensate from the cooler greenhouse creates
fresh water. The fresh water then is “sold”. A flat plate farm can be the roof of a
warehouse. Wind farms can also be a cattle pasture. Thus, the land can be more
productive and more economic. A hydro-dam allows for fish farming. The net result is
overall reduction in the cost of manufacture of combustion air.
         It should be noted that to make solar, wind and other renewable energy equipment
take energy to construct. It takes energy to make energy. Thus renewable energy can be
used to manufacture renewable energy equipment. Solar energy is used to make solar
collectors, for example. Local manufacturing of combustion air equipment adds to the
local employment and tax base. It also reduces transportation cost and helps dispose of
recycled materials. The invented device is a collection of renewable energy systems,
wind, solar, hydropower, geothermal, biomass and potentially tidal energy. Each is
focused on making combustion air for a fossil fuel burner. Each is focused on making air
hotter, more pressurized, and moving at a higher velocity, 24 hours a day, year round.
The key is to make the air via the most economical approach.
         It is proposed that a graduated system be developed, where each module feeds to
the other module. Proposed are modules of fixed size and shape, which are “picked and
chosen”. For example, greenhouses will pre-warm the air that is blown into solar ponds
(of salt water), or the greenhouses can pre-warm air to heated “sandboxes” with glass
across, or more efficient solar flat-plates. The warmer air is then blown into more
expensive concentrating solar collectors, like line-focus or evacuated solar tubes with a
vacuum. By pre-heating the air with lower cost solar collectors, it helps reduce the size,
cost and mount of more expensive high temperature solar collectors. The pre-heating of
air in a gradual manner, stage by stage, means air can be blown into “very expensive”
solar furnaces from less expensive modules. Thus not as many “very expensive” solar
furnaces need to be built.
         These “very expensive” solar collectors can be of various types: towers with
heliostats, parabolic dishes, line-focus solar troughs, and so on. These very large solar
furnaces can float on a turntable of water, or air, or can rotate to face the sun on steel
tracks. By pre-heating the air from one system to another, whichever is most economic, it
allows for a cost effective total system.
         Key is to capture as much of the sunlight usefully and efficiently as possible.
When a solar system allows most of the sunlight to fall on the ground, it is wasteful of
land area. When solar collectors only capture a portion of sunlight, it allows a lot of heat
to escape. This will unnecessarily require more land area to do the same job. Achieving
50% to 90% capture of solar radiation is essential to reduce the land area necessary to do
the same job.
         Key to movement of combustion air would be blowers, impellers, and fans. These
will necessarily have to use solar, wind, geothermal or biomass energy. (Some fossil fuels
can be used to keep a constant pressure, such as from a biodiesel powered blower.) The
invented device proposes compressor modules of various types, perhaps 10 feet by 100
feet each in land area. Wind turbines can drive an electric blower. When the wind blows,
the combustion air is blown and compressed. Solar photovoltaics can also power an
electric blower. Solar heat can, also, boil a fluid like freon to drive a turbine. Stirling
cycle engines can capture heat from biomass to drive a fan. Alternatively, hydropower or
geothermal or biomass can also power a blower. Each of the 100 ft by 100 ft land area
modules would have their own compressor/blower/fan. Thus a greenhouse would have a
biomass compressor module, which then blows the air into a solar sand box collector, for
example. The solar pond module would have a wind-powered compressor, which blows
the air into a flat-panel module. The thermal powered compressor could use solar heat to
boil a working fluid, like alcohol, steam, ammonia or freon to drive a turbine. Each step
of the way, various compressor modules blow and compress the air. Each renewable
energy module has it‟s own compressor. The downstream lower cost modules pre-heat
the air for more expensive upstream modules.
         It is proposed that the pipes be sized so that the airflow rate will be about 100
cubic feet per minute per module. As the air is heated and compressed, the air has more
“enthalpy” (Enthalpy being defined as the total of all energy: compression, heat, velocity,
water vapor and oxygen). At cold startup, the air will necessarily move slowly, but as the
system warms, the air moves faster, and is more slippery, or increases viscosity. Proposed
is a system of greenhouses, sandboxes, solar ponds, flat-plates, evacuated tubes, line
focusing parabolic trough solar collectors, point focusing parabolic dish solar collectors.
Each step of the way, the air is made hotter and more compressed. Each module has it‟s
own compressor module, sucking the air from the downstream module and blowing and
compressing the air to the upstream module. Each compressor module can have a
flywheel attached to the blower/fan/impeller, thus allowing for storage of energy in the
form of a rotating flywheel. When solar or wind energy is not available for the
blower/fan/impeller, the flywheel will move the air.
        The entire system of modules has considerable amount of thermal mass. It will
take a considerable amount of time and also solar energy to make the entire system of
pipes and energy collectors “hot”. This is referred to as “startup energy”. However, once
hot, the modules will stay hot, even at nighttime or winter. By integrating hydropower,
wind energy and geothermal or biomass, it guarantees that the combustion air will be
delivered to the fossil fuel power plant, 24 hours out of the day, 7 days out of the week,
year round. Wind energy tends to be very available during storms and during nights,
exactly when solar energy isn‟t available. Hydropower turbines can make combustion air
during periods when solar or wind energy isn‟t available. Geothermal or biomass energy,
if available, can supplement. By going to multiple sources of renewable energy, and by
integrating a large thermal mass, it will guarantee that combustion air will remain
available on demand, 24 hours a day, year round, even during storms and at nighttime.
        Each solar farm will be a compilation of several sub-modules. The goal is to
generate air at 750 F degrees, 10 atmospheres, and at 100 cubic feet per second per
module. These pipes would range in size from one-inch diameter to one-foot in diameter.
The solar farms would then collectively compress air into long distance transmission
pipes. The transmission system would further compress and move air, perhaps upwards to
1000 cubic feet per second. The transmission pipes would be heavily insulated and be of
larger diameter. Larger compression blowers/fans/impellers (powered by renewable
energy) would suck and compress. The transmission pipes are not dissimilar in function
to pumping water. For example, to pipe combustion air over a mountain, electric
blowers/fans/impellers would push the combustion air uphill over the mountain. As the
combustion air flows downhill, turbines would recover the downward kinetic energy. The
downhill side recovers the energy in the form of electricity, and the upside gets the
energy. Thus the downhill side helps “pump” the uphill side. This process is not unlike
what is done today for pumping water over mountains.
        At the end of the transmission pipes, the combustion air is then utilized. It then
can supplement the heat load of a coal burning power plant, a gas burning power plant,
smelter or an oil refinery, or for other industrial heat. It can alternatively, be placed under
streets and sidewalks for use by commercial or residential users. Retrofitting each fossil
fuel burner will require re-engineering, but can be done. The non-radioactive portion of a
nuclear power plant can be converted to use hot and compressed air to make steam for a
turbine. Heat exchangers can be moved around so as to use the combustion air. Oil
refineries can have a special piping system installed for the combustion air.
        Once at the site where combustion air is used, there are tricks of the trade to make
the air more hot and compressed. For example, one turbine could be attached to a second
turbine. The first turbine compresses the air into the firebox, while the second turbine
recovers the energy from the exhaust of the firebox. One turbine drives the other. This is
not unlike how aircraft air conditioning systems work. The added pressure “squeezes” the
hot air, making it more compressed and thus hotter. It is not unlike the principle of the
hydraulic ram, where down flowing water is used to pump some water uphill. Other
tricks of the trade can be invented on using the combustion air. For example, at coal
burning power plant, existing coal carrying tubes can be converted to combustion air. A
pair of tubes can be aimed at each other, where two flows of the combustion air collide
with each other. The trapped coal is then ignited and atomized. The coal burning power
plant firebox is converted to a “positive pressure” firebox, instead of the now common
practice of being a “negative pressure” firebox. An energy recovery turbine at the exhaust
of the firebox can recover some of the kinetic energy of the air, thus powering the
compressors. Another trick to the trade is metals can be pre-heated for a smelter, or oil
pre-heated for an oil refinery. Each of these applications will require further engineering,
and some testing, but can be done. Hot air is very useful, especially if compressed.

It is an object to heat air from solar energy.
It is an object to compress the air with solar energy.
It is an object to add moisture to the air for better heat transfer from greenhouses.
It is an object to add oxygen to the air, so as to aid combustion, from greenhouses.
It is an object to heat air from wind energy.
It is an object to compress air with wind energy.
It is an object to manufacture hot air from a hot geologic formation.
It is an object to use a rotating compressor and an energy recovery turbine to move air
through the hot geologic formation.
It is an object to pipe hot air for combustion via an insulating pipe system to a fossil fuel
burner firebox.
It is an object to manufacture hot air for combustion from hydropower.
It is an object to use a hydropower turbine to drive a compressor to blow air for
It is an object to use a hydropower turbine to power a generator to heat an electric
element to heat air for combustion.
It is an object to pump salt/alkaline water to the surface to create evaporation ponds.
It is an object to use evaporation ponds to increase local rainfall, so as to drive
hydropower turbines to make combustion air.
It is an object to use solar distillation to increase the amount of local water.
It is an object to drive hydropower turbines, and to provide water for greenhouses, from
solar distillation.
It is an object to burn biomass to create hot air for combustion.
It is an object to pipe heated combustion air long distance from biomass burning.
It is an object to move air at high velocity in a piping system.
It is an object to heavily insulate the pipes, so as to keep air hot.
It is an object to use hot and compressed and high velocity air so as to aid combustion of
fossil fuels.
It is an object to collect hot and compressed and high velocity air, and place into a system
of long distance transmission pipes.
It is an object to heavily insulate the pipes and bury them in dry soil, so as to keep pipes
It is an object to use solar, wind, and other renewable energies to blow and compress
combustion air over long distances.
It is an object to reduce fuel consumption in a firebox by pre-heating combustion air.
It is an object to reduce air pollution and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from
combustion of fossil fuels.
It is an object to store thermal heat in thermal mass, so as to provide hot and compressed
and high velocity air 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year round; even during night or
winter storms.
It is an object to help finance the construction of the energy “farms” by integrating “dual
economics”, where for example, greenhouses make food, while making heated
combustion air, solar ponds make distilled water while making heated combustion air, or
for example, solar flat plates collectors can be the roof of live-able space.
The foregoing objects can be achieved by developing a system of modules, each tailored
for the most economical method of manufacturing hot combustion air.
The foregoing objects can be achieved by assembling modules into farms, each designed
to pre-heat for another module.
It is an object to use combustion air at a coal burning power plant, gas cogeneration plant,
oil refinery, or for industrial uses like smelting metals.
It is an object to use combustion air for residential applications and commercial
applications, like hot water heaters, furnaces, clothes and food dryers, wood stoves or
other appliances.
It is an object to create a new underground public utility, like underground gas, electric,
fiber-optic, or water utilities.
It is an object to create a similar system for residential and commercial buildings.
It is an object to convert existing household appliances like natural gas hot water heaters,
gas dryers, furnaces, etc to use pre-heated combustion air made from renewable energy.
It is an object to use the thermal mass embedded in pipes to store solar heat for
It is an object to provide combustion air 24 hours a day, year round.
It is an object to preheat, compress and blow air into a firebox using fossil fuel, with the
air made from renewable energy sources.

FIGURE 1 illustrates an overview of the invented device. Shown is a system for
manufacturing hot and compressed air for a distant power plant, like a coal burning
power plant (1). Located next to the power plant could be large wind turbines (3), which
power centrifuge compressors (2). From the surrounding region, various energy sources
(4,5,6,7) create combustion air, and put the air into a heavily insulated pipe system (8) for
long distance transmission. Along the way extra centrifuge compressors, with flywheels
(9), can be located to compress and move the combustion air through the transmission
system. Solar farms (4) with various types of solar collectors make and concentrate
combustion air. Various types of solar collectors can be employed: solar greenhouses,
sandbox solar collectors, solar ponds, evacuated tube type solar collectors, line focus and
point focus type solar collectors, heliostats with towers, solar smelters, and so on. Wind
energy (5) can be employed to power centrifuge compressors and also heating elements
to make combustion air. Biomass burning (6) can dry and combust biomass, and then
make additional combustion air for long distance transmission (8). Also, geothermal
energy (7) can also be employed to make combustion air. Hydropower (10) can be used
to make combustion air. Illustrated also is solar aeration (11) for keeping the pond
aerated for fish. Solar photovoltaics (12) can alternatively be floated on top of the lake,
creating additional electrical power. Illustrated also is heliohydroelectric pond (13) ,
where underground salt/alkaline water is pumped to the surface using wind turbines and
solar cells (14). The pond uses the sun‟s energy to evaporate water for additional local
rainfall, thus providing more water for the hydro dam (10). Optionally, solar energy can
be used to manufacture electricity for mining of minerals, like manganese, gold, silver,
iron from the salt/alkaline water via electrolysis (15). The net result is manufacture of
combustion air for a distant power plant 24 hours a day, year round.

FIGURE 2 illustrates the use of a greenhouse (16) to warm combustion air, and to add
moisture and oxygen (17) from plants (18) grown inside the greenhouse (16). Optionally,
a wind turbine (19) can provide heat in the winter. A solar, wind (or biomass) powered
centrifuge compressor (20) sucks the combustion air from the greenhouse (16) and puts it
into an insulated pipe system (8) for long distance transmission to a distant power plant

FIGURE 3 illustrates a low cost method of making combustion air. A sandbox is filled
with dark sand (22). The sand (22) is surrounded by insulation (23). On top is glass, or
clear glazing (24), which traps sunlight (25). Illustrated also is a planar solar reflector
(26), which increases the amount of sunlight (25) entering the sandbox. This is a low
efficient, but cost effective method of making combustion air. Pipes (21) embedded in the
sand (22) transfer the heat from the sand (22) to the combustion air. The combustion air
is then placed in an insulated pipe system. The combustion air can be alternatively pre-
heated by air from the greenhouse.

FIGURE 4 illustrates the use of a solar pond (27) with a greenhouse (30) on top. The salt
water (28) traps solar radiation, and is hot. Beneath are embedded pipes (29), which
remove the heat from the salt water (28) for combustion air. Alternatively, the moist air
inside the greenhouse (30) can make distilled water (31). The condensate water (31) can
be trapped via a gutter (32) and then drained. The distilled water can then be used to grow
plants, or to add water to a nearby lake. The solar pond (27) can heat air from a
greenhouse, or from the sandbox solar collector, making it even hotter. A similar
arrangement can make distilled water from impure or polluted water, along with making
combustion air.

FIGURE 5 illustrates the use of an evacuated flat plate solar collector. The vacuum (34)
helps to trap sun‟s rays (33) making heat. Underneath the glass (35) are pegs, or clear
marbles (36) to help keep the glass (35) from collapsing from the earth‟s atmosphere. The
dark solar absorption plate (37) gets hot from the solar radiation (33), and thus transfers it
to a thermal mass (38). The thermal mass (38) then conducts heat to the embedded pipes
(39). The pipes (39) then manufacture combustion air. An insulating box (40) encloses
the solar collector. A frame (41) holds the solar collector at the optimum angle. The
evacuated flat plate solar collector can make air even hotter from a greenhouse, sandbox
solar collector or solar pond.

FIGURE 6A and FIGURE 6B illustrates the use of an innovative evacuated tube type
solar collector. Shown in FIGURE 6A is a cross sectional view. A clear glass tube (43)
contains a vacuum (44). On the interior is a pipe (45) with fins (46) for trapping solar
radiation (47). The pipe (45) can be made of metal. The pipe (45) manufactures
combustion air. FIGURE 6B illustrates a longitude view of an innovative evacuated tube
type solar collector. A glass tube (43) contains a vacuum (44). Inside the glass tube (43)
is a pipe (45) with fins (46) to trap solar radiation (47). Innovative are open ends on both
sides of the glass tube (43). At both ends are stoppers (50) with two holes (48,49). The
first hole (48) is for the pipe (45). The second hole (49) is for a vacuum line, which
allows for a vacuum pump (42) to suck air out of the evacuated tube type solar collector
(43). The vacuum pump (42) helps to maintain a vacuum inside the tube (43) for long
periods of time. The purpose of open ends with stoppers (50) is to allow numerous
evacuated tube type solar collectors to be ganged together in series. The evacuated tube
type solar collector can make combustion air hotter from a solar greenhouse, a sandbox
solar collector, a solar pond or other type of low temperature solar collectors. These are
highly efficient.

FIGURE 7 illustrates the use of line focus parabolic solar collectors (51). Mounted a
tracking frame (52), actuators point the parabolic surface (53) so it focuses the sun‟s rays
onto a target (54). Embedded inside the target (54) is a pipe, which manufactures
combustion air. The line focus parabolic solar collector (51) can make air even hotter
from a greenhouse, a sandbox solar collector, a solar pond, an evacuated flat plate solar
collector, or a tube type solar collector.

FIGURE 8 illustrates the use of point focusing parabolic dish type solar collectors (55).
The sun‟s rays (56) reflect off the surface of the parabolic dish (57). A tracking frame
(58) points the dish (57) at the optimum sun‟s angle (56). The sun‟s rays (56) thus
concentrate onto the target (59). The target (59) then manufactures very hot combustion
air. It can make air hotter from a greenhouse, a sandbox solar collector, a solar pond, an
evacuated flat plate solar collector, a tube type solar collector or other types.

FIGURE 9A and FIGURE 9B illustrates an innovative solar smelter (60) using a half
shell parabolic reflector (61). The parabolic floats on top of a turntable (62), which can
use compressed air (63). Optionally, the turntable (62) could float on water. The sun‟s
rays (66) focuses onto a “solar over” (64) buried in the earth, and in the center of the
turntable (62). The solar oven (64) manufactures very hot combustion air. Alternatively,
the solar oven (64) can smelt metals, or make steam. Shown in front is a half circular tilt-
able planar reflector (65), which reflects sunlight (66) onto the parabolic half shell (61).
FIGURE 9B shows an overhead view. The smelter makes combustion air very hot from a
greenhouse, a sandbox solar collector, a solar pond, an evacuated flat plate type solar
collector, a tube type solar collector, a line focus or point focus parabolic solar collector,
or other types.

FIGURE 10 illustrates a solar tower (67) with heliostats (68). The boiler (69) at the top of
the tower (67) manufactures very hot combustion air. The solar tower can make air even
hotter from a greenhouse, a sandbox solar collector, a solar pond, an evacuated type flat
plate solar collector, a tube type solar collector, a point focusing or line focusing solar
parabolic, or other types of solar collectors.

FIGURE 11 illustrates the use of wind turbines (70) to manufacture combustion air. A
centrifuge blower and flywheel assembly (71) blows air into a heavily insulated pipe
(72). The centrifuge blower and flywheel assembly (71) is powered by electricity from
the wind turbines (70). The flywheel (71) provides movement of the combustion air when
wind power is not available. The wind turbines (70) also power a heating element (73)
embedded in an underground oven (74). The combustion air after being compressed and
heated is injected into a heavily insulated header pipe (75), which in turn transports the
combustion air to a distant power plant. The wind system (70,71,72,73,74,75) can make
combustion air hotter from a greenhouse, a sandbox solar collector, a solar pond, an
evacuated solar flat plate collector, a tube type solar collector, a line focus type solar
collector, a point focus type solar collector, or from other renewable energies. Wind
energy tends to be very available in the winter, when solar energy isn‟t.

FIGURE 12 illustrates a geothermal well (76) in a hot geologic formation (77). A
compressor (78) blows air into another pipe (81) inside the well (76). The cool ambient
air is injected into the well (76) and is made hot by the geologic formation (77). Another
turbine (79) captures the kinetic energy from the expanded hot air and drives the
compressor (78) via a shaft (80). The combustion air is then placed inside a heavily
insulated pipe (82) for long distance transmission to a distant power plant. Alternatively
the combustion air from the geothermal well (76) can be made hotter by employing high
temperature solar collectors, wind turbines or other renewable energy.

FIGURE 13 illustrates the use of biomass burning (83) for making combustion air. A
firebox (84) burns and dries biomass. The exhaust goes into an air-to-air exchanger (85),
which in turn makes combustion air. The combustion air then is placed into a heavily
insulated pipe (86) for long distance transmission to a distant power plant. The biomass
incinerator (83) can also make air hotter from a greenhouse, a sandbox solar collector, a
solar pond, an evacuated flat plate solar collector, a tube type solar collector, or from
other renewable energy. The biomass incinerator (83) can supplement solar or wind heat
in the winter, when these energy sources are not available.

FIGURE 14 illustrates the use of hydropower to manufacture combustion air. A hydro-
dam (87) has two turbines (88,89). The first turbine (88) compresses ambient air. The
second turbine (89) heats the air via an electric generator and resistive heating element.
This operates much like a giant hair dryer. As the lake fills with water, the hydro turbines
(88,89) drain the lake (90). The water for the lake can come from the nearby watershed.
With the addition of large amount of solar collectors, these also act as a watershed, thus
rainwater drained from the solar collector farm can be used to provide hydropower.
Innovative can be the floating of photovoltaic cells (94) on top of the lake, thus providing
for more electricity. The lake (90) can be aerated by solar powered pumps (95), thus
helping fish. Also, shown is a heliohydroelectric pond (91). Underground salt/alkaline
water is pumped using wind or solar energy (92) to the surface to form an evaporation
lake. Using solar electricity from photovoltaics, the brine can be mined for metals, like
manganese, gold, silver, via electrolysis (93). The mining of metals from the salt/alkaline
water helps finance it. The solar evaporation of the water from the salt/alkaline pond (91)
increases local rainfall and morning fog, thus providing more water for the hydro turbines
(88,89). Water that is impure can be distilled using greenhouses on top of ponds. Thus,
more water is available for the hydro-dam (87). The use of hydropower provides
combustion air, when other renewable energy sources, like wind, solar, biomass, or
geothermal, are not as readily available. It helps to provide combustion air to a distant
power plant 24 hours a day, year long.

FIGURE 15 illustrates a method of moving combustion air through the heavily insulated
pipe system. An electric motor (96) is attached to both a flywheel (97) and a centrifuge
blower (98). The electric motor (96) is powered by wind energy (99) and solar
photovoltaics (100), via an electrical conduit system (101). The flywheel (97) stores the
rotational energy. The flywheel (97) moves the combustion air when solar or wind is not
readily available. This assembly helps to move, compress, suck and blow air from other
renewable energy systems, 24 hours a day, year long. The entire system
(96,97,98,99,100,101) moves and compresses combustion air for the heavily insulated

FIGURE 16A and FIGURE 16B illustrates a heavily insulated pipe that can be used to
move compressed, hot and high velocity combustion air. FIGURE 16A shows a cross
sectional view of such a pipe. In the interior is combustion air (102). The combustion air
is surrounded by a high-pressure metal pipe (103). This pipe (103) is similar to traditional
water pipe. The metal pipe (103) is surrounded by quality insulation (104), like
vermiculite, or high tech glass fiber. A cement pipe (105) encases the interior
(102,103,104). This pipe could be made from the power plants fly ash or other recycled
materials. The pipe assembly (102,103,104,105) is buried in dry soil, and underground.
FIGURE 16B illustrates a longitude view of the pipe (102,103,104,105).

FIGURE 17 illustrates a method of long distance transmission of combustion air (107).
Shown is a mountain range (116) with a heavily insulated pipe (110) of large diameter.
Centrifuge electric blowers (111) push the combustion air (107) uphill. On the downhill
slope are turbines, which power a generator (112). The generator (112) then puts
electrical power into an electric transmission power line (115). The electric power then
powers the centrifuge electric blowers (111). Alternatively, turbines attached to a
flywheel (113) can be placed along the pipe‟s route (110). The flywheel (113) helps to
keep moving air through the pipe (110) when renewable energy is not available, thus
providing combustion air 24 hours a day, year round to a distant power plant (114). Solar
energy (108, 106) and wind energy (109) can be employed to add additional power for

FIGURE 18 illustrates a method of converting an existing coal burning firebox to use
combustion air. Shown are electric centrifuge blowers (111), which suck combustion air
from the heavily insulated pipes (110). The blowers compress air into tubes (116)
previously used to carry coal. The firebox (117) has tubes embedded in the wall (118),
which flash pressurized water for steam. The firebox (117) is converted from the typical
“negative pressure” to a “positive pressure” firebox. Thus the combustion air is
pressurized even more, and thus is made hotter. Some of the tubes (119) are kept for coal,
or other fossil fuel. Some fuel is injected and combusted for temperature control. At the
exhaust (120) is an energy recovery turbine (121) and also any heat exchangers or
economizers (122). Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy, can also be used in the
converted tubes (119). The net result is a converted coal burning power plant to be
powered almost entirely by renewable energy. Similar steps can be done to convert
fireboxes of other industrial applications like an oil refinery, a smelter, or a steam plant.

FIGURE 19 illustrates how combustion air made from renewable energy can used in a
building. Shown is a greenhouse (123), which warms the combustion air, and adds
moisture and oxygen from the plants (124). A photovoltaic panel (125), drives an electric
centrifuge blower and with a flywheel (126). The warm air from the greenhouse is then
injected into an insulated pipe system (127). These pipes then move air to a solar
collector (128), which makes the air hot. Optionally, a vacuum pump (136) can be used to
maintain a vacuum inside the solar collector. The vacuum helps in trapping sunlight.
After the solar collector, the air is moved into insulated pipes (127) to various appliances
in a building. These pipes (127) can move through the wall. Optionally, a wind turbine
(129) can power another electric centrifuge with blower and with a flywheel (130). Wind
energy tends to be available, when solar isn‟t. Optionally also an electric resistive heating
element (131) can be wind powered to make combustion air hot at night or winter, when
solar isn‟t available. Optionally a thermal mass (132) can be placed inside an insulated
box. Pipes inside the thermal mass (132) store heat from the combustion air. This thermal
mass (132) can be made of a metal/cement mixture for thermal conductivity. The heated
combustion air is then blown into the firebox of a converted natural gas hot water heater
(133), furnace (134), or clothes dryer (135). Other uses are feasible, like building
exchanger air, food drying, or cooking food. The net result is a building‟s energy needs
can be met 24 hours a day, year round.

Wake UP! Recently in the NorthWest 800,000 homes were without electrical power for
approximately a week….including investors‟ homes. Somehow we seem to be able to
come up with investments for fancy football stadiums, drilling for oil in Alaska, coal strip
mines in Texas, and drill for Natural Gas….but somehow the capital for development of
solar energy inventions is lacking. The inventors of solar technology simply aren‟t
getting the capital investment to make it happen.

There is a reason for this. With solar energy, people make their own energy.

Homes now are energy consumption units, rarely making their own energy. Homes,
unlike the days of pioneers, no longer grow their own food, get water from the rain
gutter, or produce their own heat. Today you have to buy electricity, buy gas, buy water,
buy food….homes are not energy self-sufficient.

As the storm of 2006 for the NorthWest illustrates, if homes make their own energy,
when disaster hits, the homes still function. There are approximately 200 energy self-
sufficient homes in the Seattle Area. Conversion of a new home to be totally self-
sufficient if done properly can cost just as much as the hook up charges of utilities…it
can be done.

               When a drought happens, hydropower plants don’t work. But when a
               drought happens, solar energy does.

What few realize, with Global Warming, Seattle City Light will be experiencing more
droughts in the summer time. When rain doesn‟t come, that means hydrodams do not
work. With future natural gas shortages, that means that Seattle City Light will not,
repeat not, be able to supply electrical demand.

Name one thing that works in droughts….sunlight. By converting homes, buildings and
businesses to be solar powered, it drought protects. The electrical power shortage that
happened in the Winter 2006 in the NorthWest…will return….except this time power
will not be out for just one week, it may likely be out for three months! Fast forward to
the year 2012…and it spells trouble.

If you are one of those people who think the solution is more nuclear power plants and
coal burning power plants…think again. It takes years to build these things. It also takes
energy to build power plants. Sure we can power the nation on “EverReady
batteries”…but the infrastruture to make all those batteries to power the nation is so
huge…it can‟t be done.
The investors aren‟t getting the message. Wake Up! Recently, a group called RainForest
Action Network, based in San Francisco, roundly criticized Merrill Lynch Investments
for promoting 11 coal burning power plants in Texas.

This new patent pending invention discusses conversion of existing home appliances like
natural gas hot water heaters, or gas ovens…to be solar powered.

It also discusses conversion of existing oil refineries and coal power plants to be
retrofitted with solar collectors.

But this is not going to happen without investment capital. There is a reason why
investors don‟t see solar technology feasible for investment capital….bluntly, energy is
cheap for the rich.

When it comes to cooking food, the rich have all kinds of options: propane, natural gas,
electricity, wood charcoal. But to a poor person in a refugee camp, a solar cooker is a god

It is this frustration that solar energy inventors have had with investment capital why
solar people are going to the state legislatures, city councils and congress for a.c.t.i.o.n.
We want to get the message across. We need capital for f.a.c.t.o.r.i.e.s.

We need to get our solar products into mass production, and into common places like
Home Depot, Lowes, and the local hardware store. No one is going to buy them if there
are not factories and manufacturing.

We need a wake up call. My favorite idea is “more you use, more you pay utility
rates”….not flat rates. If instead we had a ten tier structure, where the first 500 KWs of
energy was only 4cents, the next 500 KWs 6 cents, the next 500 KW 8 cents….on up the
ladder…where the energy wasters pay $1.00 KW…. It would wake up the energy
wasteful ratepayer. Not all electrical power cost the same to make. A lot of businesses
and large homes waste electricity, and it would give an incentive to conserve electrical
power, but best yet install energy self-sufficiency equipment on the roof. It also transfers
the cost of new power plant construction to the energy wasters, not to the low income
“grandma with just a refrigerator and TV”. Even the energy wasteful rich get a little of
that low cost federal hydropower, with this “more you use, more you pay” rates. Where
there is a change in utility rate structures, there is a change in technology.

If there is any bright spot, it is overseas. China has a huge development program to mass
produce and export solar products. Why can‟t they be made here in Washington State?
Other foreign nations have solar programs, mainly Germany and France….what is the
delay in the United States? I have my figure pointed squarely at the investors of the USA.

What will it take? More power outages? Hurricanes the size of Lousianna? Gasoline at
$10.00 a gallon? Gulf Wars over oil? Dust bowl droughts? Need I continue.
Recently at a meeting at the Westin in Seattle, Wa. Congressman Jay Inslee said a few
words of wisdom to 250 business leaders. To paraphrase, he said, that the State of
Washington is posed to become a power house for alternative energy manufacturing. He
cited as an example the State of California, which has many aggressive programs and
investments. He said that we are like the hare and the turtle. Where we could overtake the
race….if we would move it.

These are pointed words at NorthWest Investors. Take this energy situation serious, OR
ELSE! Open up on capital investment to get these solar inventions off the shelf and into
mass production…OR ELSE! Pay Attention. The fact is inventors of solar technology,
are not getting assistance, or capital investment to make it happen.

Solar cooking is an example of a technology that is waiting for capital investment to

That is the reason why recently the State of Washington started up a citizen iniative,
calling on electric utilities to have at least 15% of their energy to be renewable power. It
was done out of frustation. The iniative passed the election, and now the utilities are
taking it serious. Us solar people are to be taken seriously. We are going congressional.
The above solar cooker made 100 gallons of biodiesel fuel for a bus.
Went on tour nationwide with the VeggieBus Tour.

This grant proposal is basically funding to develop a business plan for Solar Combustion
Air technology. Business plans take time, money and research. Conversion of buildings
and power plants to be solar powered is a huge undertaking. This is not like developing a
business plan for a latte stand!

As part of this, an advisory board will be set up, which will meet regularly to discuss the
progress of the project.

What is needed is a manufacturing facility that develops the technology for preheated
combustion air. This is not unlike a company the size of MicroSoft or Ford Motor Co.
What is proposed is a $200,000 grant proposal to develop this new corporation. What is
proposed is a 10 month development plan. This money would then be used as an option
for stock in a manufacturing facility.

Director‟s Salary. $20,000. $2,000 per month. The purpose of the director is to direct the
activity of other people hired to do the various analysis needed.

Facilities Budget. $10,000. $1,000 per month. Rent on a building to house the various
personnel and equipment.

Utilities Budget. $5,000. $500 per month. To pay for various utilities. Ideally, it would be
nice to have use a solar heated building, so we can practice what we preach.

Communications Budget $10,000. $1,000 per month. Internet, cell phones, long distance
telephones, fax, etc.

Publications Budget $5,000. $500 per month. Copy Machine. Printing.

Travel Budget. $10,000. $1,000 per month.

Computers. $10,000. 2 lapstops. 1 PC with extensive memory.

Software. $10,000. IronCadd $5,000. Quickbooks for accounting. $1,000. MSOffice
Professional. $1,000. MSProject $1,000. others as needed.

Oversight Budget $10,000. $1,000. As needed. Advise will be sought from advisory
board on discretion.

General Overhead. $100,000


1) Review of Legal Literature Concerning Coal Burning Power Plants. $10,000. $1,000
per month. 100 manhours per month. A literature search concerning current litigation and
laws concerning coal burning. The purpose is to assist and prepare for litigation to
convert coal projects to solar combustion air.

2) Review of Manufacturing Capability. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per
month. A review of existing manufacturing capability of the solar, and renewable energy
industry, and identify potential for converting coal plants. Also, identified will be
technologies that need to be manufactured.

3) Simulation of Solar Combustion Air. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per
month. A system of solar collectors and renewable energy will have the thermodynamics
simulated, so as to prove technical feasibility.

4) Simulation of Construction Cost. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per
month. A system will be simulated. Real world construction cost will be integrated so as
to determine the cost of construction. A powerplant, so as the Mohave Coal Steam Plant
in Arizona will be targeted.

5) Legal and Incorporation Cost. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per month. A
business plan will be developed, including the cost of incorporation, and legal and
management structure. The goal is to develop a corporation to manufacture and engineer
retrofits to existing coal power plants, oil refineries, and to also develop a business model
for retrofitting solar combustion air to existing homes and business buildings.

6) Media and Marketing. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per month. A media
presentation of the technology will be developed for distribution on the world wide web,
and also in CD/DVD format. A marketing plan would be developed.

7) Computer Software Development, and Operatons. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100
manhours per month. Computer support for the various other projects would be available.

8) Site Analysis. $10,000. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per month. A particular coal
burning power plant would be selected, such as the Majave powerplant in Arizona, or
Four Corners in New Mexico. There would be active contact with participating utilities.

9) Small Home Conversion. $10,000 per month. $1,000 per month. 100 manhours per
month. Studies and simulates the cost of conversion of an existing home‟s natural gas
appliances to solar combustion air.

10) Small Home Conversion. $10,000 capital cost. Funds would be used to set up a small
scale demonstration. Equipment would be purchase and manufactured as needed.
Includes cost of tooling and shop.

Total Projects $100,000.


Proposed is the development of a manufacturing/engineering company (par value $100
million). The financial structure will be approximately as follows. Assuming the recently
applied for patent passes the examiner review, it could be the basis for a new corporation.
Below is a general outline of the business plan, according to the Alliance of Angels
presentation guidelines.

Introduction. Hello, I am Martin Nix. I am the inventor of U.S.Patent 5,308,187, and
presently have on file improvement of that patent. This patent discusses the use of
preheated, hot and compressed air for fossil fuel combustion. It is a plan to retrofit
existing coal burning power plants, and potentially oil refineries, with solar and
renewable power.

The Problem. World wide we are experience global warming, in many ways caused by
excessive amounts of Carbon Dioxide emissions. With world wide population increases,
there is an increase demand for energy. Fossil fuel extraction is creating environmental
and human impacts, which are not necessarily beneficial to everyone. It is creating
dislocations in the economy.

Market Size. The market for preheated combustion air from renewable energy is huge.
Potentially, if fully developed it would be close to 10 trillion dollars a year plus,
worldwide! It could potentially power anywhere from 50% to 90% of mankind‟s energy.
I wish to emphasize how huge the potential total revenue is. This could in the United
States translate into a 200 to 300 billion dollar a year in total revenues.

Customers. At first the major target will be coal burning power plants, then oil
refineries. Another market will be gradually developed for existing buildings and
residences. Coal burning power plants have the most promising on return on economics,
due to the high cost of coal strip mining, air pollution control equipment, and handling of
flyash. This cost is avoided with retrofiting solar combustion air.

Business/Revenue Model. The company will be at first be an engineering consulting
firm, designing and consulting with utilities on retrofit technology for existing coal
burning power plants. The first coal burning power plants targeted will be in the
Southwest. Alternatively, the company will gradually develop to be a manufacturing
company, manufacturing solar energy equipment. The company will start small and
gradually expand, as revenues from consulting fees are generated. Later oil refineries will
be targeted for conversion, starting again with southwest oil refineries. A smaller
program for retrofitting solar combustion air to residences and buildings will be

Marketing Plan/Sales Cycle. A team of 10 professionals is proposed to be the company
core business. The plan is do computer simulations of thermal performance and
construction plans. These will then be marketed and sold to utilities. We do expect
assistance from local and federal governments.

Partners. Martin Nix is the sole proprietor. However, a technical group of advisors has
been assembled and are actively working in support. Martin Nix is seeking partners who
have a sense of business ethics, and concern for the environment. Also, knowledge of
utilities, and how they work is a plus. Martin Nix desires to create a Chapter C
corporation. Status: startup.

Competition. Like any patent, it is a monopoly to do business for 20 years. There are
numerous other solar and renewable energy firms, however, unlike other patents, this one
incorporates the technology of ALL renewable energies. It could be a method of
consolidating the entire renewable energy industry, into one large corporation. Other
companies have technologies to use more expensive heat transfer fluids, like thermal oils,
or melted salts. Hot air, though is low cost, and very, very available. Some companies
have similar hot air systems under development using gas turbines. This is a retrofit to
gas hot air systems, supplementing their technology.

Mangement Team Name. Presently, we are attempting to develop, and fund a team.
Proposed is a $200,000 grant proposal or stock option of 200 shares, so as to develop that

Board of Advisors. Several people are already advising. This includes engineers,
computer specialist, management specialist, and people who have previous utility
experience. Martin Nix will be requesting resumes for this board of advisors. This
information will be posted in future.

Financial Projections. Like any patent, it has a 20 year life. It is the goal to dominate the
energy market within 20 years, within the United States. There will be efforts to
encourage development in foreign nations. The first year will be „set up house”. The
second year would be to develop a demonstration phase. The third year would be to
market the technology to other utilities, especially southwest utilities. The fourth year we
hope to have construction started. The next 16 years, the patent would be fully exploited.
Royalties of the patent would be collected from utilities, and also engineering consulting
fees. The royalties and fees would then generate a return on investment. The goal is to
retrofit all fossil fuel burners within 20 years…including natural gas hot water heaters,
wood stoves, furnaces, hot ovens, and large scale industrial plants.

The Offer.
-$50 million (controlling interest) owned by Martin Nix. The purpose is to keep control
-$10 million (employee shared). For approximately every 1,000 hours worked, each
employee will have one share.
-$40 million (investors). The life of a patent is 20 years. This will give the company
approximately 2 million a year in investment capital. This will finance only core
operations. As contracts, and business develops, funding will be used for expansion, and
also dividends. Proposed is 100,000 shares at $1,000 each. 40,000 shares at $1,000 are
available to investors.

Basic Plan. Proposed is a company of approximately 10 people, full time. Each has a
salary of $25,000 per year, with about $25,000 matching in benefits. Part Time,
Temporary, and other supervised staff will hired as needed.
-CEO. Meets with “outside world”. Directs investor relations, and public
-COO. Directs the activity of other full time staff members.
-Engineering. Directs the activity of the engineering development department.
-Manufacturing. Directs the activity of manufacturing.
-Construction. Directs the activity of infield construction activity, and contractor support.
-Facilities. Directs the activity of facility, buildings, and infrastructure.
-Administration. Directs the activity of personnel and accounting.
-Transportation. Directs the activity of company vehicles, drivers and commuter
-Legal. Directs the activity of legal, governmental regulations, and other activity.
-Media and Marketing. Directs the activity of marketing and media.

Final Words. This is a patent that just needed to be written. Investors need to understand
that without investment the problem of Global Warming will not be solved. Global
Warming will have a negative impact upon other investments. This is an invention,
waiting to happen. Make it so. Thank You. Martin Nix

The American Dream is no long a chicken in every pot, and a car in the garage…it is a
solar collector on every rooftop and a wind turbine in every back yard!
May the Sun Be With You!

Martin Nix with his new X19 solar cooker. Patented.

FIGURE 1 illustrates a general overview of the invented device. Shown is a converted
coal burning power plant. Hot, compressed and high velocity combustion air is
manufactured by various energy sources including solar, wind, hydropower, biomass, and
geothermal energy. Shown also is a heliohydroelectric pond for supplying additional
FIGURE 2 illustrates a greenhouse to make combustion air. The greenhouse also adds
moisture and oxygen.
FIGURE 3 illustrates a typical low efficient solar collector. Shown is a sand box solar
collector with a back sun reflector.
FIGURE 4 illustrates a typical solar salt pond with a water distilling greenhouse on top.
The same arrangement can be used to distill water from impure water.
FIGURE 5 illustrates a typical flat plate solar collector using a vacuum.
FIGURE 6A and FIGURE 6B illustrates an innovative evacuated tube type solar
FIGURE 7 illustrates a typical trough type solar collector or a line focus type solar
collector using a parabolic reflector.
FIGURE 8 illustrates a typical dish type solar collector or a point focus type solar
collector using a parabolic reflector.
FIGURE 9A and FIGURE 9B illustrates an innovative solar smelter using a half shell
parabolic with a half circular planar solar reflector tilted in front. The solar reflector
assembly is placed on top of a turntable with a solar oven in the center. The sun‟s rays are
focused on the solar oven, thus manufacturing combustion air.
FIGURE 10 illustrates a typical solar tower with heliostats.
FIGURE 11 illustrates a method of making combustion air using wind turbines.
FIGURE 12 illustrates a method of making combustion air from geothermal energy.
FIGURE 13 illustrates a method of making combustion air from biomass.
FIGURE 14 illustrates a method of making combustion air from hydropower. Also
shown is the use of heliohydroelectric technology for making additional rainwater from
salt/alkaline water.
FIGURE 15 illustrates a centrifuge blower powered by solar and wind produced
electricity. Also shown is a flywheel for rotational energy storage.
FIGURE 16A and FIGURE 16B illustrate a pipe for carrying combustion air for long
FIGURE 17 illustrates a method of long distance transmission of combustion air.
FIGURE 18 illustrates a method of conversion of an existing coal burning power plant
firebox to incorporate combustion air made from renewable energy.
FIGURE 19 illustrates a method of conversion of an existing commercial or residential
building to incorporate combustion air made from renewable energy.
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