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Summary of activities concerning Sichuan earthquake

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					                               Re-housing Sichuan:
              Useful information from HKU, HK, China, and Overseas

                                                 20-06-2008, CIB HKU Student Chapter
HKU ......................................................................................................................................................... 2
    Faculty of Architecture ........................................................................................................................ 2
    General Education Unit ....................................................................................................................... 2
    Department of Social Work and Social Administration ....................................................................... 2
    Centre of Asian Studies........................................................................................................................ 2
Hong Kong Professional Groups and NGOs ............................................................................................ 3
    Real Estate related societies ................................................................................................................. 3
         Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors HKIS ........................................................................................ 3
         Hong Kong Institution of Engineers ............................................................................................... 3
         The Hong Kong Construction Association Ltd (HKCA) ................................................................ 4
         Hong Kong Institute of Planners ..................................................................................................... 4
    Voluntary Group .................................................................................................................................. 4
         Unicef ............................................................................................................................................. 4
         Medecins Sans Frontiers (HK Branch) ........................................................................................... 4
         Volunteer Space .............................................................................................................................. 5
         Red Cross ........................................................................................................................................ 5
    TV program: ........................................................................................................................................ 5
China ........................................................................................................................................................ 5
    德阳震后恢复重建条例: ................................................................................................................. 5
    “爱心临时小学” .................................................................................................................................. 7
    广源重建规划: ................................................................................................................................. 8
    其它行动 ............................................................................................................................................. 8
    专业人士 ............................................................................................................................................. 8
Overseas ................................................................................................................................................. 11
    Wikipidia: 2008 Sichuan earthquake ................................................................................................. 11
    News Areas ........................................................................................................................................ 12
         French report: ................................................................................................................................ 12
         BBC's Chinese Earthquake Main Page ......................................................................................... 12
         CNN - Chinese Earthquake Portal ................................................................................................ 12
         New York Times Topic - Sichuan Earthquake .............................................................................. 12
         Xinhua News Agency - Strong Earthquake Jolts SW China ......................................................... 12
    Online Maps ...................................................................................................................................... 12
    Scientific and Educational Synthesis ................................................................................................. 12




                                                                               1
HKU


Faculty of Architecture

Public lecture: Domesticity Reconfigured
Matthew D. Berman
When disaster strikes, it is visualized through its registration on the architectural surface. The distortion
and fragmentation of these surfaces are embedded with the history of the attack and, through media
dissemination, become the new reality of place. New Orleans is a scarred city yet rebuilding is possible
and necessary. Workshop/apd principal Matthew Berman presents their unique take on the sustainable
rebuilding of the Crescent City and their revolutionary approach to bringing ecologically sound design
to low-cost housing.
Vedio is available at http://www.arch.hku.hk/events/details.asp?eid=148



General Education Unit

Wenchuan Earthquake: The Situation, Needs & Government Plans given by Professor Zhang Xiulan
Director of the Research Center for Disaster Reduction and Emergency Management Policy,
Academy of Disaster and Emergency Management, Ministry of Civil Affairs & Ministry of Education,
China.
Date : June 21, 2008 (Saturday)
Time : 9:30 am – 10:30 am,
followed by discussion on HKU actions till 12:15 pm
http://hkuems1.hku.hk/hkuems/ec_hdetail.aspx?UEID=9519&guest=Y.



Department of Social Work and Social Administration

Forum to Discuss Psychological and Social Support to the victims of the 512 Disaster Affected Areas
Date: 8th June, 2008 (Sunday)
Time: 3:00-5:00p.m.



Centre of Asian Studies

Symposium on The Quest for Social Cohesion in Greater China: Challenges for Social Policy and
Governance and Public Forum on "Mapping Post-Disaster Development in Sichuan after the
Earthquake"
Date: 20 June 2008 (Friday)
Venue: Reading Room, Centre of Asian Studies, HKU
Time: 9:15am -5:30pm
During the Symposium, we have also invited speakers from Mainland


                                                     2
China to report on the most recent recovery work in Sichuan after the
earthquake. A Public Forum on "Mapping Post-Disaster Development in
Sichuan after the Earthquake" will be held.
Report from China:
Professor Zhang Xiulan (Wenchuan Earthquake Taskforce and Beijing
Normal University)
Experience Sharing of Post-earthquake Management in Taiwan:
Professor Hsiu-Jen Yeh (National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan)
Responses from Hong Kong Social Work Academics
Professor Cecilia Chan and Dr. Sandra Tsang (Department of Social
Work and Social Administration, HKU)



Hong Kong


Real Estate related societies


Hong Kong Institute of Surveyors HKIS

      Receive donations from members and
      Endorsed to make a donation on a matching fund basis capped at a maximum of HK$50,000


Hong Kong Institution of Engineers

      The Institution has responded to media enquiries and interviews by media such as TVB and ATV
      on topics from seismic code to rebuilding the cities.
      Received pledges in the amount of HK$614,091
      A series seminar on related subject was held
      The Government has also held discussion with representatives from the construction industry to
      evaluate whether we could all come together charting the course for the relief works in a
      coordinated fashion.
      HKIE was invited to be a founding member of a joint forum to be set up soon. Members will be
      kept posted and updated on this front.
      Task force chaired by President, Ir. Dr LO Wai Kwok to coordinate imminent relief efforts
      Structural Division has put forward a set of initiatives to offer their expertise in addressing the
      disaster. VP Ir Reuben CHU has agreed to take the lead in its endeavours. Equally, the Civil
      Division, Environmental Division and Young Members Committee are shaping up their efforts
      and gearing up themselves in addressing issues for the benefit of our members and the
      community.
      Council will be consulted to consider whether the fund raising exercise should be continued in
      the next few years


                                                     3
The Hong Kong Construction Association Ltd (HKCA)

     HKCA highly encourages all Members to contribute.
     Collect all the donations and pass to Liaison Office of the Central People's Government in the
     Hong Kong S.A.R to Sichuan.
     HKCA Council at its 13 May 2008 meeting had approved to donate HK$500,000.


Hong Kong Institute of Planners

     Included in Hot Topic, viewed by members only


There are, however, no related activities as shown in their websites:
Hong Kong Institute of Building, Hong Kong Institute of Real Estate, Estate Agents Authority, Hong
Kong Institute of Facility Management, Hong Kong Mediation Centre, Hong Kong Institute of
Arbitrators, Hong Kong Institute of Mediators, Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (East Asia Branch),
Hong Kong Institute of Architect, Professional Green Building Council, Hong Kong Architecture
Centre, The American Institute of Architects Hong Kong Chapter, The Hong Kong Institute of
Landscape Architect, The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers HK Branch,
Construction Industry Institute – Hong Kong, Hong Kong Institute of Construction Managers.



Voluntary Group


Unicef

     As of May 20, over HK$30 million has been raised for UNICEF‟s Sichuan Earthquake
     emergency relief.
     Provision of 775 tents, 50000 clothes, 21000 blankets, quilts and sleeping bags, Water
     purification tablets 500,000 units
     25 teams of psychologists to train local teachers, community workers and social workers


Medecins Sans Frontiers (HK Branch)

     A team of three psychologists is currently working in Hanwang, Mianzhu city, where people
     displaced by the quake are living in temporary settlements. Another mental health programme in
     Long Men Shan, Pengzhou city was concluded earlier this week.
     MSF has donated 4,570 tents, 800 rolls of plastic sheeting and other basic items (10,000
     underpants and 2,000 wash basins). MSF has also donated medicines and medical supplies to
     several health facilities in the area.
     Up to 40 international staff and 16 national staff from MSF have worked in the affected region,
     looking into medical and basic needs of the affected population, providing surgical and basic
     medical care, sharing nephrology expertise*, giving mental health support, and donating
     medicines, medical and non-medical supplies to the relief effort.


                                                   4
     Will continue to provide mental health activities to the stage of post disaster situation


Volunteer Space

     Visit Sichuan people, transport necessary materials on 28/6-2/7/2008
     Accept donations, help rebuild and reconstruct in Sichuan
     Provide support to Sichuan children


Red Cross

     11/06/2008 Mrs Selina Tsang Visited Earthquake Affected Area And Discussed with Local
     Authority on HKRC‟s Reconstruction Plan
     04/06/2008 Donation Reached HK$850 million for Quake Relief HSBC and its Designated
     Account Contribute the Largest Portion, 28/05/2008 Red Cross Planning to use about HK$700
     million on earthquake Recovery and Reconstruction in 5 Aspects, 26/05/2008 HK Red Cross
     Raised HK$620 million donation Invited Independent Auditing Firm for Consultancy ,
     14/05/2008 Hong Kong Red Cross Mobilized HK$15 Million for Relief Operations First Team
     of Professional Volunteers arrived to assist in relief operation
     21/05/2008 Total donation amount reached HK$490 million HK Red Cross Focusing on
     Restoring Intermediate Medical Support
     19/05/2008 Red Cross continuous supporting medical work in earthquake affected areas
     15/05/2008 Red Cross Medical Professional Volunteers Joined the Relief Effort
13/05/2008 Two teams of HKRC personnel have arrived disaster affected area          Emergency appeal to
public in support of Earthquake affected people



TV program:

                                                                                  。
7:00pm ATV & 11:00 pm TVB(http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/tv/lovelessons/20080616.html)
http://www.rthk.org.hk/rthk/tv/lovelessons/20080616.html



China

德阳震后恢复重建条例


http://www.deyang.gov.cn/zt_dy/showinfo.asp?id=620&bigclass=%BF%B9%D5%F0%BE%C8%D4
%D6%D7%A8%CC%E2&smallclass=%D7%DB%BA%CF%D0%C5%CF%A2


Official website of Deyang Government, 2008-06-08. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. (Chinese)


Digest:




                                                    5
第二条    地震灾后恢复重建应当坚持以人为本、科学规划、统筹兼顾、分步实施、自力更生、国
家支持、社会帮扶的方针。
 第三条 地震灾后恢复重建应当遵循以下原则:
 (一)受灾地区自力更生、生产自救与国家支持、对口支援相结合;
 (二)政府主导与社会参与相结合;
 (三)就地恢复重建与异地新建相结合;
 (四)确保质量与注重效率相结合;
 (五)立足当前与兼顾长远相结合;
 (六)经济社会发展与生态环境资源保护相结合。
 第四条 各级人民政府应当加强对地震灾后恢复重建工作的领导、组织和协调,必要时成立
地震灾后恢复重建协调机构,组织协调地震灾后恢复重建工作。
 县级以上人民政府有关部门应当在本级人民政府的统一领导下,按照职责分工,密切配合,
采取有效措施,共同做好地震灾后恢复重建工作。
 第五条 地震灾区的各级人民政府应当自力更生、艰苦奋斗、勤俭节约,多种渠道筹集资金、
物资,开展地震灾后恢复重建。
 国家对地震灾后恢复重建给予财政支持、税收优惠和金融扶持,并积极提供物资、技术和人
力等方面的支持。
 国家鼓励公民、法人和其他组织积极参与地震灾后恢复重建工作,支持在地震灾后恢复重建
中采用先进的技术、设备和材料。
 国家接受外国政府和国际组织提供的符合地震灾后恢复重建需要的援助。


。。。。。


第二章    过渡性安置
 第七条 对地震灾区的受灾群众进行过渡性安置,应当根据地震灾区的实际情况,采取就地
安置与异地安置,集中安置与分散安置,政府安置与投亲靠友、自行安置相结合的方式。
 政府对投亲靠友和采取其他方式自行安置的受灾群众给予适当补助。具体办法由省级人民政
府制定。
 第八条 过渡性安置地点应当选在交通条件便利、方便受灾群众恢复生产和生活的区域,并
避开地震活动断层和可能发生洪灾、山体滑坡和崩塌、泥石流、地面塌陷、雷击等灾害的区域以
及生产、储存易燃易爆危险品的工厂、仓库。
 实施过渡性安置应当占用废弃地、空旷地,尽量不占用或者少占用农田,并避免对自然保护
区、饮用水水源保护区以及生态脆弱区域造成破坏。
 第九条 地震灾区的各级人民政府根据实际条件,因地制宜,为灾区群众安排临时住所。临
时住所可以采用帐篷、篷布房,有条件的也可以采用简易住房、活动板房。安排临时住所确实存
在困难的,可以将学校操场和经安全鉴定的体育场馆等作为临时避难场所。
 国家鼓励地震灾区农村居民自行筹建符合安全要求的临时住所,并予以补助。具体办法由省
级人民政府制定。
 第十条 用于过渡性安置的物资应当保证质量安全。生产单位应当确保帐篷、篷布房的产品

                       6
质量。建设单位、生产单位应当采用质量合格的建筑材料,确保简易住房、活动板房的安全质量
和抗震性能。
 第十一条 过渡性安置地点应当配套建设水、电、道路等基础设施,并按比例配备学校、医
疗点、集中供水点、公共卫生间、垃圾收集点、日常用品供应点、少数民族特需品供应点以及必
要的文化宣传设施等配套公共服务设施,确保受灾群众的基本生活需要。
 过渡性安置地点的规模应当适度,并安装必要的防雷设施和预留必要的消防应急通道,配备
相应的消防设施,防范火灾和雷击灾害发生。
 第十二条 临时住所应当具备防火、防风、防雨等功能。
 第十三条 活动板房应当优先用于重灾区和需要异地安置的受灾群众,倒塌房屋在短期内难
以恢复重建的重灾户特别是遇难者家庭、孕妇、婴帅儿、孤儿、孤老、残疾人员以及学校、医疗
点等公共服务设施。
 第十四条    临时住所、过渡性安置资金和物资的分配和使用,应当公开透明,定期公布,接
受有关部门和社会监督。具体办法由省级人民政府制定。
 第十五条 过渡性安置用地按临时用地安排,可以先行使用,事后再依法办理有关用地手续;
到期未转为永久性用地的,应当复垦后交还原土地使用者。
 第十六条 过渡性安置地点所在地的县级人民政府,应当组织有关部门加强次生灾害、饮用
水水质、食品卫生、疫情的监测和流行病学调查以及环境卫生整治。使用的消毒剂、清洗剂应当
符合环境保护要求,避免对土壤、水资源、环境等造成污染。
 过渡性安置地点所在地的公安机关,应当加强治安管理,及时惩处违法行为,维护正常的社
会秩序。
 受灾群众应当在过渡性安置地点所在地的县、乡(镇)人民政府组织下,建立治安、消防联
队,开展治安、消防巡查等自防自救工作。
 第十七条 地震灾区的各级人民政府,应当组织受灾群众和企业开展生产自救,积极恢复生
产,并做好受灾群众的心理援助工作。
 第十八条 地震灾区的各级人民政府及政府农业行政主管部门应当及时组织修复毁损的农
业生产设施,开展抢种抢收,提供农业生产技术指导,保障农业投入品和农业机械设备的供应。
 第十九条 地震灾区的各级人民政府及政府有关部门应当优先组织供电、供水、供气等企业
恢复生产,并对大型骨干企业恢复生产提供支持,为全面恢复工业、服务业生产经营提供条件。


“爱心临时小学”


5 月 26 日,中国移动德阳绵竹分公司与桃李艺校及志愿者们在清帄、天池等重灾区人员集中安
置的绵竹体育馆外为灾区的孩子们搭建了第一所“爱心临时小学”,为孩子们提拱灾后的心理辅导
及教学等帮助。三天之后,5 月 29 日,中国移动与中国深圳红十字协会在安置清帄、天池等重
灾区人员的绵竹体育馆内再建一所„“大爱德智”爱心临时学校‟,学校可容纳 50 名学生,可以针
对初一至高三阶段的学生进行学习辅导,最大限度帮助灾区孩子们灾后学习辅导,让他们和其它
地区的孩子们一样,不落下学习进度。




                       7
广源重建规划:


http://www.cngy.gov.cn/Columns/20071220194235738/20071226234130794/20080514092338254/20
080524155421437/20080608082427051.shtml?articleID=45820


Official website of Guangyuan Government, 2008-06-08. Retrieved on 2008-06-08. (Chinese)


《广元市“5·12”地震后重建规划纲要》已基本修改完毕,正在征求意见,城镇体系规划、城乡住
房建设、基础设施建设、公共服务设施建设、生产力布局和产业调整、市场服务体系、防灾减灾
和生态环境修复、灾后重建用地等 9 个专项规划纲要正在抓紧编制中。广元市组建了驻成都联络
组,对口与省规划编制组、省级相关部门加强衔接沟通。


其它行动

http://news.xinhuanet.com/photo/2008-05/23/content_8236972.htm
安徽省建设规划部门根据国家的有关要求,全力以赴组织实施援建过渡安置房的规划施工项目,
在最短的时间内作出了适合灾区群众生活的安置规划。目前,有关设计专家和施工人员已奔赴灾
区,确保首批过渡安置房在 6 月 20 日建成投入使用。


http://news.hexun.com/2008-05-25/106217858.html
广东对口支援汶川灾区的临时安置房开工建设 1.1 万平方米


http://blog.focus.cn/bgroup/detail.php?bgroup_id=3814&msg_id=140288095
宁波将向汶川灾区援建活动板房一万套


http://www.hunfang.com/html/68/n-388268.html
北京市已预订过渡安置房材料 1.8 万套,加上原有的库存量 6000 套,目前过渡安置房材料总计
2.4 万余套,能够确保第一期 2 万套建设任务的需要



专业人士

                         专访国际知名结构抗震工程专家长江学者肖岩
                                        信源:潇湘晨报
原题:“应提高公共建筑抗震设防等级” ----专访国际知名结构抗震工程专家、湖南大学土木工程
学院院长肖岩


本报记者薛小林 发自四川成都


非结构构件损坏是新教训




                                               8
记者:这次大地震发生后,你和你带领的团队第一时间赶赴灾区,对建筑倒塌和受损的情况进行
了考察,考察结果怎么样?


肖岩:5•12地震发生的时刻我在美国,我是13日晚上赶回国的。到现在为止,我们土木工
程学院已派去了四个调查组,最早去的两个老师在14日进川随湖南省交通厅考察和紧急鉴定桥
梁结构的损毁情况,对其是否可以正常使用或是否需要限载作出紧急判断。我们第二梯队重点考
察了都江堰、绵阳、北川、安县、绵竹、德阳、广安等地。我们特别应邀对在绵阳的西南科技大
学校区进行了较为全面和详细的调查。对于这些结果我们还在整理和分析中,也要等强震观测记
录等信息公开后进行更为细致的分析。此外,我们还特别考察了西南科大的应急措施,觉得该校
在这次地震后的应急处理能够为今后学校等大型机关单位的应急处理提供一个很好的案例。


这次地震灾害总的来说我觉得需要总结的东西非常多,很多问题也是世界级的,所以国际学术界
也非常关注。这次地震首先造成了非常广和严重的地质灾害,这么大规模的各种各样的地质灾害
在以往地震中也不多见。从对建筑物和桥梁的破坏来讲,我倒不觉得特别惊讶,主要可能是由于
地震烈度高于设计设防造成的,结构的破坏形态也无非是整体性差而造成的落梁、墙体倒塌,由
于没有良好的强度和变形能力,而造成的支撑楼板等上部结构的柱发生破坏等等。这次灾害还有
些现象是国内以前没有出现的,比如,现在经济发展了,建筑的装修,如吊顶、吊灯、玻璃幕墙、
广告牌等等大量使用,而这些非结构构件的损坏也占了经济损失的很大一个份额,这些都是新的
教训,需要加强有关设计。这也从一个侧面说明,社会经济的发展并不直接意味着抵御灾害能力
的相应提高。


记者:你曾到美、日等国的地震现场参与考察,并把研究成果应用于加利福尼亚等州的工程实践,
和这些国家相比,我国这次地震对建筑的影响有什么特点?如何借鉴美、日等国在建筑抗震设计
方面的经验?


肖岩:与1989年旧金山地震、1994年的洛杉矶地震、1995年的日本阪神地震等国外
几次大地震相比,汶川地震并非是大城市直下型地震,也就是说地震没有发生在大城市及其周边
地下,否则城市遭受破坏的程度、人员伤亡可能会更大。


实际上我们国家的抗震研究在世界上还是很先进的。但研究和工程实践水帄还是有距离的,这也
反映了一个国家综合工业化水帄。因此我觉得我们还是需要认真吸取美国日本等国的经验教训。


现行抗震设防标准只是起码等级


记者:从我国目前的经济实力和实际情况来讲,应该在建筑方面采取哪些应对防御措施?


肖岩:从当前科学技术水帄和国家经济实力出发,对破坏性地震都应从两方面防御。硬件方面,
加强工程性防御,尽可能提高工程建筑的抗震能力,采用先进的设计方法和技术来保证建筑物的
延性、强度,保证结构完整性,合理配置钢筋,牢固连接,采用隔振、阻尼装置等等,使得建筑
抗震设计达到“小震不坏,中震可修复,大震不倒”的要求;对已建成又有抗震隐患的建筑物进行


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抗震加固,提高它们的抗震能力;消除现有建筑存在的安全隐患,加大对各类建筑物(构筑物)抗
震设计和施工质量的监督检查以及对乡镇和农村建筑的检查鉴定力度,加强抗震设计。


“软件”方面,对地震等自然灾害防御工作做好宣传、组织和管理,协调全社会做好各方面的防震
减灾准备。借鉴日本、美国等国经验,多进行公众地震防灾演习,提高社会公众防御意识,提高
政府应急能力和社会抵御灾害的能力。从市民的角度,每个家庭都应有一定的救急药物和救急用
品包括水、食品的储备。地震是一个强大的自然灾害,对地震灾害的防范准备也会加强一个社会
抵御其它自然和人为灾害的水帄。


记者:一般都认为,达到国家规定的建筑设计规范和标准,房子就安全。但是这次达到标准的房
屋也出现损毁。这是为什么呢?


肖岩:人们往往会有一种错觉,就是建筑物满足现有的设计规范和标准就安全。比如这次地震影
响的地区抗震设防烈度为6到7度,而实际地震烈度远高于设防烈度,造成这样的严重后果。建
筑、桥梁投资者管理部门,设计施工人员应当充分认识到所谓现行规范的抗震设防标准只是最起
码的等级,有条件的话要尽可能提高设防水准。诚然,提高设防标准会相对提高造价,但也有很
多切实可靠的设计与施工方法可以在有限的造价下改善抗震能力。这点国外,比如美国的规范就
鲜明地提出了要求设计人员尽可能提高抗震设计安全度。1994年洛杉矶北岭地震后,出现了
大量现代钢结构的破坏,其超出了规范和当时学术和工程界对该种现象的认识,(但结果据我所
知,几乎所有的设计和制造商都被告上法庭)。所以这一点特别应当引起我们的注意。


当然,提高设防标准会相对提高造价,但也有很多切实可靠的设计和施工方法可以在有限的造价
下改善抗震能力。比如,提高钢筋混凝土柱子的抗震能力无非是合理的配置纵向钢筋,注意,太
多了反而不好,适当加密箍筋,就可以保证结构柱在地震时的变形能力,即使破坏也会有一定的
时间容许人们可以逃生,这就是我们通常所说的延性破坏,相比之下,脆性破坏具有突发性,大
梁和柱子的连接节点一散,或柱子一断,就会造成一栋大楼轰然倒下。


提高公共建筑抗震设防等级


记者:这次地震发生的地区,很多都是处在深山大川的农村地区,房屋多采用传统的砖石结构,
倒塌比较严重,对这一部分建筑,应该如何应对?


肖岩:没有经过合理设计的传统砖石建筑由于其强度低,延性差,缺乏整体性,在历次地震中表
现最差,(也是 1976 年唐山大地震的血的教训)。这次地震还是给我们留下了巨大的遗憾。我
国1976年唐山大地震后对京津等地区的砖石建筑进行了大规模的加固处理。


随着经济的发展,新建的农村住宅很多采用砖石墙体上面加预制混凝土楼板的结构体系,由于往
往缺乏正确的设计,这样的建筑结构在地震中由于砖墙体破坏,沉重的混凝土预制楼板坍塌造成
人员伤亡的危险极大。在政府强调的新农村建设中,迫切需要开发更为合理的农村住宅体系。我
们结合中南地区的丰富的竹林资源开发成功了现代竹结构房屋,由于其自重轻,强度和延性相对


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较高,是一种可以和北美木结构相比的良好抗震结构体系。此外,我觉得我们应当加强对小城镇
和农村建设的监管力度。


记者:对于一些公共建筑,像学校、医院等机构的建筑抗震,应做怎样的要求?


肖岩:应该加强抗震设防要求的管理,特别是提高政府机关、交通、公安、消防、医院、学校等
重要公共建筑、关键道路桥梁、涵洞等的抗震设防等级,以减少未来地震损失和提高灾后救援和
恢复能力。因为这些都是保证灾后指挥与救援的重要场所。学校应提高抗震设防等级,一方面是
出于保障自救能力有限的学生人身安全的考虑,另一方面也通常把学校作为灾后救援的中心。尽
管如此,这次地震中学校建筑的倒塌也十分严重,这也是历来地震灾害的一个通病之一,其原因
包括了学校建筑往往开间比较大,往往使得柱子,墙体相对较弱,需要今后切实注意。


(肖岩背景:教育部“建筑安全与节能”重点实验室主任、湖南大学土木工程学院院长、长江学者
特聘教授,美国南加州大学教授。1982 年天津大学结构工程专业毕业,分别于 1986 年、1989
年获得日本九州大学工学硕士、博士学位。)


Overseas


Wikipidia: 2008 Sichuan earthquake

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2008_Sichuan_earthquake#Foreign_and_domestic_aid
Information related to construction:


Reginald DesRoches, a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Georgia Tech, pointed out
that the massive damage of properties and houses in the earthquake area was because China did not get
an adequate seismic design code until following the big Tangshan earthquake in 1976. DesRoches said:
"If the buildings were older and built prior to that 1976 earthquake, chances are they weren't built for
adequate earthquake forces."[71]


News reports indicate that the poorer, rural villages were hardest hit. Swaminathan Krishnan, assistant
professor of civil engineering and geophysics at the California Institute of Technology said: "the
earthquake occurred in the rural part of China. Presumably, many of the buildings were just built; they
were not designed, so to speak." [71] Swaminathan Krishnan further added: "There are very strong
building codes in China, which take care of earthquake issues and seismic design issues. But many of
these buildings presumably were quite old and probably were not built with any regulations overseeing
them."[71]


On May 29th Government officials began inspecting the ruins of thousands of schools that collapsed,
searching for clues about why they crumbled.[117] Thousands of parents around the province have
accused local officials and builders of cutting corners in school construction, citing that after the quake
other nearby buildings were little damaged.[117] Local officials urged them not to protest but the


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parents demonstrated and demanded an investigation. Censors have discouraged stories of poorly-built
schools from being published in the media and there has been an incident where police drove away the
protestors.[118][119]


News Areas


French reports


http://www.irsn.org/document/site_1/fckfiles/File/Internet/Actualites/IRSN_Earthquake-in-Sichuan.pdf


BBC's Chinese Earthquake Main Page


http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/asia_pacific/2008/china_quake/default.stm


CNN - Chinese Earthquake Portal


http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2008/news/china.earthquake/


New York Times Topic - Sichuan Earthquake


http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/science/topics/earthquakes/sichuan_province_china/index.html


Xinhua News Agency - Strong Earthquake Jolts SW China


http://www.chinaview.cn/08quake/


Online Maps


       BBC - Map of the Affected Region
       CNN - Map of the Affected Region
       New York Times - Map of the Affected Region
       Relief Web - Map of the Affected Region
       USGS - Map of the Affected Region


Scientific and Educational Synthesis


       Identification of Earthquake Faults In Sichuan
       USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: An Informational Page about Sichuan quake
       MIT Report: Earthquake near Wenchuan,West Sichuan, China
       Caltech Report: The Science Behind China's Sichuan Earthquake
       China Lacks Earthquake Early-Warning System
       Lake Formation in the Aftermath of Magnitude 7.9 Earthquake (images included)

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