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					HPC use in Testing Ad Hoc Wireless
                  Sensor Networks


                      Ken LeSueur
     Redstone Technical Test Center
                     April 22, 2009
                  Wireless Sensor
       Wireless Sensor Network Testbed
                  Network Testbed
• Need: Realistic testing of wireless tactical networks
   - Networked sensors and sensor fusion systems
   - Networked systems require the network to
     stimulate the system, unlike stand alone systems
     that can be tested in isolation
   - A real-time network emulation with interfaces to
     real systems that forces perception and response
     as they would in the real world

• Current test methods are not adequate for testing
  tactical wireless network hardware in realistic
  battlefield environments
                                         US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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              Proposed Approach
             Proposed Approach

• Combine
   – Parallel computing resources
   – Scalable, high fidelity network emulation
   – Computer Generated Forces (CGF) model

• Testing of sensor hardware is facilitated by Network
  emulation that will allow interfacing of sensor hardware
  with virtual components to produce operationally realistic
  numbers of network nodes
   – 5,000 to 10,000 for a future Brigade Combat Team

                                          US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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  Example of Multi-Layered Network
Example of Multi-Layered Network




                         US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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              Example of Multi-Layered Network
            Example of Multi-Layered Network




      UAS
                                                   Networked
                                                   Missiles




UGV




                                 Sensors Army Redstone Technical Test Center
                                      US
                    UGS
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                            Tactical Scenario
                             Tactical Scenario




                  NLOS-LS


                                                                     SIMAF




Track Msg (WNW)                                                 0




                                                               Detection Msg
                                      EO/IR
                                      Node


                               Track Message (SRW)

                                                     Gateway
                                                      Node

                                                                       US Army Redstone Technical Test Center
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          Tactical Scenario
           Tactical Scenario




NLOS-LS


                                                   SIMAF




                                              0




                                             Detection Msg
                    EO/IR
                    Node


             Track Message (SRW)

                                   Gateway
                                    Node

                                                     US Army Redstone Technical Test Center
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                           Tactical Scenario
                            Tactical Scenario




                 NLOS-LS


                                                                  SIMAF




Fire Msg (WNW)                                               0




                                                            Detection Msg
                                    EO/IR
                                    Node


                              EO/IR Command Msg
                                                  Gateway
                                                   Node

                                                                    US Army Redstone Technical Test Center
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                General Requirements

• Interface to real tactical network hardware

• Real-Time Operation
   – Parallel Implementation to scale for large number
       of nodes

• Support for Military standard Joint Tactical Radio
  Systems (JTRS)
    – Soldier Radio Waveform (SRW)
    – Wideband Networking Waveform (WNW)


                                         US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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                        Test Bed Design
                         Test Bed Design


 Sensor
                    Wireless Network
                        Interface        HWIL        Network
Hardware                               Interface    Simulation
                                                        (QualNet)

          In-band Stimulation
                                                                 Node Positions
                                                                 On Terrain

Physical
Stimulator                                           Computer
                                                     Generated
 •   Infrared                                         Forces
 •   Visible
 •   Seismic                                          Model
 •   Acoustic                                           (OneSAF)

                                                   US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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                             Unattended Ground
Tactical
                              Sensor Example
Unattended
Ground                                         QualNet Network Simulation
                          Gateway
Sensor
                          Node

         SRW Wireless Interface     Ethernet




                                                                                      HPC
In-band
Acoustic/Seismic                                             Node Positions
Stimulation                                                  On Terrain




                                                       OneSAF


                                                         US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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System Configuration




               US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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Subsystem Test & Analysis Branch Facilities
Distributed Test Control Center (DTCC) /
High Performance Computer (HPC) Labs

Capabilities:
                                                              HPC Control Area
• Spans from Pure Simulation to Hardware Integration                                       HPC Lab
  Utilizing HWIL Assets for both Lab and Field Environments

• Classified and Unclassified Networking and Computing

• 92+ Microprocessors and Access to HPC Resources

• Advanced Multi-User KVM Switching to All Computers

• Fiber Links to All RTTC Labs and Ranges

• Defense Research & Engineering Network (DREN)
  Connection (OC-12 with OC-3 Guaranteed)
                                                                                      Bullets:
• Host of Simulation, Visualization, Network Monitoring
  and Data Recording Software Suites

• Video Processing, Recording and Distribution

• Simulated Tactical Radio Communications Capability


                                   DTCC



                                                                                             DTCC
                                                                           US Army Redstone Technical Test Center
           Initial Testbed Efforts
                 Results


• Analysis of scalability of Network
  emulation and HWIL testing/simulation

• Analysis of performance as a function of
  fidelity (path loss modeling, terrain model,
  interference modeling, jamming/attacks,
  power/battery model, data acquisition, etc.)


                                US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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                   Test Setup
                  Test Setup
Purpose: Evaluate number of Nodes, number of
processors, and simulation complexity on real-time
testing.

• HWIL interfaces linking live video Server/Client
• UDP Generator Rude/Crude used for quantitative
  measurements
• 512 kbps UDP/Video Stream
• 802.11 wireless protocol
• 2 Mbps wireless subnets
• Monitor Real-time performance while adjusting
  number of nodes, subnets, and background traffic
                                       US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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 HWIL Interface
 HWIL Interface




- Virtual Node

- Simulated Node
                   US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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                                              Performance Data
                                              Performance Data
                                                      Unsaturated Simulation Performance
                0.025




                 0.02

                                                                                                                  Latency


                0.015
Latency (Sec)




                 0.01




                0.005
                             64 Pk/Sec          64 Pk/Sec                 128 Pk/Sec                         128 Pk/Sec

                            100 Bytes/Pk      1000 Bytes/Pk           1000 Bytes/Pk                         500 Bytes/Pk
                   0
                        0       25       50    75    100      125   150    175   200      225   250   275   300   325      350   375
                                                                                                      US Army Redstone Technical Test Center
                                                                          Packet Number
                                                                                                                                       17
                                 Performance Data
                                  Packet Latency for 750 Node, 2 Processor
                 0.4

                0.35
                                                                              Latency
                 0.3

                0.25
Latency (Sec)




                 0.2

                0.15

                 0.1

                0.05

                  0
                       0   500   1000   1500   2000      2500   3000      3500          4000
                                               Packet Number      US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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                               Performance Data Cont.
                                     Packet Latency for 1000 Node, 2 Processor
                20

                18

                16

                14

                12
Latency (Sec)




                10

                8

                6
                                                                                              Latencey
                4

                2

                0
                     0   250   500      750   1000       1250        1500   1750      2000       2250
                                                     Packet Number          US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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                 Conclusion
                 Conclusion

• Using the scenarios outlined in this testing,
  approximately 750 simulated wireless network nodes
  can be simulated on a two processor computer while
  simultaneously interfacing to two external HWIL
  networked systems passing live streaming video
• Parallel efficiency is approximately 65% for a 1000
  node scenario running on 2 processors (Expand when
  HPC delivered)
• Performance thresholds can be measured but the
  results are highly scenario dependent

                                      US Army Redstone Technical Test Center

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