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ENERGY EFFICIENCY LABELING FOR DOMESTIC APPLIANCES_ THE

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY LABELING FOR DOMESTIC APPLIANCES_ THE Powered By Docstoc
					       ENERGY EFFICIENCY LABELING FOR DOMESTIC
         APPLIANCES, THE GHANAIAN EXPERIENCE



ABSTRACT

This paper seeks to review the administration of energy efficiency
labeling legislation for room air conditioners and compact
fluorescent lamps in Ghana. The lessons learnt will inform future
administration of other energy efficiency labeling legislations
covering domestic refrigerators, deep freezers, electric motors and
drives etc.

Ghana recently enacted the first appliance standard regulation in
Sub-Saharan Africa for room air-conditioner units and compact
fluorescent lamps. The comprehensive legislation also includes
provisions for appliance labeling, and will soon cover a range of
products including refrigerators, deep freezers, electric motors and
drivers etc. Ghana´s move to improve its energy efficiency is part of
a larger Energy sector reform designed to support the country´s
long-term economic development plans. Ghana´s appliance
standards program is also providing a successful model and
leadership to other countries in the sub-region seeking to improve
their energy efficiency in order to reduce CO2 emissions and
subsequent effects on global warming.

Energy efficiency labeling is a tool for reducing the electrical energy
consumption of specific appliances thus resulting in energy savings
to the particular economy. The need for energy efficiency labeling
for selected appliances became imperative as a result of several
electric energy supply deficits that occurred in Ghana prior to 1998,
in 1998 and subsequent years. Application of energy efficiency
labeling is usually done for the most common appliances with
considerable electrical energy consumption.

GENESIS OF THE GHANAIAN PROGRAM

The need for a setting up formal Energy Efficiency Organization
such as the Ghana Energy Foundation followed up from the desire
of the Ghana government to promote Demand Side Management as
a tool for reducing investments in new generation, transmission and
distribution facilities as the demand for electrical energy grows as a
result of the expanding economy.

The Foundation on its formation identified among several options,
energy efficiency labeling to achieve its mandate. Following
ministerial action at the governmental level, a formal agreement was
signed between the government of Ghana and the USA and thus
enabling the Alliance to Save Energy and the Lawrence Berkeley
National Laboratory (LBNL) to start assisting the Energy Foundation
in introducing Performance Standards for high energy consuming
domestic appliances. In 1998 the LBNL in collaboration with the
Energy Foundation developed “The Ghana Residential Energy Use
and Appliance Ownership Survey: Final Report on the Potential
Impact of Appliance Performance Standards in Ghana”. This
document which was published in 1999 formed the basis for all
subsequent standard evolution and efficiency labeling activities. The
domestic appliances identified as candidates for efficiency labeling
were refrigerators and deep freezers, room air-conditioners, lighting
equipment and motors designed to drive domestic appliances
especially ceiling and standing fans and refrigeration equipment.

STRATEGY

Notwithstanding the modest number of room air-conditioners in
Ghana (mostly used by middle and upper class consumers), their
high energy consumption led the Foundation to initiate energy
efficiency standards and labeling for them. It may be noted that by
WTO rules, standards enforcement is voluntary but the Energy
Foundation employed the legislative process to achieve a
mandatory energy efficiency labeling regime for its pioneer
appliances namely, room air-conditioners and compact fluorescent
lamps.

Although the deadline for implementation of the legislative
instrument was set for 2005 it became obvious that traders and
other stakeholders involved with handling of the appliances needed
sensitization and public education. Therefore, the effective date of
implementation was postponed to 2007. When the efficiency
standard labeling for room air-conditioners and lighting equipment
became effective the importation of secondhand air-conditioners
was not a problem, but presently it has become a significant
problem which needs to be solved. A way of solving such a problem
is the outright ban of importation of such appliances. This is being
contemplated with the support of the importers. Another alternative
is trade-in of used air-conditioners for more efficient ones and
subsequent destruction of same.

IMPLEMENTATION BOTTLENECKS

The labeling regime that was adopted for both the room air-
conditioners and the lighting equipment ( CFL) was identification by
star rating: one (1) star to five (5) stars with increasing number of
stars designation representing more efficient appliance and yearly
electrical energy consumption label was also to be attached by the
manufacturer. A successful implementation depended on a test
laboratory to test the declared efficiency levels by manufacturers
and suppliers. The Ghana Standards Board was equipped in a
modest way to perform the verification function.

The main problem with the successful application of the legislation in
respect of lighting equipment (CFL) is the illegal importation of
unlabelled CFL´S but this can be overcome by strengthening the
Destination Inspection capabilities of the GSB and the Energy
Commission who have surveillance functions. In fact unlabelled
appliances should be returned to the origin on detection at the port
of entry or should be seized and destroyed when found on the
market. To limit financial losses for dealers in such unlabelled
appliances, efficiency tests are conducted by the GSB to certify
compliance with the minimum efficiency labeling level (Star 1) and
cost of test is borne by the dealer or the trader. Those found non-
compliant are seized and destroyed or returned to the origin at the
cost of dealer or the trader. The other problem encountered with the
CFL labeling is the prevalence of five (5) Star rating on all traded
lamps. There is the need to ensure the labeling meets the listed
efficiency and yearly energy consumption level on the lamps. Again
there is a lot unlabelled lamps still on the market.
USE OF CFL DEPLOYMENT AS DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT
TOOL

In 2007 when Ghana experienced electrical energy shortages due to
poor hydrological conditions at its major Hydro-electric dam, the
government and the Energy Commission in collaboration with the
Energy Foundation (a promoter of energy efficient programs in
Ghana) imported millions of CFL for free replacement of the existing
less efficient incandescent lamps. Although the exercise was
successful the Energy Commission and the Ministry of Energy are
yet to present the energy savings accrued to the economy in the
exercise to the public. This information is important as this would
inform the continuation of such an exercise in future.

ADOPTION OF STANDARDS AND LABELING FOR DOMESTIC
REFRIGERATORS AND DEEP FREEZERS

Following the successful adoption of efficiency labeling for room air-
conditioners and CFL´S, the next exercise that was embarked on
was that for refrigerators and deep freezers. This was successfully
done by the GSB with the support of the Energy Commission which
acts as a technical regulator in the electricity industry. The lessons
learnt from the initial labeling standards development informed the
adoption of efficiency standard and labeling for the above named
appliances. To avoid dumping of inefficient appliances on the
Ghanaian market, European levels of efficiency labeling were
adopted and means have been provided to discourage the
importation of secondhand refrigerators and deep freezers and also
provide for the seizure and destruction or return of non-compliant
equipment to their origin and trade-in of existing less efficient
appliances being used by consumers for more efficient ones on the
market. All traded-in non-compliant appliances are to be destroyed.

ADVANTAGES ACCRUING TO THE GHANAIAN ECONOMY
RESULTING FROM THE ADOPTION OF APPLIANCE
EFFICIENCY LABELING

The first advantage is the postponement in the investment of
generation, transmission and distribution equipment, thus reducing
the financial burden on the economy. Further there is the possibility
of the economy benefiting financially from the Global Fund for
reduction in CO2 emission which substantially contributes to global
warming.

CONCLUSION

The success of the adoption of the Energy labeling standards for
some high electrical energy consuming appliances in Ghana has
been possible due mainly to the absence of manufacturing entities
for the selected appliances in Ghana. The process could have been
delayed if there had existed manufacturers for the appliances
involved. Now that legislation has been enacted and adopted, in the
future, manufacturers of such appliances in Ghana would have no
option but to comply with the adopted standards to the advantage of
the economy and consumers.

The difficulties cited in implementation of the above pieces of
legislation would be overcome by prior sensitization of all
stakeholders in the adoption process so that they would assume
ownership of the process and the legislation to the benefit of all.



Presented by Ing. Moses Dowuona, Chairman of the Ghana
National Electrotechnical Commitee

				
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