D12E12Safety14Curremet by gabyion

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									REFERENCE NO: E31-CHEM2

1. COURSE NAME: Industrial Chemistry

2. COURSE DESCRIPTIONS:             The course includes the fundamentals,
         acidity/alkalinity, corrosion, water and testing treatment, introduction
         to fuels and lubricants, fuels, combustion and fuel treatment.

3. NO. OF UNITS FOR LECTURE AND LABORATORY:
      2 LECTURE, 0 LABORATORY = 2 UNITS

4. NO. OF CONTACT HOURS PER WEEK:
      2 LECTURE, 0 LABORATORY = 2 HOURS

5. PREREQUISITE: Chemistry 1

6. COURSE OBJECTIVES: The students shall be able to handle, analyze and
         improve the quality of fuel oil and lubricants on board by using
         recommended additives, methods employed and equipment.

   FUNCTION: F1 - Marine Engineering at the operational level

7. COURSE OUTLINE:

   LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES:
     The student shall be able to…

  7.1 Fundamentals
       7.1.1 define an atoms
       7.1.2 describe a molecule
       7.1.3 define:
          7.1.3.1 chemical elements
          7.1.3.2 chemical compounds
       7.1.4 explain the difference between compounds and mixtures and
             names of:
          7.1.4.1 elements
          7.1.4.2 compounds
          7.1.4.3 mixtures
       7.1.5 define a chemical reaction
       7.1.6 define an oxide
       7.1.7 use as necessary the convention denoting elements,
             compounds and mixtures by letters and numbers; for example,
             carbon dioxide represented by CO2
       7.1.8 explain what is meant by:
          7.1.8.1 solution
          7.1.8.2 solubility
          7.1.8.3 saturated solution
          7.1.8.4 suspension
          7.1.8.5 precipitation
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  7.2 Acidity/Alkalinity
       7.2.1 define the composition of an atom
       7.2.2 explain the result of an atom gaining or losing electrons
       7.2.3 define a hydrogen ion
       7.2.4 define a hydroxyl ion
       7.2.5 given pH values, demonstrate whether a solution is alkaline,
               neutral or acidic, indicating its strength or weakness
       7.2.6 use an indicator such as litmus paper to determine whether a
               solution or alkaline

 7.3 Corrosion
      7.3.1 define how metallic hydroxide is formed when an iron
             immersed in an acidic solution
      7.3.2 define the effect of dissolved oxygen and high acidity on
             polarization
      7.3.3 state that boiler water should be alkaline and contain little or
             no dissolved oxygen
      7.3.4 explain the fundamental process of corrosion
      7.3.5 name common engineering materials which produce passive
             oxide films
      7.3.6 state the main cause of corrosion
      7.3.7 name the components of galvanic cell and applies these to the
             corrosion of a metal
      7.3.8 define that seawater is an electrolyte
      7.3.9 define an anode
      7.3.10 from a list of common metals, selects relative anodes
      7.3.11 define metals as being noble or base relative to each other
      7.3.12 define the use of sacrificial anodes
      7.3.13 recognize the problems of graphitization of cast iron
      7.3.14 define the reason why corrosion increases when seawater
             velocity increases
      7.3.15 define the terms and what is meant by stress corrosion and
             names the metals in which its commonly occurs
      7.3.16 explain what is meant by dezincification and de-aluminification
      7.3.17 define how the process in the above objective can be
             prevented
      7.3.18 explain what is meant by fretting corrosion
      7.3.19 define the factors which increases the rate of fretting
      7.3.20 define what is meant by corrosion fatigue
      7.3.21 the following major factors affecting the corrosion process are
             identified:
          7.3.21.1 differential temperatures
          7.3.21.2 stresses within the metal structure
          7.3.21.3 variation in crystal structure of the metal
          7.3.21.4 distribution/concentration of impurities in the metal
                    crystals
          7.3.21.5 flow of oxygen to the cathode
          7.3.21.6 hydroxyl ion concentration of the aqueous solution

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       7.3.22 recognize that some films and coatings on metal surfaces
              can provided protection so long as they remain intact
       7.3.23 recognize that surface preparation prior to the application of
              protective coatings is very important
       7.3.24 identify the important methods of surface protection as:
          7.3.24.1 paints
          7.3.24.2 chemical films
          7.3.24.3 metallic coatings
          7.3.24.4 anodizing

 7.4 Water and Testing treatment
      7.4.1 recognize the importance of controlling the pH value of
             aqueous solutions within the minimum corrosive range
      7.4.2 identify the chemical additives that can be used to obtain the
             condition required in the above objective
      7.4.3 know the importance of maintaining a gas-free condition in the
             water used to “feed” a steam boiler or to circulate in an engine
             cooling system
      7.4.4 Identify the methods in common use for conditioning the water
             content of marine power plant, e.g. trisodium phosphate,
             hydrazine
      7.4.5 explain that natural water supplies contain metallic salts in
             solution
      7.4.6 demonstrate the standards method of measuring metallic salt
             content, i.e. state the actual quantity of metallic salt present in
             a specified quantity of water
      7.4.7 know the standard measurement given in the above objective
             as in units of “parts per million” (ppm) or less accurately in
             „32‟s (seawater density measurement)
      7.4.8 list the main metallic salts found in:
          7.4.8.1 fresh water
          7.4.8.2 average seawater
      7.4.9 define:
          7.4.9.1 permanent hardness
          7.4.9.2 temporary hardness
      7.4.10 define briefly how scale and sludge are produced in a steam
               boiler
      7.4.11 explain the different effects of using seawater, fresh water
               and distilled water as boiler feedwater
      7.4.12 explain the different effects of using seawater, freshwater as
               boiler feedwater
      7.4.13 define the principal objects of treatment of boiler feedwater

 7.5. Introduction to fuels and lubricants
       7.5.1 identify the average carbon, hydrogen, sulphur and ash
             content of the following fuels:
          7.5.1.1 petrol (gasoline)
          7.5.1.2 kerosene
          7.5.1.3 marine diesel fuel
          7.5.1.4 boiler fuel oil
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       7.5.2 define flashpoint and explains its importance for marine fuels
             and lubricants
       7.5.3 know flashpoints temperature for the following hydrocarbons:
          7.5.3.1 petrol
          7.5.3.2 kerosene
          7.5.3.3 marine diesel fuel
          7.5.3.4 boiler fuel oil
          7.5.3.5 lubricating oil
       7.5.4 identify the minimum closed flashpoint of marine fuels
       7.5.5 state the maximum temperature to which fuel oil may be raised
       7.5.6 describe precautions taken on board ship to prevent accidental
             ignition of the oils listed in the above objective
       7.5.7 define viscosity in terms of resistance to flow
       7.5.8 demonstrate why it is necessary to raise the temperature of
             some fuel oils
       7.5.9 carry out test on fuels and lubricants for:
          7.5.9.1 flashpoint
          7.5.9.2 viscosity
       7.5.10 explain the reason why values of flashpoint or of viscosity
              need to be known for the following:
          7.5.10.1 fuels and lubricants and storage
          7.5.10.2 transfer of fuels and lubricants
          7.5.10.3 carry out tests on fuels and lubricants foe water content

  7.6. Fuels
       7.6.1 describe the combustion process in the boiler or an engine cylinder
       7.6.2 describe the chemical         reaction in combustion as being between
             combustible materials such as hydrocarbon fuels and the oxygen
             contained in atmospheric air
       7.6.3 state that, as a result of combustion, heat energy becomes available,
             enabling thermodynamic operations to be carried out
       7.6.4 state that heat released during the combustion of a unit of a substance is
             termed calorific value (CV)
       7.6.5 state that calorific values for fuels are usually states with respect to unit
             mass in the case of solid and liquid fuels and unit volume in the case of
             gaseous fuels
       7.6.6 state that the main combustible elements in marine fuels are carbon,
             hydrogen and sulphur
       7.6.7 state the appropriate calorific values of the elements given in the above
             objective
       7.6.8 state that sulphur is usually present in marine fuels
       7.6.9 state that the salts of sodium and vanadium are usually present in marine
             fuels
       7.6.10 state that sulphur, although combustible, is an undesirable element in a
               fuel
       7.6.11 state that sodium and vanadium are also undesirable elements in a fuel
       7.6.12 state typical percentage of carbon, hydrogen and sulphur for:
          7.6.12.1 fuel oil for a steam boiler
          7.6.12.2 marine diesel fuel
      7.6.13 state typical calorific values for marine fuels
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       7.6.14 state the average proportion, by percentage, of oxygen and
              nitrogen in atmospheric air

    7.7. Combustion
      7.7.1 state that the elements carbon and hydrogen combine chemically
             with oxygen during combustion to form the gaseous products
             carbon dioxide and water vapour
      7.7.2 explain the part played by nitrogen in the combustion process
      7.7.3 state that, to ensure that the combustion process is as compete
             possible, excess air is normally supplied
      7.7.4 state that the excess of air must be kept to a minimum, consistent
             with good combustion
      7.7.5 state that either the percentage of carbon dioxide or the percentage
             of oxygen in the exhaust gas should be continuously recorded
      7.7.6 state that although excess air is supplied, there may be some
             incomplete combustion of carbon to carbon monoxide (CO)
      7.7.7 state that in practice the products of combustion are normally a
             gaseous mixture of carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, water-vapour,
             possibly carbon monoxide and an ash, possibly containing sodium
             and vanadium
      7.7.8 state that poor combustion creates smoke, which polutes the
             atmosphere and wastes fuel and reduces the efficiency of the
             engine or boiler
      7.7.9 state that the production of smoke may lead to prosecution
      7.7.10 explain why the proportion of CO 2 or O2 in exhaust gases provides
             an indication of combustion efficiency
      7.7.11 describe briefly the instruments available to indicate and rec ord the
             percentage of CO2 and O2 in exhaust gas
      7.7.12 State the ranges of percentage of CO 2 which indicate:
         7.7.12.1 good combustion
         7.7.12.2 poor combustion
         7.7.12.3 bad combustion
      7.7.13 explain the importance of atomization when it is required to mix a
             liquid fuel with air prior to combustion
      7.7.14 explain why viscosity of a fuel is important in its atomization
      7.7.15 describe how viscosity of a fuel can be controlled by varying its
             temperature
      7.7.16 state the theoretical air/fuel ratio for a typical boiler fuel
      7.7.17 state the actual air/fuel ratio, allowing for normal excess air, in:
         7.7.17.1 the fumace of a steam boiler
         7.7.17.2 the cylinder of a diesel engine
      7.7.18 state that if sulphur dioxide contacts a low-temperature surface,
             sulphuric acid will be produced which will cause corrosion
      7.7.19 explain how the effect of the above objective can be minimized
      7.7.20 describe the effect of ash on atomizing equipment

7.8. Fuel Treatment
      7.8.1 describe the following types of filter, which are used in the fuel lines
          7.8.1.1 mesh/gauze elements
          7.8.1.2 edge-type packs
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        7.8.1.3 magnetic elements
        7.8.1.4 fiber assemblies
     7.8.15 explain how the force of gravity is used to separate out liquids and
            solids of different densities
     7.8.16 explain why the use of centrifugal separation is much faster and
            more effective than gravity in the separation process
     7.8.17 describe the aide of simple sketches, a bowl separator and a tube
            separator, showing the main components and the principal
            differences between the two
     7.8.18 state the rotation speeds used in the equipment describes in the
            above objective
     7.8.19 state the difference bet purifying and clarifying
     7.8.20 describe the purification process of a fuel oil, starting the
            approximate temperatures of the oil necessary both in the supply
            tank and immediately prior to centrifuging
     7.8.21 describe the correct and safe operating procedures for centrifuges
     7.8.22 describe the correct procedures for the disposal of waste oil, sludge
            residue, etc…

8. EQUIPMENT, MATERIALS, CHEMICALS, TEACHING AIDS:

            The equipment, materials, chemicals, teaching aids needed in
     this course is listed in the attached APPENDIX 1.


9. REFERENCES:

     9.1 “Marine Engineering at operational level“(STCW Code, Table A-
        III/I)
     9.2 Daguio, Samuel. “Fuel Oils and Lubricants”.
     9.3 Johnson, L., Morton. “General Engineering Knowledge” 4 th ed.
        (London, Thomas Reed publication, ltd., 1998)
     9.4 Kant‟s, “Mechanical Engineering Handbook”. 12 ed.
     9.5 Osbourne. “Modern Engineers Manual”. Vol. I-II.
     9.6 Pounder. “Internal Combination Engine”.




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