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					Building Capability & Capacity
        for RTI within the
    Pyramid of Interventions

           Summer GAEL
                   July 2008



     Paula Freer, Patrick Kennedy, Iva King,
Lynn Pennington, Jennifer Schau, and Frank Smith
                                                   1
            SSTAGE STATS & Promos

First Year (2007-08)
 3 Conferences = 1000+ participants (SOLD OUT!)
 9 Symposia = 580+ participants
 5 Regional meetings

Second Year (2008-09)
• Sept. 9th & 10th Conference (Interventions) Dublin
• Jan. 14th & 15th Conference (Best Practices) Athens

                                                   2
  Georgia‘s Student Achievement
Pyramid of Interventions and RTI is…

    …a multi-tiered system of
    instruction/intervention
    matched to student need
    and guided by student
    outcome data


                                       3
    RTI capability & capacity
     begins with building…


    Consensus
• Common understanding
• Answering the ‗why‘
• Concepts communicated

                                4
…and continues with building…



    Infrastructure
  for implementation


                                5
     Characteristics of Effective Practice     Describe what evidence or outcome    Level of Implementation
     for RTI, SST and the Pyramid of           data you have to support that this   1 – Just beginning
                                                                                    2 - Making good progress
     Intervention framework                    practice is in place.
                                                                                    3 - Well established

                                                                                       1         2         3
1.   Effective problem solving process at
     each tier with identified team members,
     roles and responsibilities.
2.   A coordinated system of assessment and
     progress monitoring (to include
     screening of all students, decision
     making rules, data collection and
     analysis).

3.   A coordinated system of
     instructional/behavioral supports and
     programs with resources allocated (to
     include scheduling, research-based
     materials and practices, and staffing).

4.   Job-embedded professional development
     and ongoing teacher support that
     addresses relevant areas essential to
     effective implementation.
5.   A systematic plan with specified
     practices for parent/family
     communication and involvement.                                                                       6
  Building Capability and Capacity



1. Effective problem solving process at
   each tier with identified team
   members, roles and responsibilities.




                                          7
Problem Solving Teams                    Characteristics

                 IEP, Gifted,             •Articulated goal/purpose
                 504, ELL…                •Defined responsibilities
                                           & roles of members
                                Tier 3
                                          •Consistent multi-step
          Student Support                  problem solving process
              Teams…
                                          •DATA drives decision
                                           making
                                Tier 2    •Alignment,
      _______ Teams…                       communication,
                                           & connectedness
                                           (with/to other teams)
                                          •On-going, embedded
                                Tier 1     professional learning
Prof. Learning Communities,
Grade or Department…                      •Evaluation of team
                                           effectiveness

                                                                8
Data-based Problem Solving
       • Focus on the individual student
       • Hypothesis-driven
       • Diagnostic assessment and in-depth
         analysis
       • Intervention matched to specific needs
         of the student
       • Infuses diverse expertise


       • Focus on groups of students
       • Common assessments and screening
         (automatic triggers)
       • Standards-based and preplanned
          interventions


                                                  9
  Building Capability and Capacity

2. A coordinated system of assessment
   and progress monitoring (to include
   screening of all students, decision
   making rules, data collection, data
   analysis, measures of fidelity




                                         10
A coordinated system of assessment
     and progress monitoring


What data do you have that already exists at
 Tier 1?
The next step is Universal or Targeted
 Screening – to identify students
 that lack basic skills


                                           11
              Definition of terms
• Universal Screening (or targeted screening)
  Designed as a first step in identifying children who
  may be at risk for difficulties and/or need additional
  services and supports.

• Benchmarks*: Activities required of all students at
  key points in their education to ensure that they are
  mastering designated performance standards in
  order to confirm their ongoing achievement of
  designated content standards (e.g., quarterly
  writing prompts; annual reading assessments).
            *GaDOE‘s GPS Training (Day 3)
                                                     12
  Universal screening 3x a year -
HOW?            By WHOM?
                • Paraprofessionals
• Individuals   • Teachers
                • Specialists (i.e.
• Teams           psychologists, EIP,
                  SLP, etc…)
• Stations      • Administrators
                • Others                13
         Academic Probes
• Reading
  Early Literacy, Oral Reading Fluency,
  Vocabulary, and Maze
• Math
  Early Numeracy and Math Curriculum-
  based Measurement (CBM)
• Writing
  Total Words Written, Words Spelled
  Correct, and Correct Word Sequences,
                                          14
Example of Universal Screening
            Data
                    Mrs. Kaufman – 6th Grade
                           Fall R-CBM

 Student                 Words correct per minute   Errors
 Jones, Trey             197                        1
 Willis, Samantha        160                        0
 Andrews, Maria          158                        3
 Carr, Robert            148                        2
 Goodwin, Marvin         135                        0
 James, Missy            133                        0
 Miles, Jarod            126                        1
 Phillips, Daniel        117                        1
 Bond, Sophia            109                        2
 Smith, David            64                         8
                                                             15
 Johnson, Tiffany        48                         12
               Behavior
…is measured through observation and/or
 student self-monitoring

• Two examples of behavior data:
 Frequency count - How many
 times did the behavior occur?

 Duration - How long did the
 behavior last?
                                          16
   Assessment at Tiers 2, 3 and 4
Progress Monitoring is a scientifically-based
 practice that is used to assess students‘
 academic and behavioral performance to
 evaluate the effectiveness of instruction.

Progress Monitoring assesses the SAME
 basic skills over time to measure progress


                                            17
  Advantages of Using CBM
• Quick to administer, simple, easy, and cost-efficient.

• Performance is graphed and analyzed over time

• Sensitive to even small improvements in performance

 This is KEY—as most standardized/norm-referenced tests
           do NOT show small, incremental gains.

• Can have many forms — most standardized tests
  have a maximum of two forms.

• Monitoring frequently enables staff to see trends in
  individual and group performance—and compare
  those trends with targets set for their students.    18
  Progress Monitoring MUST …

      INFORM INSTRUCTION

Teachers administer 1 or 2 probes that
 focus on key skills
Teachers analyze results and
 adjust instruction accordingly


                                         19
                                     Example of Progress Monitoring Data

                        100


                        90
                                     Tier 1                       Tier 2
                        80


                        70
Words Correct Per Min




                        60

                                       Aimline= 1.50
                        50
                                       words/week
                                                                        Trendline = 0.95
                        40
                                                                        words/week
                        30
                                                                            30              30        31
                                                                                       28        28
                        20                                             25        26
                                                            24    22
                              20              22       21
                        10
                                      18

                         0
                              Sept            Oct           Nov                  Dec                  Jan   20   Feb
                                                                  School Weeks
      Example of decision making rules
1.   Universal screening - ALL students - 3 times per year
     – Focus Tier II: Students with marked
       difficulties may include:
       •   10th percentile or less on universal screening
       •   Level 1 on CRCT in Reading and/or Math
       •   DNM on Georgia Writing Assessment
       •   Retention
       •   Excessive discipline referrals
     – Focus Tier III: Students that have not
       responded to Tier II efforts, i.e.
       •   4 or more data points showing no
           improvement or less than expected growth
       •   Level 1 on CRCT                                   21
     Building Capability and Capacity

3.      A coordinated system of
     instructional/behavioral supports and
     programs with resources allocated (to
     include scheduling, research-based
     materials and practices, and staffing).




                                               22
There is a great deal of confusing language
     being used to ‗qualify‘ strategies,
  interventions, programs and practices
Which is which?
• Strategies               ______________

• Interventions:
  – Scientifically-Based   ______________
  – Research-Based         ______________
  – Evidence-Based         ______________

                                            23
                Strategies
Strategy - ― a careful plan or method; the art
of devising or employing plans or
stratagems toward a goal.‖ Webster's dictionary

Usually we hear strategy used in the context
of a ―teaching strategy‖…..

Let‘s look at some examples…..
                                              24
         Strategy Examples
Classroom Instruction that Works by
Marzano/ASCD:

Graphic organizers/Frayer Model
Story map….

These are very often in Tier 1

                                      25
         Interventions are not . . .
                        (North Georgia GLRS)



          Change seats


                                                More of the same



                    Shortened assignments


                                               Retention
Parent conference
                                                           26
          Scientifically-Based Interventions
                          (NASP-Harn, 2007)

• Programs can be categorized into two groups:
  Scientifically proven —meaning scientific results have
   already been published in peer-reviewed journals using
   the previously described scientific rigor
     Only 5% of the available research on school reform strategies
       have demonstrated effects (National Clearinghouse for CSR,2003)

  Research-based —meaning the methods, content,
   materials, etc. were developed in guidance from the
   collective research and scientific community
     ―There is an abundance of promotional literature that is often
       presented as ―evidence.‖ Buyer beware! Work to the
       highest standard possible.‖ (National Clearinghouse for
       CSR,2003)
     Educators must examine and look for evidence
      before the money is spent and programs    27
      imposed on children.
   Evidence-Based Interventions…
…Do not meet the rigor or standards of scientifically-
 or research-based interventions.

…Do include specific interventions supported by well-
 designed, independent research studies. There is
 evidence that they improve student outcomes
    (Effective School Interventions Rathvon, 1999).

  See examples of evidence-based interventions at:
          www.interventioncentral.org
                                                     28
            (interventions and strategies)
          Interventions:
     Begin with the End in Mind

Two guiding factors for intervention
  effectiveness (Torgesen et al. 2001):

1. The right level of intensity

2. Teacher (or interventionist) skill

                                          29
       Interventions should …
• Be connected to a specific goal that is well-
  defined, observable and measurable
• Have specific defined step-by-step
  descriptions so they can be
   – implemented consistently
   – and can be replicated
• Include ongoing documentation of the student‘s
  response to the intervention
• Pass the ―Stranger Test‖
                                                   30
    Effective Programs
Interventions are effective when
  they are implemented with
  fidelity

Fidelity = the practitioners use all the
  core intervention components
  skillfully, consistently (Fixen and Blase, 2006)

                                               31
                    INTERVENTION
                       Example
               For fifth grade students who scored in the lowest 10% on the
Focus          universal reading screening in word fluency and comprehension,
               and are more than three years below grade level.
               Examples: Great Leaps, Rewards… (e.g.’s of evidence based reading
Intervention   programs) SRA, Corrective Reading (e.g.’s research based)


Grouping       Homogeneous small group instruction (1:8)


               30-45 minutes 3-4 times a week during study skills block for
Time
               nine weeks

               Progress monitoring of CWPM/ORF (weekly) and a Maze (every
Assessment     two weeks) using Aimsweb and school-made assessments

               Paraprofessional team and reading coach
Provider

Setting        Group meets in the media center or Ms. Quincy’s classroom

               Direct observation by reading coach using checklist every 32
Fidelity       two weeks.
                       Evidence-Based
                Effective School Interventions
               Natalie Rathvon, 1999, NY: The Guilford Press

•   Easily taught to those doing interventions
•   Implemented using general classroom resources
•   Includes 76 empirically validated Interventions
•   Documented evidence of effectiveness
•   Capable of classwide application

Important Step-by-Step Intervention Components:
    Format               Procedure
    Overview/Purpose     Evaluation
    Materials            Variations
    Observation          Notes/Source/Studies           33
            Capability and Capacity
          It is crucial for administrators to be
involved in the accountability and follow-up of
interventions at ALL TIERS
– Facilitating and documenting training for
  programs/interventions
– Assigning responsibility for fidelity (observations
  and tracking documentation of interventions)
– Scheduling to support effective interventions


                                                   34
    Scheduling Considerations
• When will the most adults be available?
• Can students be easily regrouped?
• Can students be grouped across grades?
• What meaningful activities can be
  provided for students who do not need
  interventions?
• Who will track data to determine when
  students need to be regrouped?
                                            35
            St Mary‘s ES (Camden Co.)
       2nd Grade                            5th Grade
   TIME            Event               TIME            Event
7:40-8:50     Math               7:40-8:30         HR/SEA
8:50-9:20     Soc Studies        8:30-9:20         PE,Art, etc.
9:20-10:10    SEA                9:20-10:20        Block 1
10:10-11:00 PE, Art, etc.        10:20-11:20 Block 2
11:00-11:49 Lunch                11:20-11:59       Block 3
11:49-12:19 Science              11:59-12:38 Lunch
12:19-1:20    ELA                12:38-1:10        Block 3 (cont.)
1:20-2:10     Reading            1:10-2:10         Block 4     36
              SEA = Students Enhancing Academics
              Pike County MS (6th grade)
8:15-9:05        1st     Academic Class

9:06-9:56        2nd     Academic Class

9:58-10:48       3rd     Academic Class

10:49-11:39      4th     Academic Class

11:40 –1:00      5th     Academic Class and LUNCH

1:00 – 1:30      6th     ILP Individualized Learning Period

1:33 – 2:21      7th     Connection Class or 2nd
                         Math/Reading
2:23 – 3:15      8th     Connection Class or 2nd       37
                         Math/Reading
      Union Grove HS (Henry County)
8:34-9:29        FIRST
9:34-10:28     SECOND
10:33-11:27      THIRD
11:32-11:59   1st Lunch       Instructional FOURTH    FOURTH
                              Focus
12:03-12:30   Instructional   2nd Lunch   FOURTH      FOURTH
              Focus                       Continued   Continued
12:34- 1:01   FOURTH          FOURTH      3rd Lunch   Instructional
                                                      Focus
1:05 – 1:32   FOURTH          FOURTH      Instructional 4th Lunch
              Continued       Continued   Focus
1:37-2:32        FIFTH
                                                             38
2:36-3:30        SIXTH
          Possible Solutions
• All teachers, including coaches & parapros
  are available during school hours
• A school-wide intervention time facilitates
  re-grouping as needed.
• Cross-grade grouping may be necessary for
  ―low-incidence‖ student needs
• Group size can vary greatly based on needs
• Students not needing interventions can be
  challenged with SAT prep, yearbook, drama,
  science or writing clubs, academic bowl, etc.
                                             39
    Running the Schedule Effectively
Schools must designate responsibilities:
• Time for Teacher/Administrator teams to look at
  data regularly and regroup students according
  to progress
• Trained personnel to assure fidelity and to fill-in
  when interventionists are out
• Continuous Improvement Team for ―tweaking‖
• ? Student teams to help design classes for
  students who do not need interventions ?       40
     Building Capability and Capacity

4.      Job-embedded professional
     development and ongoing teacher
     support that addresses relevant areas
     essential to effective implementation




                                             41
RTI Pyramid Training Issues




                              42
    What do we need today?
• Random Acts of Improvement …
  – Squeezing in RTI where it’s possible?

             OR


• Aligned Acts ….
  – Thoughtfully designed and planned?
                                         43
    How do these approaches differ?
Random Acts:         Aligned Acts:
• Subjective data    • Use of a data driven
  collection           problem-solving process at
                       ALL Tiers (vs. only at Tiers
                       3 & 4 in the past)
• Inconsistent       • Analyzing school data to
  management of        target needs
  data
                     • Documenting instructional
• Inconsistent use     practices which are defined
  of teaching,         and measured
  learning and
  intervention       • Consistent and ongoing
                       evaluation of instructional
                                                 44
                       practices
            Inserting RTI?
• It is unreasonable to believe that RTI
  will fit neatly into you‘re your existing
  system.




• Expectations and beliefs about
  accountability must change.                 45
   Expectations for Educators
• Tier I - owning all the students
• Differentiated Instruction
• Data Collection

• Progress Monitoring


                                     46
         Training Priorities
• Solid Understanding
  of the Tiered
  Intervention Process

• Available
  Interventions

• Oversight of the
  Process
                               47
          Training Strategy
1. Develop a sequence of training issues
   that makes sense…
2. Be realistic about how much change can
   occur in a given time – mindset is the
   biggest issue
3. Become creative about reaching the
   primary training target – teachers
4. In addition to formal training, frequent
   informal consultation and follow-up is key
                                            48
              Finally…
• Building leaders

• Central Office staff

• Parents


                         49
     Building Capability and Capacity

5.     A systematic plan with specified
       practices for parent/family
       communication and involvement.




                                          50
 PARENT ENGAGEMENT


An INFORMED parent
      can be
 a VITAL supporter


                     51
      National PTA Standards for
 Parent/Family Involvement (Epstein)
 Effective parent involvement programs include activities that are
  addressed by the following six standards:

I. Communicating — Communication between home and school is
     regular, two-way, and meaningful.
II. Parenting — Parenting skills are promoted and supported.
III. Student learning — Parents play an integral role in assisting
     student learning.
IV. Volunteering — Parents are welcome in the school, and their
     support and assistance are sought.
V. School decision making and advocacy — Parents are full
     partners in the decisions that affect children and families.
VI. Collaborating with community — Community resources
     strengthen schools, families, and student learning.

                        Now translate to Georgia Standards

                                                                     52
 Georgia School Keys (School Standards)
   pp. 41-48 for Parent Involvement
   STUDENT, FAMILY, AND COMMUNITY
      INVOLVEMENT AND SUPPORT
 The school as a community of learning involves
parents and community members as active participants.
There is consistent and growing evidence of parental
involvement and volunteerism, participation in
workshops and enrichment activities, and a process of
two-way communication. Everyone collaborates to help
the school achieve its continuous improvement targets
and short- and long-range goals.
                                                 53
 Student, Family, and Community Involvement and Support
                        Standard 1:
 The school reinforces the continuous improvement process through active
       and sustained involvement of student, family, and community.

SFC 1.1 Communication Between School and Parents and Community




                                                                      54
Student, Family, and Community
     Support Standard 2:
The school has organizational
structures and processes to
ensure that students, families, and
community members play an
active and sustained role in school
governance, decision-making, and
problem-solving.
                                  55
  Student, Family, and Community
       Support Standard 3:

   The school addresses student,
  family, and community needs
  through appropriate services and
  cross-institutional partnerships.

See www.gadoe.org then “School Improvement”
  page, then “School Keys” link.


                                              56
57
    RTI Resources for Parents
Response to Intervention: A Primer for Parents
  (from NASP)
 www.nasponline.org/resources/handouts/rtiprimer.pdf


A Parent's Guide to Response-to-Intervention (from
  NCLD)
www.rtinetwork.org/images/stories/Downloads/parents
 guidetorti-ncld.pdf

Parents and Families Resources (from RTI Action
  Network)
        www.rtinetwork.org/Parents-and-Families
                                                     58
PARENT ENGAGEMENT RESOURCES
    Georgia Family Connection Partnership
                www.gafcp.org
   Dr. Marian Gamble:―permanent loan‖ from
            DOE marian@gafcp.org
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                 _________________




     Parent Mentors for Special Education
    Patti Solomon psolomon@doe.k12.ga.us
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                 ________________




        Title I, Part A: Parental Involvement
       Andrea Moore amoore@doe.k12.ga.us                                                                                               59
           PARENT WEBSITES
• http://www.dpi.state.nd.us/title1/targeted/requi
  re/parent/index.shtm (Title I Website)

• http://www.parentmentors.org (Parent Mentor
  Partnership)

• http://www.ed.gov/pubs/ReachFam/spp.html
  (Reaching All Families: Creating-Family
  Friendly Schools)

• www.ncrel.org North Central Regional
  Educational Laboratory
                                                     60
          PARENT WEBSITES                (cont’d)

• www.ncpie.org (National Coalition for Parent
  Involvement in Education)
• www.pta.org/programs (National P.T.A.
  Standards for Parent/Family Involvement
  Programs)
• http://www.par-inst.com (Parent Institute)
• http://pfie.ed.gov/ (Partnership for Family
  Involvement in Education)
• http://eric-web.tc.columbia.edu/families/strong
  (Strong Families, Strong Schools: Building
  Partnerships for Learning)
                                                    61
   RTI Websites and Resources

Response to Intervention Blueprints
for Implementation:
  http://www.nasdse.org/Portals/0/DISTRICT.pdf
  http://www.nasdse.org/Portals/0/SCHOOL.pdf

Essential:
• www.interventioncentral.org
• http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/ (What Works
  Clearinghouse)
• www.rtinetwork.org (RTI Action Network)
                                                 62
   RTI Assessment Resources
Investigate and compare commercial products:
• www.studentprogress.org
Websites with free materials and links:
• www.interventioncentral.org
• https://dibels.uoregon.edu
• http://ggg.umn.edu/siteindex.html
• http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/browsebytopic
  04.html
Graph data using:
• Excel
• Chartdog on www.interventioncentral.org
• www.easycbm.com
                                                  63
              References
• Harn, B., NASP Presentation 2007
• NASDE Presentation/Online 2008
• Powers, K., Hagans, K., & Olaya,C.,
  NASP Presentation 2007
• Shinn, M., March, R., & Phillips, M., NASP
  Presentation 2008
• SSTAGE Conference Presentations, Sept.
  2007, January 2008, and March 2008
• Torgesen et al. 2001 cited in Skinner et al.
  2005
                                             64
                Presenters:

Paula Freer, Program Specialist, Metro West GLRS
Patrick Kennedy, Director of Except. Student
  Services & Pupil Services, Decatur City Schools
Iva King, Consultant, West Central GLRS - West
  Georgia RESA
Lynn LeLoup Pennington, Education Consultant,
  President of SSTAGE
Jennifer Schau, Intervention Specialist, Forsyth
  County Schools
Frank Smith, GaDOE, Psychological Services &
  SST                                            65

				
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