Program_Implementation_Fidelity-Developing_Structures by chenshu

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									Fidelity of Implementation

   Developing Structures for
Improving the Implementation of
   Core, Supplemental, and
    Intervention Programs
         Barbara Gunn, Ph.D.
       Oregon Research Institute
         Acknowledgments

Oregon Department of Education

Institute for the Development of Educational
Achievement, College of Education, University of
Oregon

– Katie Tate, IDEA

Oregon Reading First Teachers and Coaches
             Objectives
• Rationale for Program Implementation
  Fidelity
• Five-Step Structure for Implementation
• Fidelity Observation Checklists
• Role of Grade-Level Team, Coach and
  Principal
      Fidelity of Program
  Implementation: What is it?

Content - Accurately teaching the
the reading program the way it was designed

Delivery - Using effective teaching
techniques and strategies to maximize
student learning
    Why is fidelity important?
• Even with high       • Reading programs
  quality professional   are only as good as
  development            the quality of
  variations in          implementation.
  implementation         When quality varies
  occur                  -- student
                         outcomes will be
                         affected.
      How Will The Program Be
               Used?
• Core
   – The “base” reading program, designed to
   teach all components of reading
• Supplemental
   – Programs and materials designed to support the core by
     teaching specific skills
• Intervention
   – Programs and materials designed to provide intensive
     support for students performing below grade level
        Developing Structures
     to Improve Program Fidelity
1. Learn the Program (teacher, coach, principal)
     – Content
     – Delivery
2.   Observe
3.   Teach
4.   Be Observed (sample checklists)
5.   Refine
    1. Learning the Program:
             Content
Organization of the Program
• Scope and Sequence
     • High Priority Skills - Can you easily identify what the
      activity is intended to teach?
     • Rate of Introduction- How often are new skills
      introduced?
     • Cumulative Review - How frequently are new skills
      reviewed?
     • Decodable Text - Do practice stories have words that
      students have been taught to read?
     • Mastery-Based or Cover the Content
        – Placement tests
        – End of unit tests
Rate of Introduction -Vocabulary
• 2nd Grade
  – chipmunks, picked, sniffing, south, woods (Days
    1-5)

• 1st Grade
  –   none (Day 1)
  –   none (Day 2)
  –   square, circle, triangle, rectangle, diamond (Day 3)
  –   carrot, farm, feed (Day 4)
  –   scared, angry, sad, surprised, annoyed (Day4)
  –   none (Day 5)
           Cumulative Review

Progra     Introduce          Review
  m         (Day 1)         (Days 2-10)
  A      N says /nnn/   X X X             X
         F says /fff/
         P says /p/
  B      P says /p/             X
  C      P says /p/     X X X X X X X         X
    1. Learning the Program:
                 Content
• Can the lesson be taught in the 90
  minute reading block, or are there more
  activities than you can complete?
• Does the program prioritize the activities
  for you? Or is prioritizing left up to you?
             Program Content
Content                Adequate   Enhancements

High Priority Skills   Yes   No
Rate of Introduction   Yes   No
Cumulative Review      Yes   No
Decodable Text         Yes   No
Placement and End- Yes       No
of-Unit Tests
Guidelines for         Yes   No
Prioritizing
Instruction
    1. Learning the Program:
                      Delivery
Reviews of reading curricula indicate that core
  programs
vary widely in the quality of guidelines for instructional
delivery.
  1. Explicit instruction
  2. Demonstrate skills and strategies
  3. Guide practice
  4. Monitor independent practice
  5. Provide corrective feedback
              Program Delivery
           General Features of Instruction

Delivery          Adequate     Enhancements
Explicit          Yes    No
Instruction
Demonstrate       Yes    No

Guide             Yes    No

Practice          Yes    No

Corrective        Yes    No
Feedback
 Acknowledge Student Efforts
• Describe what they did.
 1. “You just blended the hard word and figured it out!”
 2. “Pat yourself on the back. You just read a whole
 sentence.”
 3. “Way to go - you remembered the name of main
 character.”
              2. Observe
• Classroom Observations
  – Coach
  – Trainer or consultant
  – Teacher in your building
  – Visit another school with the same
    core program
 Observe Reading Instruction
     What does it look like and sounds like?
Is there?
  – Active engagement of students
  – Teacher demonstration, guide, and independent
    practice
  – Clear academic and behavioral expectations with
    positive feedback
  – Monitoring students’ understanding, corrective
    feedback and review
  – Independent work that is connected to the
    program
  – Program implementation with fidelity (…with
    enhancements as needed
              Teach
             3.
• Develop comfort and fluency with the
  materials.
• Find out how the program works with
  your students.
• Practice implementation quality with
  enhancements as needed
• Side-by-side teaching
   Teaching Considerations
• Are my students ready for this lesson?
• Are my students engaged and
  motivated?
• Why am I doing this activity?
          4. Be Observed
• Observing is hard work, being observed
  is even harder.
• Make sure the observer knows your
  program and your students AND how
  long you have used the program.
• Decide on 1-2 goals for the observation
• High quality fidelity of implementation is
  a recursive process. This is not an
  evaluation.
                           Oregon Reading First

Classroom Observation System
                                             Developed by:

                                                Scott Baker
                                       Carrie Thomas Beck
          For
                                    Nicole Sherman Brewer
         Each                                    Hank Fien
        Student

 Assessment        Goals
                                             Barbara Gunn
                                      Edward J. Kame’enui
       For All                                 Rachell Katz
      Students
                                           Amanda Sanford
     Instruction                              Trish Travers




                             Oregon Reading First Center
                                    University of Oregon
                                             Program Fidelity Checklist

District __________________          School _____________________        Teacher ID #____________________

Observer ____________________ Date___________________ Program / Lesson _______________

Name of Group ______________         Number of Students _________        Grade ___________________

Time Spent Observing ________        Special Considerations _______________________________________

Instructional Target

Phonemic Awareness = PA Phonics = PH fluency = FL Vocabulary = V   Comprehension = C Other (e.g., writing, music) = O
    Time       Heading   Activity                                                     Gr ouping           Pr imary         Level of
1                        Write in activity. Circle the main instructional     Whole    Small      Indep
                                                                                                          Instructor
                                                                                                          Teacher = T
                                                                                                                           Implementation
                                                                                                                           N = None
                               t                                   ts
                         tar ge of the activity. Slash other tar ge (s) the   Class    Gr oup             Specialist = S   P = Partial
                         teacher e mphasizes.                                                             Ed Asst = EA     F = Full
                         Activity 1:                                          W        S          I                        N        P / P+ F

                         PA         PH      FL       V       C        O
    Comments




                         Activity 2:                                          W        S          I                        N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH      FL       V       C        O
    Comments




                         Activity 3:                                          W        S          I                        N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH      FL       V       C        O
    Comments




                         Activity 4:                                          W        S          I                        N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH      FL       V       C        O
    Comments




                         Activity 5:                                          W        S          I                        N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH      FL       V       C        O
    Comments
    Time       Heading   Activity                             Gr ouping       Pr imary     Level of
                                                                              Instructor   Implementation

2                        Activity 6:

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
                                                          W    S          I                N      P / P+  F


    Comments



                         Activity 7:                      W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
    Comments




                         Activity 8:                      W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
    Comments




                         Activity 9:                      W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
    Comments




                         Activity 10:                     W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
    Comments




                         Activity 11:                     W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
    Comments




                         Activity 12:                     W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
    Comments




                         Activity 13:                     W    S          I                N     P / P+   F

                         PA         PH   FL   V   C   O
                                  General Features of Instruction (Circle A pproximate Level of Implementation)

3   Teacher ID # ________________________

    1. Teacher modeled instructional tasks when appropriate.
                                                                                   Grouping:       Whole Class                 Small Group


                        1                    2                         3                       4                           5
     Pr ovided no models.                         Follow ed models in cur riculum, but               Follow ed models in cur riculum and pr ovided
                                                  students needed mor e models.                      mor e models to meet students’ needs.
     Comments



    2. Teacher provided explicit instruction.
                    1                      2                            3                      4                           5
     Pr ovided no explicit instr uction.                            i
                                                    Follow ed cur r culum, but students                              i
                                                                                                     Follow ed cur r culum and pr ovided mor e
                                                    needed mor e e   xplicit instruction.            explicit instruction to meet students’ needs.
     Comments



    3. Teacher engaged student in meaningful interactions with language during lesson.
                        1                     2                         3                      4                           5
     Pr ovided no opportunities to develop                          i
                                                    Follow ed cur r culum, but students                              i
                                                                                                     Follow ed cur r culum and pr ovided mor e
     language.                                      needed mor e language development.               opportunities to meet students’ needs.
     Comments



    4. Teacher provided multiple opportunities for students to practice instructional tasks.
                        1                     2                         3                      4                           5
     Pr ovided no opportunities for                                 i
                                                    Follow ed cur r culum, but students                              i
                                                                                                     Follow ed cur r culum and pr ovided mor e
     pr actice.                                     needed mor e practice.                           opportunities to meet students’ needs.
     Comments



    5. Teacher provided corrective feedback after initial student responses.
                        1                     2                         3                      4                           5
                     ctive feedback less
     Pr ovided cor r e                                              ctive feedback 41-60%
                                                    Pr ovided cor r e                                                ctive feedback
                                                                                                     Pr ovided cor r e
     than 20% of the time.                          of the time.                                     81-100% of the time.
     Comments



    6. Students w ere engaged in the lesson during teacher-led instruction.
                        1                     2                         3                      4                           5
     Engaged less than 20% of the time.             Engaged 41-60% of the time.                      Engaged 81-100% of the time.
     Comments



    7. Students w ere engaged in the lesson during independent w ork.
                        1                     2                         3                      4                           5
     Engaged less than 20% of the time.             Engaged 41-60% of the time.                      Engaged 81-100% of the time.
     Comments
       Observation Feedback
• Feedback
   – Describe what you saw. Tell what instruction looked like and
     sounded like. e.g., “You gave every student a chance to
     read,” “I noticed you demonstrated the new sound before
     students practiced it.” “You built background knowledge by
     explaining…”
   – Avoid adjectives
• No Feedback - Means no information on implementation and no
  changes.
                  5. Refine
• Use observation feedback to evaluate your program
  implementation.
• Discuss how your students are performing on unit
  tests and other progress monitoring measures.
   – Specific, objective feedback related to how well
     they are learning the content and skills.
• Decide what enhancements or revisions you could
  make the program, based on your students’ progress.
• Leave with one thing to work on.
               5. Refine
• Grade-Level Team Meetings
  – Troubleshooting implementation issues
  – Sharing grade-level resources for meeting
    the needs of the lowest performing
    students
  – Calibration checks
Principals and Implementation
• Working knowledge    • Facilitating fidelity
  of adopted             without evaluation
  programs             • Active presence in
                         classroom
• Regular              • 4 point checklist for
  communication with     understanding
  coaches and            instruction
  teachers
       Observation Checklist
 General Features of Instruction   Hi   Med   Low
Are students engaged?

Does teacher demonstrate,
guide, and give independent
practice?
Does teacher give clear
expectations with positive
feedback?
Does teacher monitor
understanding and give
corrective feedback?
    Taking the Long View of
    Program Implementation
• Adopting and implementing a new program is
  the beginning of a cycle of change.
• Change is doable when we set small goals
  that are achievable.
• Change and refine your implementation one
  step at a time…resist the temptation to layer
  programs in the first year. Work on
  implementation quality and enhancing
  instruction to meet the needs of your
  students.

								
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