Avenues of Love: An Intergenerational Activities Manual. (unknown). Willingboro, NJ: Geriatric
American Association of Retired Persons (AARP). (1993). Intergenerational Projects Idea Book.
Washington, D.C.: AARP.
Ames, B., & Youatt, J. P. (1994). Intergenerational education and service programming. Educational
Gerontology, 20, 755-764.
Abstract: The intergenerational approach is a proven method for education and service
programming with older adults, children, and youth. However, the broad scope of
intergenerational programming inherently makes it difficult to create general decision-making
processes or models for the selection of appropriate activities for diverse participants. We present
a model for decision making in intergenerational programs that is adaptable to a wide variety of
participant groups, sponsoring agencies, and program goals. The model emerged as we developed
and conducted an intergenerational training program for caregivers of children and the frail
elderly. It stresses the importance of involving all constituent groups in planning, delineates five
program categories, and establishes four criterion levels for decision-making regarding appropriate
activities. The model will be useful to those planning and implementing intergenerational
programs in a variety of settings.
Angersbach, H. L., & Jones-Forster, S. (1999). Intergenerational interactions: A descriptive analysis of
elder-child interactions in a campus-based child care center. Child & Youth Services, 20(1/2),
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine interactions between elder volunteers and
children in a campus-based child care center, using the revised Interaction Analysis Instrument
(Newman & Onawola, 1989). Findings from video-taped interactions suggested that
intergenerational interactions may be systematically related to the nature of specific program
activities. Thus it may be important for program coordinators to consider the kind of
intergenerational interactions they want to facilitate when choosing among various
intergenerational activities. Additional recommendations are offered to child-care and elder-care
organizers who are interested in developing intergenerational programs.
Bagby, B., & Snyder, J. (1992). Youth and Seniors: The Dynamic Duo. Illinois Senior Series. Urbana, IL:
University of Illinois Cooperative Extension Service.
Abstract: This manual discusses planning and implementation of intergenerational programs,
including how to identify community needs, program goals, resources, volunteers, and funding.
Program and project ideas are included.
Chhabi, K. Q. N. (2006). Intergenerational activities at Shinshu University in Japan. Journal of
Intergenerational Relationships, 4(3), 115-118.
Deutchman, D. E., Bruno, K. A., & Jarrott, S. E. (2003). Young at heart: Intergenerational activities
involving persons with dementia. Activities Directors’ Quarterly for Alzheimer’s & Other
Dementia Patients, 4(2), 27-35.
Epstein, A. S., & Boisvert, C. (2006). Let's do something together: Identifying the effective components of
intergenerational programs. Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, 4(3), 87-109.
Abstract: This study examined the environment and activities that effectively promote individual
involvement and cross-age interactions in a joint day care setting serving seniors and children
from infancy through kindergarten. It evaluated the impact of staff training on improving program
quality, and examined the relationship between the components of quality and participant
engagement. Two instruments were developed to assess program and participant characteristics,
respectively, the Intergenerational Program Quality Assessment and the Intergenerational
Involvement and Interaction Inventory. Using a pre-post design, data were collected on 25
intergenerational activities with 108 children and 68 seniors before training, and 25 sessions with
111 children and 93 seniors after training. Five components were found to characterize effective
programs and promote participant engagement: a designated intergenerational space that is shared,
accessible, and stocked with materials inviting to both age groups; a consistent daily schedule that
allows for formal as well as informal cross-age interactions; open-ended activities that emphasize
process over product and provide opportunities for planning and reflection; the explicit facilitation
of cross-age interactions by caregivers; and objective observational assessment to plan activities
and share information with families.
Epstein, A. S., & Boisvert, C. (2005). Let's Do Something Together: Identifying the Effective Components
of Intergenerational Programs, Final Project Report. Michigan: High Scope Press.
Abstract: A collaborative project by the High/Scope Educational Research Foundation, Ypsilanti,
Michigan, and Generations Together, Dexter, Michigan
Gambone, J. V. (unknown). Together for Tomorrow: Building Community Through Intergenerational
Dialogue. Crystal Bay, MN: Elder Eye Press.
Abstract: A guide and information resource to help you break down isolation and separation
between the generations. It presents a proven process for community building: the
Intergenerational Dialogue process. Intergenerational Dialogue is a tool for joining all ages,
cultures, races, genders and economic classes in problem solving and joint action.
Griff, M., Lambert, D., Dellman-Jenkins, M., & Fruit, D. (1996). Intergenerational activity analysis with
three groups of older adults: Frail, community-living, and Alzheimer's. Educational Gerontology,
Abstract: This study documents the effects of utilizing different types of activities (i.e., cognitive,
rote, active, passive) in fostering positive intergenerational exchanges between preschool-aged
children and three groups of older adults -- frail, community-living, and elders diagnosed as in the
early to mid-stage of Alzheimer's disease. Results suggested that, overall, simple and largely
unstructured activities with one or two steps and very few rules can be most successfully utilized
with all three groups of elders when interacting with young children. Community-living older
persons and children were found to enjoy the widest range of activities, while intergenerational
contact involving frail elders and those with Alzheimer's disease needed to be approached with
care in order to maintain the dignity of the elders, the positive perceptions of the children toward
the older generation, and the comfort of staff members.
Hammack, B. (1992). Shared Lives: An Intergenerational Discussion Model. Kensington, MD: Interages.
Abstract: A guide to bringing senior adults and students together to share life memories and use as
an enhancement in existing school curricula
Hatton-Yeo, A. (2006). Intergenerational Programmes: An Introduction and Examples of Practice. Stoke-
on-Trent, England: Beth Johnson Foundation and the Centre for Intergenerational Practice.
Abstract: This guide gives an introduction to intergenerational practice and contains a wide range
of case studies which have been provided by organisations from across the UK.
Hawkins, M. O., & McGuire, F. A. (1998). Preparing Participants for Intergenerational Interaction:
Training for Success. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press.
Jarrott, S. E., & Bruno, K. (2003). Intergenerational activities involving persons with dementia: An
observational assessment. American Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias, 18, 31-
Kazemek, F., & Logas, B. (2000). Spiders, kid curlers, and white shoes: Telling and writing stories across
generations. The Reading Teacher, 53(6), 446-451.
Abstract: Describes one intergenerational program bringing together elders from a writing group at
a local community center with elementary school children. Describes how using writers'
workshops with elderly and children has benefits for all parties. Discusses initial reasons for the
project, shares some activities, and presents some things to consider before venturing forth on this
kind of project
Kiernan, H. W., & Mosher-Ashley, P. M. (2002). Strategies to expand a pen pal program from simple
letters into a full intergenerational experience. Educational Gerontology, 28, 337-345.
Abstract: The Senior Pen Pal Program offered in the first grade classroom at Mulready Elementary
School in Hudson, MA is an example of a successful intergenerational program. The program has
evolved from a letter exchange to include the assignment of books about senior citizens, regular
correspondence, and structured group visits between participants. Some of the seniors visit the
classroom and lead activities. The senior center is visited by the students and an intergenerational
concert is held during the holidays.
Lutz, S., & Haller, J. (1996). Seniors & Children: Building Bridges Together -- Intergenerational Projects
Pairing Older Adults and Children at Risk. Best Practice Series, Volume 1. Washington, D.C.:
National Council on Aging.
McDuffie, W., Buemi, H., Patch, E., Nash, P., & Brown, S. (1983). Intergenerational activities. Day Care
and Early Education, 11, 9-15.
McDuffie, W., & Whiteman, J. (1989). Intergenerational Activities Program Handbook (3rd ed.).
Binghamton, New York: Broome County Child Development Council, Inc.
Abstract: Includes essays by 30 professionals in the field and activity plans for linking
preschoolers with older adults as volunteers
Moldeven, M. (1994). A Grandpa's Notebook: "How to" Ideas, Models, & Stories that Promote
Grandparent-Grandchild Communication and Interaction. Del Mar, CA: M. Moldeven.
Abstract: This book contains examples of grandparents' stories, anecdotes, interactions and
techniques to enhance grandchild self-esteem, values, and family awareness.
Ng, J. (2005). Promoting intergenerational relationships through table tennis. Journal of Intergenerational
Relationships, 3(1), 89-92.
Roehlkepartain, J. L. (1996). Creating Intergenerational Community: 75 Ideas for Building Relationships
Between Youth and Adults. Minneapolis: Search Institute.
Rossberg-Gempton, I. E., & Poole, G. D. (1999). An intergenerational creative dance program for children
and frail older adults. Gerontology and Geriatrics Education, 20(2), 49-68.
Abstract: In this article, an intergenerational dance program involving 21 children (mean age= 8
years, 6 months) and 15 older adults (mean age=83 years, 7 months) is described. The children
came from rural grade schools. The older adults came from immediate care facilities. Such
programs can have positive impact across psychomotor and cognitive domains. Information is
provided for those interested in establishing an intergenerational dance program, including warm-
up exercises, limitations, and adaptations of participants, specific movement skill combinations,
and relaxation/cool down exercises. Recommendations regarding teaching methods, processes,
and program duration are also presented.
Selinski, M. (1998). Intergenerate: Building Communities for All Ages Tool Kit. Illinois: Illinois
Stremmel, A. J., Travis, S. S., & Kelley-Harrison, P. (1997). Mutually beneficial activities for young
children and older adults in dependent care. Young Children, 52(7), 29-31.
Tice, C. (1980). Lifecraft: A Guide to Intergenerational Sharing of Activities. Ann Arbor, MI: Lifespan
Abstract: Breadmaking, creative writing, paper cutting, and woodworking
Travis, S. S., Stremmel, A. J., & Kelly-Harrison, P. (1996). Intergenerational programming for young
children and dependent elders: Current status and future directions. Activities, Adaptation, and
Aging, 20(2), 33-50.
Abstract: The results of a mail survey to child and adult day care administrators in Virginia
indicate a preference for certain categories of intergenerational activities and an overall
willingness to provide intergenerational programs for their clients. Included in the paper is a
discussion of the developmental and functional benefits, the child/elder co-exploration value of
frequently offered intergenerational activities and suggestions for future directions of
intergenerational programs targeting young children and dependent elders.
Walford, L. (unknown). Building Intergenerational Relationships: Creative Activities for Children and
Older Adults. Los Angeles, CA: California Arts Council.