How Suicide Postvention Activities Help Prevent Copycat Suicide

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					      HOW TO ORGANIZE SUICIDE POSTVENTION ACTIVITIES HELP
              PREVENT SUICIDE CONTAGION IN YOUTH

Youth are more susceptible to suicide contagion, the act of mimicking the act of suicide
due to the perceived glorification that one received. It can be copied in timing, behavior,
or act. These suggestions can help prevent contagion in youth. Acting in an appropriate
way with a suicide (postvention) that limits glorification, will actually prevent youth from
thinking about suicide and act as prevention to more suicides. Here are some suggestions
to limit contagion and increase suicide prevention:

a. Grief counseling. This may be the first experience with death for some students.
Students and staff need opportunities to express their grief within safe, comfortable
settings individually or in small groups, in classroom discussions with their teacher,
counselor, crisis facilitator, and/or grief worker. Strong feelings will be expressed and
will need to be validated. Grieving is an important part of healing and provides an
opportunity to learn how to cope with loss. However, when suicide is the cause of death,
there is a fine line between encouraging students to express their feelings and giving the
death so much attention that it may make the idea of suicide attractive to other vulnerable
students. It is a delicate balance that requires a thoughtful approach (See Appendix on
Safe and Effective Messaging for Suicide Prevention).

b. Grief process after suicide. Individuals who lose a family member or close friend to
suicide face some unique challenges that may complicate their grief process. An intense
search for the reasons “why” is normal, but may lead to scapegoating or blaming another
for the death. This may put the person being blamed at risk for suicide. Feelings of
personal guilt, rejection, and desertion are also common in the aftermath of a traumatic
death. Effective handling of the grief process is directly related to the ability of the
school community to return to normalcy. Special events and anniversaries of the death
may be especially significant and difficult for those close to the person who died by
suicide.

c. Funeral arrangements. Communities that have had experience with suicide report
that often the day of the funeral is critical in terms of crisis management. Ask the family,
when possible, to hold the funeral service after school hours to allow those attending in
the evening to be supported by their families and each other. Express regrets, but gently
communicate the need to avoid glorifying suicide. Some schools encourage parents to
accompany their children to services. If that is not possible, students should be allowed
to attend the funeral during school hours, with parental permission. Announce
arrangements regarding the school absence for funeral attendance. Avoid use of the
school as the funeral site because some youth will associate death with the room in which
the service is held.

d. Open the school. Follow regular school routines to the extent it is possible. While the
school must be sensitive to the students affected by the death, they must also consider the
needs of those not closely affected. The way to avoid undue anxiety is to undertake all
activity as a straightforward manner, letting students, parents, and faculty know that this



Community-Based Suicide Postvention Guidelines for Wisconsin
situation is being handled. A school may want to offer after school time (or during
school) for students to come, talk, and be with others students and staff, especially if
crisis happens on a weekend or break. A school may want to invite other counselors or
spiritual leaders from the area to offer assistance (making sure they understand protocol
at school and how you are handling the suicide at school). If a school is not available,
maybe another location is available, such as a church or library.

e. Memorial Activities

        1.. Inappropriate memorial activities in school. Avoid memorial services
        being held within the school building, flying the flag at half-mast, large student
        assemblies, dedications of sports events or other special events, special plaques,
        permanent markers or anything that glamorizes or glorifies the suicide.
        Discourage flowers, balloons, etc. Respectfully reposition any hallway “shrine”
        items to counseling sites. Such activities provide an invitation to other vulnerable
        youth to consider suicide. Grieving families and students may insist that their
        deceased loved one be honored. These energies are best channeled into
        constructive projects that help the living cope with the loss (see appropriate
        memorial activities). Advance planning for responding to any student death will
        help school personnel stay with school procedure, rather than being driven by
        intense emotion in a time of crisis (See DPI Policies or contact DPI).

        2. Appropriate memorial activities. There have been several cases where
        dedicating public memorials after a suicide has facilitated the suicidal acts of
        others, usually youth (CDC, 1988). Consequently, dedicating memorials in public
        settings, such as park benches, flag poles, trophy cases, yearbooks, or dances, etc.
        after the suicide is discouraged. In some situations, however, survivors feel a
        pressing need for the community to express its grief in a tangible way. Open
        discussion with proponents about the inherent risks of memorials for youth should
        help the community find a fitting, yet safe, outlet. These outlets may include
        personal expressions that can be given to the family to keep privately such as
        letters, poetry, recollections captured on videotape, or works of art. (It is best to
        keep such expressions private; while artistic expression is often therapeutic for
        those experiencing grief, public performances of poems, plays, or songs may
        contain messages or create a climate that glorifies the method o death and
        inadvertently increases thoughts of suicide among vulnerable youth.)
        Alternatively, suggest that surviving friends honor the deceased by living their
        lives with community values, such as compassion, generosity, service, honor, and
        improving quality of life for all community members. Activity-focused
        memorials might include organizing a day of community service, sponsoring
        mental health awareness programs, supporting peer counseling programs, or fund-
        raising for some of the many worthwhile suicide prevention nonprofit
        organizations. Purchasing library books that address related topics, such as how
        young people can cope with loss or how to deal with depression and other
        emotional problems, is another life-affirming way to remember the deceased (See
        Appendix on How to Organize Postvention Activities).



Community-Based Suicide Postvention Guidelines for Wisconsin
g. Dedication Pages Must Be Appropriate and Consistent. It is typical and
appropriate for school newspapers and yearbooks to devote dedication space to students
who have died. Rather than experience an inordinate amount of space being given to one
student and very little space being given to another, it is important for schools to set
guidelines on how this is done to avoid more popular students receiving a lot of space and
the less popular students having very little space or having the method of death determine
the allotted space. A few common guidelines include allotting the same amount of space
to everyone and that this space include a photograph, the person’s name, birth and death
dates and something about what the individual did while living. Many school yearbook
publishers have well thought out guidelines pertaining to dedication pages.

h. Diploma Awards. Graduation and award ceremonies can be very painful times for the
families of students who have died. It is important to plan ahead for how your school
wishes to manage these events. When, where, how, to whom and under what
circumstance will you award honorary diplomas, letters, awards to those who die prior to
the event? Once again it is important to have guidelines that support consistency.

These suggestions were compiled from a variety of sources including:

        The Youth Suicide Prevention School-Based Guide. http://theguide.fmhi.usf.edu/
        Maine Youth Suicide Prevention Guidelines.
        http://maine.gov/suicide/docs/guidelines.pdf

        Maine Youth Suicide Prevention Guidelines.
        http://www.maine.gov/suicide/docs/guidelines.pdf




Community-Based Suicide Postvention Guidelines for Wisconsin