Active substances are compounds formed during vegetal metabolism

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Active substances are compounds formed during vegetal metabolism Powered By Docstoc
					Active substances are compounds formed during vegetal metabolism which
getting into human or animal organisms are able to have a physiological effect. By
producing vegetable drugs and extracts active ingredients are much more easily
obtainable for human organism.

Main groups of active ingredients in drugs of vegetable origin

Alkaloids: organic compounds derived from plants containing nitrogen, mostly
have basic properties and have strong and typical pharmacological effect on

Glycosides: organic compounds occurring in plants, in which one or more
sugar molecules are bonded to a non sugar substance (aglycone). Phenolic
glycosides impede the development of bacteria and fungi.

Essential oils: not homogeneous but complex mixtures (mostly they are
terpenes and derivatives of terpenes). They occur in plants and are obtained
from them by distillation with steam. They usually do not dissolve in water
or only inadequately, they evaporate completely at room temperature, often
have characteristic, intensive odour and flavour. Usually they are
antibacterial and impede the development of micro organisms.

Other active ingredients:

  mucilage: they have an anti inflammatory effect and due to their
       epithelising effect they are excellent for healing burns and other types
       of lesions.
  aromatic acids
  tannins: typically phenolic compounds. Due to their constrictive effect on
       the skin and the mucuous membrane they are often applied on
       inflammations, perspiration and dilatation of veins. They are effective
       as astringents and anti-inflammatories.
  pigments: 1. chlorophyll, 2. carotenoids, 3. anthocyanidins, 4. flavonoids.
       They increase the value of vitamins, and they are effective
       antioxidants. They boost the immune system, consume free radicals
       and strengthen the barrier function of the skin.
  vitamins: vitamin A prevents the horniness of the epidermis. Regulates the
       function of the sebaceous gland, makes the epidermis resistant;
       vitamin C: occurs in green parts of plants, in hip, lemon, green and
       red pepper, etc. vitamin F prevents split hair and nail endings and the
       dryness of skin.
  bitter substances: boost the functioning of the skin, often matched with
       essential oils.
  phytooestrogens: they have similar structure to 17-beta estradiol. They are
       not steroids, but ployphenol substances, instead of 17 carbon atoms
      there are only 15 in them. This similarity allows them to bind
      oestrogen receptors, by ’deceiving’ them, as they cannot have as
      intensive effect as endogen or synthetic estrogens. This is the reason
      why applying them on human skin they boost blood circulation,
      promote the reproduction of cells and improve skin tone.
  Soya lecithin: natural emulgent, emulsifier, 1-2% of it is a nourishing, skin
      compatible substance (the oil extracted from soy bean is blended with
      water until the lecithin from the oil is deposited, and later it is refined)
acacia (Robinia Pseudoacacia): flavonoid glycoside (rutin)

aloe (Aloe Arborescens): aloin, polysaccharides, glucose, anthraquinone,
glycoprotein, carotenoids, saponin, albumin, essential oil, silicon, phosphate
of lime, iron, organic-acids, enzymes, mineral salt, vitamins

american marigold (Tagetes Patula): volatile oil (tagetone, linalool, linalil-
acetate), flavonoids (patuletin, lutein)

anise (Pimpinella Anisum): volatile oil (cis-, trans-anethole, methyl chavicol,
anisaldehyde, anisic ketone, anisic-acid), fat oil, protein, sugar

apple (Pyrus Malus): fruit acids (malic acid, etc.), fructose, pectin, vitamin C,
cellulose, mineral salts

apricot (Prunus Armeniaca): vitamins A, B, C and D, flavonoids, fructoses,
fruit acids, pectin

blackthorn (Prunus Spinosa): flavonoids, amygdalin, hydrogen-cyanidin
glycoside, kaempferol-flavonol, sugar, tannin, organic-acids, vitamin C,
pectin, dye staff, trace elements

boxwood (Buxus Sempervirens): saponins, chlorophyll, tannin, wax

carrot (Daucus Carota): alpha-, beta-carotene, trace elements, fructoses,
mineral salts

castor-oil plant (Ricinus Communis): in the fat oil of its seed there are:
ricinoleic acid, oleic acid, steraic acid, linol acid, and other esters with
unsaturated fatty acids, in addition the seed accumulates highly poisonous
substances: alkaloid (ricinine) and a toxic protein (ricin), that can be
extracted by cold-press followed by heating

celandine (Chelidonium Majus): alkaloids (chelidonine, sanguinarin, alpha-
and beta-homo chelidonine, berberine, cheleryhrine, etc), dye staffs, resin,
protease enzymes

cinnamon (Cinnamomum Cassia): volatile oil (eugenol) with antibacterial
properties and it boosts the activity of proteases

citruses (Citrus Limon, Citrus Bergamina, Citrus Reticulata, Citrus Grandis,
Citrus Amara, Cymbopogon Nardus, Cymbopogon Citratus): volatile oil
(citral, limonene, etc.), auranetin, nobiletin flavone, vitamin P, carotenoids

clove (Eugenia Caryophylata): the main component of its essential oil is
eugenol, which has anaesthetic and antiseptic properties

coltsfoot (Tussilago Farfara): in its leaves and flower there are: mucilages,
flavonoids, triterpene derivates, pyrrolizidine-alkaloids (szenkirkin,

corn (Zea Mays): fat oil, carbohydrates, starch, mineral salts

corn germ oil (Zea Mays): vitamins E, F and K, phospatide (lecithin)

cucumber (Cucumis Sativus): mineral salts, flavonoids

elder (Sambucus Nigra): in its flowers there are: flavonoids (rutin, quercetin,
sambucin), saponins (ursolic-acid), chlorogenic acid, cyano-glycoside
(sambunigrin), volatile oil, mucilage; in its leaves there are: tannins,
sambunigrin-glycoside; in its fruits there are: organic-acids (malic acid,
acetic acid), anthocyanins (sambucyanin) vitamins A and C, tannins, sugars,
volatile oil, flavonoids

eucalyptus (Eucalyptus Globulus): volatile oil (eucalyptol, camphene,
phencone, pino-carveol, golbulol, eudesmol), tannin, bitter

evening primrose: (Oenothera Biensis): in the fat oil of its seed there are:
vernolic acid, alpha-, beta-linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid,
gamma-linoleic acid

evergreen clematis (Clematis Vitalba): mucilage, chlorophyll, vitamins

fenugreek (Trigonella Foenum Graecum): in its seed there are: mucilage,
trigonelline, steroid saponins,fat oil, cholene, bitter, vitamin C

ginkgo (Ginkgo Biloba): flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin),
terpenes (ginkgolide, bilobalide, triterpenes: steroid, phytosterol, mono-
sesquiterpenes), carotenoids (alpha-, gamma-lutein, zeaxanthin)

grape (Vitis Vinifera): polyphenols, bioflavonoids, source of vitamin C and B
complex, mineral salts, trace elements (source of K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Se),
tannin, fruit acid, fructose, its seed has substantial fat content (O.P.C.-
oligomeric proanthocyanidins)

grape woodbine (Parthenocissus Inserta): chlorophyll, tannin

grapefruit (Citrus Grandis): bitter, vitamins, mineral substances, volatile oil

high mallow (Malva Sylvestris): mucilage, tannic substance, its flower
contains dye stuff (anthocyanid)
honey (Mel): trace elements (Fe-, Cu-, Mn-, Si-, Ca-, K-, Na-, P-, Mg
source);, vitamins B2 and C, nicotinic acid, acetyl choline, enzymes, wax,

hop (Humulus Lupulus): in the cone there are: humulone and lupolone based
resin, tannins, volatile oil, flavonoids, mineral salts, phytooestrogens

horse chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum): saponin (aescin), rutin, tannins,
flavonoid glycosides, starch, fat oil

horseradish (Cochlearia Armoracia): mustard oil, mustard oil glycosides
(sinigrin, etc.), vitamin C, mineral salts, amino acids, its pungent taste is due
to the enzyme myrosin

horsetail (Equisetum Arvense): silicon accumulating plant (silica derivates),
flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol), alkaloids (pulasztrin, nicotine), saponin,
bitter, resin

ivy (Hedera Helix): tripertene saponins, sesquiterpenes, rutin, kaempferol-3
rutinoside, alkaloid (emetine), polyacetylene, falcarinol, falcarinone

jasmine (Jasminum Officinale): volatile oil (methyl-jasmonate)

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus Tuberosus): polysaccharide (inulin), mineral

lavender (Lavandula Angustifolia): in its flowers there are: volatile oil (linalil-
acetate, linalool, borneol, camphor, geraniol, citronellol), tannins, coumarins,
flavonoids, sterols

lemon (Citrus Limon): ascorbic acid, citric acid, other types of fruit acids

lemon balm (Melissa Officinalis): in the parts of the plant above ground
(mostly in its leaves) there is volatile oil (its primal components are: citral,
citronellal, geraniol, linalool), rosmarinic acid and other types of phenolic
carbonic acids, triterpenes, flavonoids

linseed (Linum Usitatissimum): in its seed there are: fat oil (linol acid, linoleic
acid, other unsaturated fatty acids), mucilage (galacturonic acid,
mamuronsav), protein (phospatide, cyanogenic glycosides), vitamin F,

littleleaf linden (Tilia Cordata): flavonoids (quercetin, tiliroside), volatile oil
(pharnesol), mucilage, tannin, cyano-glycoside

marigold (Calendula Officinalis): in its flowers there are the water soluble
flavonoids (quercetin-glycosides), fat-soluble yellow and orange carotenoids,
water soluble saponins, fat-soluble triterpenes, volatile oils, vitamin E;
according to recent researches the most important component of the cold-
pressed fat oil of its seeds is a c-18 fatty acid (calendin acid) and it is an
anti-inflammatory substance

marjoram (Origanum Majorana): volatile oil (its main components are
different types of terpenes), tannins (rosmarinic acid), bitter

marsh mallow (Althaea Officinalis): mucilage, a modest quantity of volatile
oil, starch, flavonoid glicosyde, fat oil, pectin, tannin, phospatide (lecithin)

matrimony vine (Lycium Barbarum): mineral substances, flavonoids

medlar/naseberry (Mespilus Germanica): fruit acids, glycolic acid, alpha-
hydroxy acid, silica, sorbite, fructose, pectin, mineral salts, trace elements,
bioflavonoids; its seed contains fat oil

melon / honeydew (Cucumis Melo): vitamins A and C, pectin, flavonoids,
volatile oils, fructoses

milkweed (Asclepias Syriaca): volatile oil, chlorophyll

mint (Mentha ssp); peppermint (Mentha Piperita): volatile oil (menthol,
menthone, piperitone, menthofurane, pinene, sabinene), flavonoids,
rosmarinic acid; spearmint (Mentha Spicata): volatile oil (carvone, linalool,

mugwort (Artemisia Vulgaris): volatile oil (cineole, campher, linalool,
thujone), flavonol glycosides, bitter, inulin, resin, tannin

nasturtium (Tropaeolum Majus): glycosides with sulphur, the antibiotic of
which is certified

nettle (Urtica Dioica): in its leaves and herb there are: chlorophyll,
carotenoids, vitamins B, C, K and U, triterpenes, sterols, glucokinine,
flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin), amins (histamine,
serotonin, cholene), mineral substances; in its root there are: tannins,
kumarin, phenyl propane derivates (lignan)

onion (Allium Cepa): volatile oil (quercetin, etc.), vitamin C, sulfides, mineral

oregon grape (Mahonia Aquifolium): berberine, berbamine, tannin, flavonoids

parsley (Carum Petroselinum): volatile oil (apiol), flavonoid glycoside, vitamin
C, riboflavin, mineral salts, trace elements (K-, Fe-, Ca- source), chlorophyll

peach (Prunus Persica): fructoses, fruit acids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C and
P, bioflavonoids, aromatic substances, pectin

pepper (Capsicum Annuum): carotenoids, capsaicin, rutin, volatile oil,
organic-acids, vitamin C, flavonoids, mineral salts

pine (Pinus Sylvestris):, volatile oil, pine and resin; the volatile oil (oil from
turpentine) contains different types of annular terenes, mainly alpha-pinene;
pine resin contains mainly diterpenes and lignans

plantain / greater plantago (Plantago Major): (broadleaf plantain has the most
important drug in the plantago family); iridoid glycosides (aucubine),
polyphenols (phenolic carbonic acids and their derivatives), mucilage, vitamin
C, tannin, citric acid, invertase and emulsin enzymes

potato-starch (Solanum Tuberosum): vitamins B and C, starch

pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo): carotenoids (beta-carotene), vitamin C, flavonoids

purslane (Portulaca Oleracea): vitamin C, mucilage

quince (Pyrus Cydonia): fructoses, tannins, vitamin C, fruit acids, pectin,

red clover (Trifolium Pratense): isoflavonoids (formonetin-glycoside),
phytooestrogens (coumarine derivates with the effect of oestrogen -
coumestrol), mineral salts

redcurrant (Ribes Rubrum):vitamin C, fruit acids, pectin, flavonoids

rose hip (Rosa Canina): vitamins A, B1, B2, mostly C and P, flavonoids,
carotenoids, carbohydrates, volatile oil, tannin, pectin, organic-acids, mineral

rose petal (Rosa Centifolia): volatile essential oil, tannin, flavonoids
(quercetin, etc.), wax

rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis): volatile oil (cineole, borneol, bornyl-
acetate, alpha-, beta-pinene, camphor, camphene, linalool), tannins,
cinnamic acid derivates (rosmarinic acid, neochlorogenic acid, caffeic acid),
flavonoids (apigenin, luteolin), triterpenes

rowan (Sorbus Aucuparia): vitamins B and C, sorbite, tannin, carotene,
flavonoids, fruit acids (malic acid, sorbite, etc.), mineral salt, amygdalin,
cane sugar, glucose, mineral salts

sage (Salvia Officinalis): volatile oil (alpha-, beta-tuolene, borneol, camphor,
pinene), tannin, bitter, glycosides, flavonoids, resin

scarlet firethorn (Pyracantha Coccinea): palmitin, oxiakaulin, isotetrandine

sesame seed (Sesamum Indicum): vitamins A, B, K and E, amino acids,
calcium, phosphorus, unsaturated fatty acids, phospatide (lecithin)

shepherd’s purse (Capsella Bursae Pastoris): flavonoids (diosmin), biogenic
amines, cholene, acetyl cholene, salt of potassium, tannin, resin, silica, in its
seed there is fat oil
soapwort (Saponaria Officinalis): saporubrin, saponin, fatty acid, quillaia acid,
sugar and other types of carbohydrates, bitter, fat

sour cherry (Prunus Cerasus): pectins, fruit acids, sugars, flavonoids,
vitamins A, B and C, polyphenols, mineral salts, trace elements (Se)

soya lecithin (Glycine Soya): protein, phospatide (lecithin), vitamins A, B and
E, mineral salts, phytooestrogens

spinach (Spinacia Oleracea): carotenoids, histamine, oxalic acid, lutein,
vitamins C, E and H

St. John’s wort (Hypericum Perforatum): hypericin (red dye stuff), flavonoid
(hiperosid, rutin, biapigenin), volatile oil, tannin, carotenes, vitamins C and P

stonecrop/houseleek (Sempervivum Tectorum): in its leaves there are:
carbohydrates, isocitric acid, citric acid, malic acid, malonic acid, free amino
acids ( asparagine), phenol carbonic acid (caffeic-, chlorogenic acid),
flavonoids, mucilage

sweet fennel (Foeniculum Vulgare): volatile oil (anethol, fenchone, methyl
chavicol, other types of terpenoids), protein, fat oil

sweet orange (Citrus Dulcis): in its rind (its outmost coloured and inner white
layer) there are: carotenoids (carotene, lycopene, cryptoxanthin,
citroxanhtin, violaxanthin, zeaxantin), flavonoids, aromatherapy bitter,
hemicellulose, lignin, pectin, pentosans, mineral salts, coumarins, volatile oil
(citral, limonene, etc.); in its flesh there are: ascorbic acid, citric acid, and
other types of fruit acids

thyme (Thymus Vulgaris): volatile oil (thymol, carvacrol, p-chymol, borneol,
linalool, cineole, esters, acids), tannin, bitter, resin, saponin

tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum): carotenoids (lycopene), histamine, vitamins
A, C and E, mineral salts, trace elements

vanilla (Vanilia Planifolia): volatile oil (vanillin, etc.)

walnut leave (Juglans Regia): juglone and other types of bitter, tannin,
vitamin C, volatile oil

wheat germ (Triticum Vulgare): phytosterins, phospatides (lecithin, etc.),
vitamins A, D, E and F, phytooestrogens

white willow (Salix Alba): phenol glycoside (salicin), aromatic aldehydes and
acids, salicyl- alcohol, saligenin, flavonoid glycoside, tannins

wide pansy (Viola Tricolor): volatile oils, saponins with triterpen skeleton, the
glycosides of the methyl ester of salycilic acid, flavonoids (rutin, violantin,
scoparin, vitexine, saponaretin, orientin)
wormwood (Artemisia Absinthium): bitter (absinthin), volatile oil (thujol,
thujone, pinene, phellandrene, cadinene, chamazulene), tannin, vitamins B
and C, succinic acid

yarrow (Achillea Millefolium): in its flowers and leaves there are: volatile oil
(pro chamazulene, germacrene, beta-pinene, sabinene, etc.), sesquiterpene
lactones, flavonoids, achillein bitter, tannin

yellow toadflax (Linaria Vulgaris): linarin and other flavonoid glycosides,
flavonoids, organic-acids

yucca (Yucca Filamentosa): steroid saponins, phytooestrogens

11 wonders of ichtyol: cheratoplastic, reductive, vasoconstrictor, drying,
antiseptic, anodyne, antipruritic, epithelising, more than 20% slightly
dissolves keratin, anti-seborrhoeic, anti-rosaceous

Sulphur powder (Sulphur): keratolytic, keratoplastic (depending on the
applied quantity and the baseness of the agent),

Lingjuan Ma Lingjuan Ma MS
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