Brighton Museum & Art Gallery Citizenship Image & Identity Classroom and Gallery Resource Key Stage 3 This resource is designed to complement the existing Image & Identity resource, by exploring the relationship between cultural and individual identity. By focusing on the KS3 Citizenship concepts of diversity, tolerance and respect, the resource seeks to develop students‟ understanding of similarities between different cultures and groups in society, and of the interdependence and social responsibilities we have towards one another as global citizens. Brighton Museum & Art Gallery and Citizenship The museum can support students in learning about Citizenship by 1. providing a positive and calm learning environment for young people to explore sensitive and controversial issues, and develop the skills to critically analyze information. 2. providing a cultural and historical context for contemporary debates. The way in which Brighton Museum & Art Gallery values, respects and celebrates diversity can provide young people with a model through which they can explore and develop their own positive attitudes relating to diversity. 3. making connections between people and cultures. UK society today is enhanced by peoples‟ languages, cultures, religions, arts, music and literature originating in many parts of the world. The smallest object can help young people make a connection between personal, local and global spheres – and understand their, and others identity in a wider global context. 4. helping young people to develop empathy and compassion for those whose experiences are different from their own. This can encourage students to detect and reject stereotypes (which are perpetuated by a lack of understanding and context). Artefacts can help students see the people behind the issues and reveal that there are often many more similarities than differences between cultures. The Image & Identity Project Image & Identity is a national regional museums project led by the V&A, seeking to inspire and engage young people with museums and galleries and their collections. Image & Identity draws on museum collections from different cultures. The project aims to foster a greater awareness and understanding of cultural difference, and of social issues common to all cultures, such as conflict between generations, territorial groups and social classes. It also aims to encourage young people to reflect upon their own experiences and identities in their communities, and the ways in which these can be represented creatively. Through taught gallery sessions and the Image and Identity pack, the project will encourage young people to respond creatively to museum collections and displays. Its main aims are to inspire young people‟s creativity increase their self-esteem and confidence improve their performance, behaviour and attitude to learning Curriculum Links Knowledge and understanding about becoming informed citizens 1) Pupils should be taught about the diversity of national, regional, religious and ethnic identities in the United Kingdom and the need for mutual respect and understanding. the world as a global community, and the political, economic, environmental and social implications of this. Developing skills of enquiry and communication 2) Pupils should be taught to think about topical political, spiritual, moral, social and cultural issues, problems and events by analysing information and its sources, including ICT-based sources. justify orally and in writing a personal opinion about such issues, problems or events. contribute to group and exploratory class discussions, and take part in debates. Developing skills of participation and responsible action 3) Pupils should be taught to use their imagination to consider other people's experiences and be able to think about, express and explain views that are not their own. The pack also relates to QCA schemes of work Citizenship (KS4), Unit 3 Challenging racism and discrimination Citizenship (KS3), Unit 4 Britain – a diverse society? Citizenship (KS4), Unit 9 Consumer rights and responsibilities Classroom Activities using the Online Collections Classroom Activity 1 Ground Rules The activities outlined in this pack may stir up challenging feelings for many students. Before embarking on the activities, it is important to establish a set of „ground rules‟. This will help students feel free to discuss ideas and views that may be very personal and highly sensitive. 1. Students can discuss ways in which, as a group, they can create a „safe‟ arena for talking about sensitive and personal views and ideas. 2. „Rules‟ may include to raise personal issues only about themselves and not about others. talk specifically about their own image and identity, and not make judgements about that of others in the group. respect the opinions and ideas of others. respond positively and creatively to the opinions and ideas of others. respect and celebrate the very different elements that may contribute to each individual‟s image and identity. think carefully about the language used when describing image and identity - might some people find it offensive? 3. Display these rules in the work space, and remind students of them when appropriate. Classroom Activity 2 What is image and identity? 1. Working in mixed groups of four, students can discuss meanings of and associations with the words Image and Identity. 2. One student from each group can then report their ideas back to the whole group. 3. Discuss: How is each word defined? How are they different? Do some words fall into both the image and identity categories? 4. Students can look up the words image and identity in the dictionary. What do you think of these definitions? Are they the same as yours? Do they describe your interpretations of image and identity? Classroom Activity 3 How do we see ourselves? Students can explore how they really view their own image and identity through the following activity. This activity is a useful way of evaluating progress if used at the start of a project on image and identity, and then again at the very end. 1. Students can begin by writing down as many words as they can think of that define or describe themselves (not how they think others see them!). 2. When they have finished, they should choose just one word that they feel is the most important in their definition of themselves. 3. Each student can then choose which category this word fits into Gender Age Background Culture Occupation Hobby Where you live How you look Other 4. Students can write this category word down confidentially. The students‟ words can then be collected and compiled together into a graph or other pictorial representation to show „how we see ourselves‟. 5. Discuss Do we all see ourselves in the same way? Is this how others see us? Will your definition of yourself be the same in 10 years time, 50 years time? Are you happy with this definition of yourself? Classroom Activity 4 What is Cultural Identity? This activity is designed to encourage students to think about how their identity is affected by wider cultural influences. It also seeks to demonstrate that each of us has multiple identities. 1. Working in mixed groups of four, students can discuss meanings of and associations with the words culture 2. One student from each group can then report their ideas back to the whole group. Culture could be defined as Gender Ethnicity History or heritage Nationality Religious beliefs Sexual orientation Music Art Literature Sport Performance Clothes Food 3. Each student selects an aspect of culture and creates a mind map of what this looks like in terms of their own identity. For each example they should try to Identify who they share this culture with (which community they “belong” to) Show how their example has been influenced by other cultures (cultural mixing) 4. Discuss How is your identity influenced by different groups or cultures? How could pinning only one label onto someone be one definition of stereotyping? How can cultural stereotyping be avoided? Classroom activity 5 Think about…cultural identity using museum objects available online. Use Brighton & Hove Museums‟ online catalogue to begin to explore issues surrounding cultural identity and the role of citizens in different cultures. Go to www.virtualmuseum.info/collections and enter the catalogue number in the search box. Ask students to examine the objects and read the accompanying description before exploring the discussion points (either in groups or as a whole class). Image of Object Discussion Points Why do you think National Identity cards were compulsory in World War Two? The government argues that National Identity cards need to be re-introduced in order to boost national security, tackle identity fraud, prevent illegal working and improve border controls. National Opponents say identity cards will be an infringement of civil liberties, a waste Registration of money and may cause friction among ethnic minority communities Identity card particularly affected by police „stop and searches‟. HA106878 What do you think? What is the story or message behind this figure? Why was the figure made of and who would have bought it? How would you change the design of the figure to better get its message across? Can you think of a contemporary object that people might buy to show their support for a particular cause? What are the different ways that you show your support for a cause that Willet collection you believe in? Male Figure DA328622 What aspect of life does this artefact portray? What else would you include to give an all-round view of life in Burma? What five artefacts would you use to represent the country that you live in? Why would you choose these artefacts? What impression of the country would be given by these artefacts? Male Deity Figure WA505147 Image of Object Discussion Points Why are some fashion labels more popular than others? What does the label say about the wearer‟s cultural identity? What ethical or moral issues surround the manufacture of many clothes (workers' rights, social justice and environmental issues)? Adidas Trainers Why are so many of our clothes made in poorer countries? CT003936 What can consumers do to make a difference to the current clothes trade? How does the painting show the Walpiri people‟s connection with their environment? How does your environment shape your identity? Why do the Walpiri people think it is important to keep the meaning of their creation stories secret? Do you think they are right to do so? Why do you think it is important for Aboriginal people to maintain their Janganpa artistic traditions? Jukurpa What role does art play in defining a social group‟s shared cultural acrylic painting identity? WA507231 Gallery Activities Brighton Museum & Art Gallery Exploring the Fashion & Style gallery Discussion Points Which culture do you think may have influenced this garment? o What is it about its design that makes you say that? Why is it called the Paisley pattern? o Would it be more accurate (and fair) to call it the Kashmiri pattern? Does it matter what it is called? Shawl Can you see other examples of the Paisley motif in this Paisley, Scotland gallery? 1825-c1830 Wool What impact do you think the mass production of shawls in Paisley had on Indian shawl weavers? o Can you think of a contemporary example of (un)fair trade? Additional Information Commonly referred to in the Western world as the 'Paisley' pattern (after the Scottish town where most shawls were made), this cone-like form, traditionally found on rugs, embroideries and all kinds of printed goods and fabrics, is possibly the most important element of design to have come out of the East. Shawls became fashionable in Europe following the discovery of Kashmiri shawls by the British. They were quickly in short supply and enormously expensive! As a result, they were imitated by British textile manufacturers who sold them for a tenth of the price. Imitation Indian shawls were so popular that the weaving centres in Edinburgh, Norwich and Paisley were swamped with orders. For 70 years the patterned shawls remained fashionable, and the term 'Paisley' became renowned throughout the world. However, the impact of imitation shawls in India was disastrous; unable to compete with the production costs and quantities of factories in Britain, Indian shawl weavers faced destitution. Untrained for any other work, many simply starved. Exploring the Fashion & Style gallery Discussion Points Which culture do you think may have influenced this garment? o What is it about its design that makes you say that? What does this shirt say about the cultural identity of the person wearing it? o Who might wear this item? o Where might it be worn? Shirt Australia, Oceania How could this shirt be described as an example of 2001 cultural mixing? Cotton; plastic o How could Fat Boy Slim‟s approach to music also be described as an example of cultural mixing? This is a colourful cotton Hawaiian style shirt made by Excelsia in Australia in 2001, worn by the Brighton based DJ Fatboy Slim (aka Norman Cook). Fatboy Slim's first release on Brighton's Skint records was in 1995. Since then, he has enjoyed number one singles and albums, produced numerous re-mixes and is in great demand as a DJ all over the world This short-sleeved shirt is printed with multi-coloured designs of tropical islands, palm trees, huts, flowers, and sailing boats in reds and yellows on a navy blue background. This shirt is an example of the DJ‟s trademark style: he often incorporates a bright striking shirt into his look. The first Aloha shirt was made in Hawaii in the 1920s using imported Japanese silk Kimono fabric. By the 1930s tropical prints on rayon fabric were being used to make the distinctive shirts. Popular with tourists rather than native Hawaiians, the shirts soon became closely associated with surfers, beach boys , Elvis Presley and 1950s rock and roll. Exploring the Fashion & Style gallery Discussion Points Which culture do you think may have influenced this garment? o What is it about its design that makes you say that? This object involves a great deal of symbolism. What message or story do you think it is trying to convey? Shirt o Which parts do you think are most significant? Punk Manufactured by What else do you associate with Punk culture? Seditionaries London, England How has Punk identity influenced contemporary c1978 mainstream culture? Although not intentional, how could Punk be an example of sustainable fashion? Additional Information Since the social changes of the 1950s, young people have increasingly used clothing as a means of rebellion. This shirt is an example of the Punk style, which was dark and aggressive, in direct opposition to the Hippy subculture that had gone before. Clothes featured zips, loops, bondage strips and angry slogans and symbols - designed to shock. The clothes suited the lifestyle of those with limited cash. Punks cut up old clothes from charity and thrift shops, destroyed the fabric and refashioned outfits. Whilst torn fabrics, frayed edges and defaced prints are now considered normal in the 21st century, in the 1970s it shocked many people, because it had never been seen before. This shirt was bought from the Punk clothes shop Seditionaries in London; run by Vivienne Westwood and Malcolm McLaren. This shirt has metal clasps, rings and safety pins with velcro, and a printed image on the front of a large yellow swastika in a blue circle with an inverted red cross. At the top in large red letters is the word “Destroy” and along the bottom are the words “I am an antichrist, I am an anarchist” which is a famous Punk slogan and a line from a Sex Pistols‟ song. Exploring the Fashion & Style gallery Discussion Points Who might wear these shoes? o Why might they choose to buy these shoes? o What might their criteria be? What responsibilities do we have as consumers? Vegetarian Shoes o How else might consumers exercise their consumer Made by Vegetarian responsibilities? Shoes Brighton, England What other ethical issues are associated with the 2001 manufacture of clothes (workers' rights, social justice and Vegetan; Rubber; environmental issues)? Cardboard What item of clothing would you re-design to make more eco-friendly or sustainable? Additional Information “I had started to teach myself to make shoes four years earlier after leaving Art College. I was inspired to hear that in parts of Africa, car tyres were recycled into soles. This got me thinking and soon I was making shoes out of anything I could lay my hands on, but being veggie I didn't want to use leather.” (Robin Webb) Vegetarian Shoes, in Gardner Street, Brighton, is a brand dedicated to animal-friendly footwear. Founded by Robin Webb in 1990 is extremely popular with vegetarians and vegans. The Cheatah running shoe is one of many styles made by Vegetarian Shoes from a synthetic microfibre called Vegetan. With the look and feel of leather, Vegetan can also breathe, unlike other plastics. The manufacturer's paper label reads “Vegetarian Shoes: A treat for your feet if you don't eat meat!' Exploring the Fashion & Style gallery Discussion Points Who might wear this outfit? What makes you say that? In what ways is this outfit influenced by traditional Iranian dress? o How has the designer adapted traditional Iranian dress? Why might she have done this? Are there any other examples of clothing that has been influenced by traditional design? Shirin Guild Outfit If you were to design a contemporary outfit based on Made by Shirin Guild traditional clothing – which culture would you start London, England from and why? 2001 o What would you keep? Linen; Bamboo o What would you extend? o Why would you make these decisions? o What message would you be trying to convey about your cultural identity? Additional Information Shirin Guild launched her own label in London in 1991. Her outfits, which are loose fitting and simple, are inspired by the menswear from her native Iran. Removing all decoration, her garments are minimalist and are more concerned with form and material than detailed decoration. Using yarns made from paper, hemp, bamboo and steel covered with silk, Shirin Guild reworks traditional male Iranian dress for the modern day woman. This abba coat is large with wide sleeves with material crossing over and fastening at the front. Worn underneath is a darker cream jumper made from bamboo yarn, with baggy elasticated trousers with wide, straight cut legs. Currently in Iran, the Islamic dress code is still observed all over the country. The code calls for women to cover their hair, necks and arms. Modern women in Iran today wear a „manteau‟ or overcoat, similar to a uniform. The overcoats have long sleeves and usually come below the knee. Brighton Museum & Art Gallery Image & Identity: Citizenship Fashion and style gallery activity Fashion and Style gallery Exploring the gallery Give yourself five minutes to look around the whole gallery. Think about which items of clothing you particularly like and dislike. Write down something in the gallery that fits with your interpretation of these cultural Identities Chinese British Youth Upper class Are there any similarities between the things you have chosen? Write down any similarities you notice here Forming and exploring your ideas Find an item of clothing or outfit in the gallery that you find interesting. Make a labelled drawing of the item of clothing or outfit. Your drawing should be a thorough „description‟ which will help you to remember it in as much detail as possible. Describe the kind of person you think would wear this (think about gender, age, background). ________________________________________________________________________ Where do you think the item of clothing or outfit would be worn? ________________________________________________________________________ Write down three ways in which this item of clothing or outfit has been influenced by other cultures (you could think about the style, pattern, material, colours) 1. _____________________________________________________________________ 2. _____________________________________________________________________ 3. _____________________________________________________________________ Developing your ideas Draw and/or write your answers Which item of clothing or outfit best describes Which item of clothing or outfit best combines your own cultural identity? different cultural influences? What do you think this gallery is trying to say What single item of clothing would you add to about cultural mixing in fashion? this gallery? Why? When you have finished, make sketches in your sketchbook of other objects or ideas in the gallery that interest you and might influence your work back at school or college. Exploring the Body & Performance galleries Discussion Points Do you think these patterns mean or represent something? If so, what? Why do you think Maoris have rekindled the practice of Moko (tattooing)? o What role does tattooing play in Maori cultural identity? Carving (Head) Should non-Maori people be able to copy their tattoos? Is Maori it culturally respectful? New Zealand, Oceania Mid 20th century Wood Additional Information This is an elaborately carved male head made of wood. The carved decoration copies the traditional tattoos ('moko') of a Maori chief's face. This wooden head represents a Maori ancestor who had exactly the same patterns tattooed onto his face, carved into his skin with a razor sharp chisel. Carving is a sacred activity for Maori people, be it on wood or on the body. On the face the designs are carefully planned to accentuate the wearer‟s natural features, and to communicate their identity. The designs used refer to Maori Mythology social status, achievements and family and community bonds. No two designs are the same. Since the late 20th century facial tattooing has been revived among Maori people as a potent expression of identity and pride in their cultural ancestry and traditions. Exploring the Body & Performance galleries Discussion Points What parts of the body have been accentuated? o Why do you think the artist has used wood and metal to depict her ideal of womanhood? What does the sculpture tell us about the role of women in Kalabari society? o How is that similar or different to the ideals of womanhood in other cultures? The sculpture is based on the Iriabo masquerade Sculpture which was performed at a funeral. What other key Iriabo Woman life events do people celebrate? Made by Sokari Douglas o What role does tradition play in marking these Camp events? Are there any similarities between British; Nigerian different cultures‟ traditions? London, England 1995 How does Sokari Douglas Camp reinvent the tradition Metal (steel); wood; glass of Iriabo (in terms of material, role of the artist and (mirror) performer)? Additional Information Sokari Douglas Camp was born and raised in the Kalabari town of Buguma in the Eastern Niger Delta. Kalabari women are traditionally not allowed to make images, a restriction based on keeping women's fertility cycles strictly apart from the male process of creating art. As a sculptor in steel and wood, Sokari transgresses this restriction. In the Iria ceremony, Kalabari enlarge their waists and hips with layers of cloth. Iriabo means “Woman in her prime”. This sculpture, inspired by Sokari Douglas Camp‟s own experiences of the Iria ceremony, is based on her niece, Dumo Bille. Dressed as an Iriabo for her grandmother‟s funeral, Dumo came out to dance, looking her very best. Traditionally she would have been through a period of being fattened up before the ceremony to display her family‟s prosperity. Like many women today Dumo chose not to enlarge her body in this way, instead covering herself with a loose fitting blouse. Exploring the Body & Performance galleries Discussion Points Which culture is this puppet from? What makes you say that? Why do people use performance as a form of protest or rebellion? o How can performance be a powerful form of protest? Puppet o Can you think of any other examples of art-as- Yoktee protest? Mandalay, Mandalay Should artists be able to include anything they like in Division, Burma, South East their work? Asia o Are there any circumstances where they should be Late 20th century Wood (unknown) censored? What responsibility do artists have to their audiences? Additional Information The dream-like world of Burmese puppet theatre: strings seem to disappear and puppets take on a life of their own. Sequins and jewels glitter on vivid costumes. Shimmering marionettes play out fantastic myths and stories. In traditional court performances, marionettes could 'speak' freely where human actors could not. The small performers were used to pass on messages, warnings and grievances that would otherwise go unspoken. They functioned as mouthpieces for the people Since 1962 Burma, also known as Myanmar, has been ruled by a military junta which suppresses almost all dissent. This string puppet (marionette) dressed in a comedian's costume, was made by Lu Maw, a member of the Moustache Brothers, a "pwe" troupe (pwe performances combine music, drama and performance) based in Mandalay. The political satire contained in the Moustache Brothers‟ performances has resulted in some of the performers being sent to prison for speaking out against the military junta. Exploring the Body & Performance galleries Discussion Points What culture does this carnival costume come from? o How can you tell? What does George and the Dragon mean to you? o What other figures, stories or symbols represent English culture? o Should more be made of St George‟s Day? Can you create your own figure or story that celebrates an aspect of your own cultural identity? How is cultural identity celebrated in carnivals and Carnival Costume parades? How does participating in a parade or George IV and Dragon carnival strengthen cultural and community identity? English Brighton, England 2001 textile (cotton); textile (silk) Additional Information This is a carnival costume showing George IV encircled by a gold dragon, and is a playful re-interpretation of the George and the dragon myth. The costume was created by the Bacchanal Carnival Club for the Children's Parade, part of the 2001 Brighton Festival. For children, their street parade marks the beginning of the Brighton Festival. In May 2001 this English parade introduced the magic of Caribbean Carnival. Lining the route, spectators are drawn to the vibrant costumes of the children. Each is vying for attention and space. The steel band repeats insistently catchy beats; dancers draw onlookers in from the fringes. One of the best known stories about Saint George is his fight with a dragon. However, it is highly unlikely that he ever fought a dragon and even less likely that he ever visited England. Despite this, Saint George is known as the dragon-slaying patron saint of England. By tradition 23 April is the day for a red rose in the buttonhole, but in reality St George‟s Day is not celebrated in the way that countries like Ireland and America celebrate their national days. Exploring the Body & Performance galleries Discussion Points Which culture are these earplugs from? What makes you say that? How are earplugs worn? o Why do you think some Zulu women choose to Ear Plugs wear clip on earrings instead of traditional Iziqhaza earplugs? Zulu South Africa, Southern In what ways are these earplugs similar or different to Africa earrings you might wear or have seen? Late 20th century wood; plastic How do different cultures use jewellery to symbolise either the wearer‟s cultural identity or social status? Additional Information This is a pair of earplugs made of wood and formica. The ear plugs were created by a Zulu maker in Southern Africa during the late twentieth century and were purchased by Brighton & Hove Museums in 1999. In South Africa, discs inserted into a hole stretched through the skin of the earlobe continue to be a symbol of Zulu national identity. Traditionally the hole is made when a child reaches adolescence and is considered ready to “have their ears opened”. By the 1950s the piercing ceremony had lost much of its ritual significance. Some contemporary Zulu earplugs are made as clip-ons. Traditionally made of wood, in the 1960s and 1970s makers of Zulu ear plugs began to use perspex and other plastics in their decoration. As the new materials were difficult to work, motifs became simpler with bold areas of colour, a highly polished finish and, frequently, brass or chrome studs. Ear plugs of this type are known by the general term for earplugs iziqhaza. Brighton Museum & Art Gallery Image and Identity: Citizenship Body and performance galleries activity Body and Performance galleries Exploring the gallery Give yourself five minutes to look around the whole gallery. Look again. Draw or write examples of objects that represent: Pride in cultural identity Cultural tradition Cultural heritage Community List three possible reasons why people might want to celebrate their cultural identity 1. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. ___________________________________________________________________ 3. ___________________________________________________________________ Forming and exploring your ideas Draw and/or write your answers. What different kinds of performance can be used Can performance be used to communicate things to celebrate cultural identity? that could not otherwise be conveyed? Can you give an example? Choose a puppet, costume or mask that particularly interests you. Make a labelled drawing to show how each different part of the puppet, costume or mask says something about cultural identity. You could think about the colours, patterns, symbolism, actions, music and dance. Developing your ideas Draw and/or write your answers. How do you celebrate your own cultural identity? How is your identity influenced by different (Think about music, dance, fashion, art, books, cultures? food). What do you think this gallery is trying to say What single item would you add to this gallery? about how different people celebrate their cultural Why? identity? When you have finished, make sketches in your sketchbook of other objects or ideas in the gallery that interest you and might influence your work back at school or college.